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CRITICS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION By: Micah Matthews, Kathy Hill, Maddie Lawry, Madison Curley, Megan Vanderkooi, and D’Edtra Rogers.

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Presentation on theme: "CRITICS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION By: Micah Matthews, Kathy Hill, Maddie Lawry, Madison Curley, Megan Vanderkooi, and D’Edtra Rogers."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRITICS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION By: Micah Matthews, Kathy Hill, Maddie Lawry, Madison Curley, Megan Vanderkooi, and D’Edtra Rogers

2 Poverty in Industrial Societies  Poverty concentrated in cities  SCARY  Workers had more $ then peasants, but had to pay for everything @ high prices.  “social safety net” for peasants, opposite of a worker’s life  Worker’s Poverty  Dependent on success of enterprises and economy  Unreliable credit  Overproduction Did not experience famine in the industrialization period  Major difference in living conditions of factory owners and their workers  Capitalism - economic system characterized by private property and a market economy developed by industrialization in the 19 th and 20 th century

3 Early Socialists Liberals- Wanted free market Elitists- Wanted wealthier and better educated society to play a large role in politics, but believed that people should have the same social and economic rights. Egalitarianism-All people should have equal political and social rights. Radicalism- Political and social change. Socialism- Aimed to end industrial poverty by sending profits throughout society. Utopian Socialists- Believed the profits of industrialization should be used to improve living conditions throughout society.

4 Continued…  Saint-Simon New Christianity  Charles Fourier (Phalanges)  Robert Owen- Fourier who believed in inherited goodness of human nature. Utopian socialist who attempted to build cooperative communities. Advocated women’s rights, and equality and thought that Bourgeois marriage as a form of prostitution. Built community in New Harmony Indiana, for factory workers, and gave them free housing, and schooling for their kids.

5 Karl Marx  Middle Class socialists thinker from western Germany  Studied under G.W.F. Hegel at university in Bonn and Berlin  Passionate Personality- gained many friends but many enemies  Quest to change the world-go beyond philosophy  Communism- Marx’s radical political philosophy advocating the abolition of private property and an inevitable violent workers’ revolution  Book- Communist Manifesto- 1848, in collaboration with Friedrich Engels  Free education for all children, abolition of state of inheritance and landed property, state control of credit and transportation, and progressive income tax

6 The Controversy  Religion  The thought of scientific fact overruling scripture was outcast by the Church  Jewish boys in shtetls were punished if they were caught reading “modern” authors  Traditional Jews believed that the Torah, Talmud, and other works supplied enough human knowledge  Science  Many Europeans accepted scientific beliefs, but continued to believe in a Supreme Being  Some turn atheist  Many begin to question human existence  Conclusion:  People began to understand that the Bible in a more symbolic rather than literal way

7 Critiques of Reason  Before the twentieth century started, less and less people invested time in scientific advances  One person who continued to further scientific research was Friedrich Nietzsche  He was a German philosopher who revised human ethics and was notorious for his hatred for mass society  He hated the mass society so much that he nicknamed it the "common herd" and summoned people to resist it  He wrote The Birth of Tragedy in 1872 about his experience in the Franco- Prussian War His passionate argue gained him popularity all over Europe  He continued to produce poetry, essays, and books about personal freedom, which lashed out against democracy, German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and traditional more standards  He pushed people to find their own freedom in radical ways that included admitting that "God is dead“  With morals like these he was praised by the Nazis

8 Critiques of Reason  Sigmund Freud was a psychiatrist who continued philosophy into the twentieth century  He emphasized the role of fundamental and rational drives in the human mind  He studied medicine and during the 1890's noticed a symptom in many of his women patients that could not be explained as a physical illness  Through this discovery he introduced the theory of repression, a theory that memories and desires not acknowledged by a person's conscious thought can lead to physical and mental disorders  He looked to find a treatment by studying the conscious and subconscious mind of psyche and concluded that dreams were a key to the repressed desires that existed at a subconscious level  To explain this he divided the psyche into three components: the id, ego, and superego  The id consists of drives and desires  The ego shows how reality can be altered  The superego describes how values and behavior matures as a person grows older  He concluded that when these three are unbalanced repression occurs

9 10 PovertyKarl MarxEarly SocialistsScience/ReligionCritics of Reason 20 30 10 20 30 10 20 30 10 20 30 10 20 30

10  Peasants had a ___________ consisting of relatives, neighbors and landlords that would help them in extreme times of need.

11  Name one cause of worker’s poverty during the industrialization period.

12  What is capitalism?

13  Who is Karl Marx?

14  What is Karl Marx’s famous book called?

15  What is communism?

16  Who is the English geologist who proved that earth was older then stated in the Bible, and wrote the Principles of Geology?

17  What were the Jewish boys in shtetls not allowed to read?

18  What was concluded by the controversy of Science vs. Religion?

19  How many political groups were there?

20  French thinker who envisioned socialist communities having a division of labor based on passions and abilities.

21  What is socialism?

22  What were the 3 components Freud divided psyche into?

23  What did Nietzsche call the gifted individuals that resisted mass society?

24  Nietzsche wanted human beings to recognize their own freedom and admit that ___________ is dead.

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