Presentation on theme: "Russia and the Transition to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R)"— Presentation transcript:
Russia and the Transition to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R)
Preview and Processing 1. What makes Russia unique in terms of geography? 2. What can you conclude about the Czar Nichols II from these photographs? 3. Who is in the photographs with Czar Nicholas II? 4. Why is that interesting?
Russia, Czars and Reform Not effected by IR 80% of pop= serfs No rts: bought & sold; Siberia Autocrat=czar (Romanov) Alexander I Did not want to modernize Decembrist 500 uprisings in 30 yrs
Nicholas I Limited Education Crimean War (1853-1856)
Making the Connection What was the name of the woman who, through her service in the Crimean War, opened the field of nursing to women? Florence Nightingale
Alexander II Freed serfs: March 1861 Mir: didn’t own land; little changed Nihilism Narodniki: teach the peasants, medical services, idea of rev. March 13, 1881: assassinated “Home is the palace to die.”
Alexander III 1. No ?ing the czar! 2. Religion is the Russian Orthodox ch. only (pogroms begin) 3. Speak Russian only: no Slavic langs, etc.
Nicholas II Maintain autocratic rule Cultural changes Schools: Darwin, Marx, Pasteur Scholars: Tolstoy, Tchaikovsky Economic changes Growth of cities Foreign investment Trans-Siberian railway
Social Unrest =Revolutionary Mood Groups begin to form that include the peasants Social Democrats Marxist: Karl Marx: German Philosopher (Communist Manifesto) Up rise fr. Urban working class (proletariat) Lenin: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Making the Connection 1. According to doctrine, what is the ultimate goal of Communist? 2. Foreshadow the reasons why this philosophy concerned the United States? 3. Can you name at least 3 countries that are communist today?
Social Democrats divide 1. Bolsheviks (majority) “dictatorship of the proletariat” (red) 2. Mensheviks (minority) Move slowly: true communist (white) Czar made mistakes Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Attempt to get RU mind off problems Korea “yellow little monkeys” beaten
Bloody Sunday, January 22, 1905 200,000 workers marched to Czar’s winter Palace 1. Better working conditions 2. more personal freedom 3. elected nat’l legislature Unarmed; “Little Father” Czar not home Soldiers ordered to fire into crowd 500 to 1,000 Czar agreed to more personal freedom; Duma May 1906—disolved 3 mos later
World War I “God Save the Czar” 1914: 4 million RU soldiers were KIA, wounded or POWs Czar believed he was doing his job Czarina Alexandra and their son Alexis Rasputin
Conspirators Felix Yussoupov: Noble Princess Irina: Czar’s niece Purishkevich: Leader in the Duma Sukhotin: military officer Dr. Lazovert: army doctor Dmitri Pavlovich: Nephew to the Czar and Grand Duke of Russia
ORDER OF EVENTS 1. Cyanide Potassium filled cakes and wine 2. Yussoupov sings 2 ½ hours 3. Purishkevich shoots Rasputin in the back 4. Rasputin runs after Yussoupov 5. Rasputin runs to gate; Purishkevich fires & hits Rasputin in back & head 6. Yussoupov beats Rasputin w/ rubber hose 7. Rasputin is bound with rope, wrapped in blue curtain and thrown in the frozen Neva River 8. Body found 3 days later 9. Official cause of death drowning.
Czar forced to abdicate Czar called back from the front: “Is it possible that for 22 years I have tried to act for the best and that for 22 years I have been wrong?” Feb. 1917: Abdicates Duma est. & picked leaders whose goal was a constitution; no part in strikes, etc.
New gov’t has an elected workers council (aka) Soviet Alexander Kerensky: head of Social Revolutionary Party = head of gov’t Decided to continue WI GER helped Lenin return to RU after 17 yrs. In exile (Finland)
Second Revolution Lenin: “Peace, Bread and Land!”. Bolsheviks: well organized, mini-army: Red Guard Lenin Took over New Social order Nat’l assembly wh/ he closed the next day Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Leon Trotsky ¼ of RU territory Kerensky forced to flee Died: Jun. 11, 1970 - New York City, New York, USA
Civil War Red v. White Czar & family executed Anastasia Bolsheviks won
Lenin’s Gov’t Restores Order New Economic Policy (NEP) 1921 1. Farmers could sell surplus 2. People buy & sell goods for profit 3. Ownership of small business
Official Name Change 1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Capt moved from Petrograd (Leningrad) to Moscow Bolsheviks officially =communist
Lenin’s Death Died 1924 Trotsky Josepf Stalin “Man of Steel” The Will Trosky’s death: 08/20/1940 in Mexico
Stalin Perfect USSR Industrial revolution 1. 1928 Five Year Plan: command economy wh/ = everything under gon’t control Few consumer goods produced Focus on RR, mines, etc Told where to work, who worked and how long 2. Several more 5 year plans
Agricultural Revolution 1. No private farms : collective Farms wh/ = peasants upset 2. 5 to10 million killed & others sent to Siberia 3. Secret police (KGB)
Totalitarian State No dissent allowed by gov’t Stalin more powerful than Czar People w/ less freedom than under Czar No religion: “opiate of the people” Sch. To teach his doctrine Periodic purges of the Communist Party No friends in other countries In power for 25 years Goal: to make the USSR a modern state Leader of USSR during WWII