Presentation on theme: "CRITICS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION By: Micah Matthews, Kathy Hill, Maddie Lawry, Madison Curley, Megan Vanderkooi, and D’Edtra Rogers."— Presentation transcript:
CRITICS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION By: Micah Matthews, Kathy Hill, Maddie Lawry, Madison Curley, Megan Vanderkooi, and D’Edtra Rogers
Poverty in Industrial Societies Poverty concentrated in cities SCARY Workers had more $ then peasants, but had to pay for everything @ high prices. “social safety net” for peasants, opposite of a worker’s life Worker’s Poverty Dependent on success of enterprises and economy Unreliable credit Overproduction Did not experience famine in the industrialization period Major difference in living conditions of factory owners and their workers Capitalism - economic system characterized by private property and a market economy developed by industrialization in the 19 th and 20 th century
Early Socialists Liberals- Wanted free market Elitists- Wanted wealthier and better educated society to play a large role in politics, but believed that people should have the same social and economic rights. Egalitarianism-All people should have equal political and social rights. Radicalism- Political and social change. Socialism- Aimed to end industrial poverty by sending profits throughout society. Utopian Socialists- Believed the profits of industrialization should be used to improve living conditions throughout society.
Continued… Saint-Simon New Christianity Charles Fourier (Phalanges) Robert Owen- Fourier who believed in inherited goodness of human nature. Utopian socialist who attempted to build cooperative communities. Advocated women’s rights, and equality and thought that Bourgeois marriage as a form of prostitution. Built community in New Harmony Indiana, for factory workers, and gave them free housing, and schooling for their kids.
Karl Marx Middle Class socialists thinker from western Germany Studied under G.W.F. Hegel at university in Bonn and Berlin Passionate Personality- gained many friends but many enemies Quest to change the world-go beyond philosophy Communism- Marx’s radical political philosophy advocating the abolition of private property and an inevitable violent workers’ revolution Book- Communist Manifesto- 1848, in collaboration with Friedrich Engels Free education for all children, abolition of state of inheritance and landed property, state control of credit and transportation, and progressive income tax
The Controversy Religion The thought of scientific fact overruling scripture was outcast by the Church Jewish boys in shtetls were punished if they were caught reading “modern” authors Traditional Jews believed that the Torah, Talmud, and other works supplied enough human knowledge Science Many Europeans accepted scientific beliefs, but continued to believe in a Supreme Being Some turn atheist Many begin to question human existence Conclusion: People began to understand that the Bible in a more symbolic rather than literal way
Critiques of Reason Before the twentieth century started, less and less people invested time in scientific advances One person who continued to further scientific research was Friedrich Nietzsche He was a German philosopher who revised human ethics and was notorious for his hatred for mass society He hated the mass society so much that he nicknamed it the "common herd" and summoned people to resist it He wrote The Birth of Tragedy in 1872 about his experience in the Franco- Prussian War His passionate argue gained him popularity all over Europe He continued to produce poetry, essays, and books about personal freedom, which lashed out against democracy, German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and traditional more standards He pushed people to find their own freedom in radical ways that included admitting that "God is dead“ With morals like these he was praised by the Nazis
Critiques of Reason Sigmund Freud was a psychiatrist who continued philosophy into the twentieth century He emphasized the role of fundamental and rational drives in the human mind He studied medicine and during the 1890's noticed a symptom in many of his women patients that could not be explained as a physical illness Through this discovery he introduced the theory of repression, a theory that memories and desires not acknowledged by a person's conscious thought can lead to physical and mental disorders He looked to find a treatment by studying the conscious and subconscious mind of psyche and concluded that dreams were a key to the repressed desires that existed at a subconscious level To explain this he divided the psyche into three components: the id, ego, and superego The id consists of drives and desires The ego shows how reality can be altered The superego describes how values and behavior matures as a person grows older He concluded that when these three are unbalanced repression occurs