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Political Parties and General Election 2015-4-251.

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2 Political Parties and General Election 2015-4-251

3 Introduction to party politics (1)  History of Party politics:  Prior to the mid-19th (loose alliances of interests and individuals): The Tories ( 托利党 ) the landed gentry, the Church of England and the Church of Scotland The Whigs ( 辉格党 ) the newly emerging moneyed industrial classes  Between the mid 19th century and 1920s: The Tories the Conservative Party ( 保守党 ) The Whigs the Liberal Party ( 自由党 )  Post 1920s: The Conservative PartyThe Conservative and Unionist Party The Labour Party Alliance between the trades unions and various socialist societies ( 工党 ) The Liberal DemocratsLiberal Party declined and merged with the Social Democrats ( 自由民主党 ) 2015-4-252

4 Introduction to party politics (2)  Small parties do not have their place. WHY?  The UK’s First Past the Post ( 简单多 数票当选 ) electoral system.  First Past the Post was coined as an analogy to horse racing 1. The winner of the race is the first to pass a particular point on the track. 2. All other runners automatically and completely lose. 3. The payoff is “winner-takes-all“ ( 赢 者统吃 ). 4. The candidate must receive the largest number of votes in their favour wins. 2015-4-253

5 The Conservative party its logo 2015-4-254

6 History (1)  History 1. The Tory Party (from the late 18th and early 19th Centuries) The party still often called the Tory Party and its members still commonly referred to as Tories. 2. Public membership: the largest 3. History: the oldest: 4. Election victories: the most successful in British history 5. The most successful political party in the world. 2015-4-255

7 History (2)  The official name: The Conservative and Unionist Party 1. Originated from the merge with the Liberal Unionist Party in 1912 2. maintained the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1886-1921 policy) in opposition to Irish nationalist and republican aspirations 3. Scotland ’ s allied Unionist Party independent of the Conservatives until 1965 4.The Ulster Unionist Party supported the Conservatives for many decades. 2015-4-256

8 Contradictory values (1) 1.The opposing values of individual liberty and cultural conformity Individual liberty  ———  Cultural conformity 2.Attitudes towards unification of Europe Europhiles  ——————  Eurosceptics However, the Conservative party has in recent years largely come to terms with these issues, or has at least ceased to argue quite as publicly over what remains a contentious internal issue. 2015-4-257 economic liberalism (privatization) tax incentives for co-habiting couples to marry acceptance of gay couplespolicies towards immigrant communities.

9 Contradictory values (2) 3.Attitudes towards parliamentary devolution a. opposed to devolution ( 下放权力 ) to Wales and Scotland in the 1997 referendums ( 公投 ) b. supported it for Northern Ireland 4.Attitudes towards parliamentary devolution opposed to the government ’ s attempt at devolution of power to North East England in 2004 pledged not to reverse the existence of Scottish parliament and Welsh assembly 2015-4-258

10 Cameron: a movie star or a politician? David William Donald Cameron The Conservative Headquarters the Leader of the Conservative Party 30 Millbank, London SW1 (since December 2005) Cameron questioned Gordon Brown on election donation (video) (text)videotext 2015-4-259

11 The Labor Party The logo of Labor Party 2015-4-2510

12 Yesterday (1)  1. Grew out of the trade union movement and socialist political parties of the 19th century  2. Founded in the early 20th century, continuing to describe itself as a party of democratic socialism ( 民主社会党 )  3. The first political party in Great Britain to stand for the representation of the low-paid working class  4. The Labour Party grassroots ( 草根 ) and traditional members and voters: the working class 2015-4-2511

13 Yesterday (2)  5. The Party in power  A. surpassed the Liberal Party as the main opposition to the Conservatives in the early 1920s  B. minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-31  C. a junior partner in the wartime coalition from 1940- 1945  D. a majority government, under Clement Attlee in 1945- 51 and under Harold Wilson in 1964-70  E. in government in 1974-79, under Wilson and then James Callaghan  F. in government in 1997-now under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown 2015-4-2512

14 Today (1)  The principal party of the left ( 左翼政党 ) in England, Scotland and Wales since the 1920s party  In power in the whole country since 1997 under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown  The largest party in the Welsh Assembly Government ( 威 尔士联合政府 )  The second largest party in the Scottish Parliament ( 苏格 兰议会 )  Mayor of London ( 伦敦市长 ): Ken LivingstoneKen Livingstone  Most Representatives in the European Parliament ( 欧洲议 会 ) are from the Labor. 2015-4-2513

15 Today (2) The Labour: Party in power 1. a landslide 179-seat majority in the 1997 general election (Tony Blair entering Downing Street.)Tony Blair entering Downing Street. 2. more than 40% of the popular vote (Tony Blair) the Party’s large majority slightly reduced to 167 in the 2001 (Tony Blair and his supporters)Tony Blair and his supporters 3. more substantially reduced to 66 in 2005 (Tony Blair)  The present leader Gordon Brown: Prime Minister 2015-4-2514

16 The “Third Way”: Ideals of the Labour  The Labour Party traditionally stood for socialist policies: public ownership of key industries government intervention in the economy (cf. privatisation) redistribution of wealth increased rights for workers and trade unions a belief in the welfare state and publicly funded healthcare and education  The Labour Party after 1980s (N. Kinnock, J. Smith and T. Blair) Moving away from its traditional socialist position towards the “Third Way” adopting some Thatcherite and free market policies ( √ ) social democratic or even neo-liberal ( X ) democratic socialist 2015-4-2515

17 Brown: A one-eyed PM Lost his left eye in a rugby match aged 16 Headquaters of the Labour Gordon Brown (1951-) 39 Victoria Street London, SW1H 0HA Prime Minister (since Jul. 2007) A teenager’s report about Gordon Brown’s succession to Tony Blair (video)video 2015-4-2516

18 Liberal Democrats: A merger Logo of the Liberal Democrats 2015-4-2517

19 Liberal Democrats: A merger  The Liberal Democrats (formed on 3 March 1988)  a merger between the Liberal Party (descending from the British Whig Party) and the Social Democratic Party (the old Labour right)  Needs for the merging  The Liberal Party: declined to third party status after the rise of the Labour Party in 1922. It was further challenged for their centrist party 1980s. (cf. Labour’s “third way”)  Social Democratic Party: The hard-line socialist policies forced moderate Labour MPs broke away and established the Social Democratic Party (SDP). SDP claimed as their goal to preserve previous Labour Party traditions.  The SDP and the Liberals soon realised that there was no place for two centrist political parties, and entered into the SDP-Liberal Alliance. 2015-4-2518

20 Ideals: Giving power to the people  Ideals: giving “power to the people” 1.Against the undemocratic concentration of power in unaccountable bodies 2.Proposing decentralisation of power out of Westminster 3.Proposing a system of tiered government structures to make decisions at the right level (regional assemblies, the European Union, and international organisations) 2015-4-2519

21 The Liberal Democrats: What are they doing?  The Liberal Democrats: What are they doing? 1.Keen protectors of civil liberties 2.Antagonists of the intervention of the state in personal affairs 3.Traditional supporters of a multilateral foreign policy the most pro-European party in British politics. 4.Adopting a strong sense of environmentalist values— favouring taxing high polluters more than currently (recently) 5.Favouring cutting the basic rate of income tax by “four pence in the pound” 2015-4-2520

22 Nick Clegg Nicholas William Peter Clegg (7/1/1967) (18/12/ 2007, leader of the Liberal Democrats) Clegg raised questions for Brown about Northern Rock (video) (text)videotext 2015-4-2521

23 UK Elections 2015-4-2522

24 Elections in the UK  The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: 1. general elections 2. elections to national/regional parliaments and assemblies 3. elections to the European Parliament 4. local elections 5. mayoral elections Elections are traditionally held on Thursdays. 2015-4-2523

25 Elections in the UK  Six different electoral systems are currently used: 1. single member plurality system (First Past the Post) ( 简单多数票当 选 ) the USA, the UK 2. multi member plurality system ( 复数选区相对多数 ) 3. Party list ( 政党列表法 ) Most of European countries and most of the Latin American countries 4. Single Transferable Vote (election quota) ( 单一可转移投票法 )Single Transferable Vote Republic of Ireland 5. Additional Member System ( 联立投票制 ) (1. FPTP + 2. Party list) ( 台湾 ) 6. Supplementary Vote (by-election) ( 补选 ) 2015-4-2524

26 Eligibility to vote and to be a candidate (1)  Anyone who is 1. a citizen of the UK, the Republic of Ireland, or of a Commonwealth country, 2. legally resident in the UK, 3. 18 or over on the date of the election, and 4. on the electoral register *UK citizens who have moved abroad remain eligible to vote for 15 years thereafter. * People who were under 18 before they moved abroad can vote when they reach 18  Voting is not compulsory. 2015-4-2525

27 Eligibility to vote and to be a candidate (1)  Exclusions of 1. a member of the House of Lords, 2. the imprisoned for a criminal offence 3. the mentally incapable of making a reasoned judgement 4. the undischarged bankrupt, 5. the convict of corrupt or illegal practices in connection with an election within the previous five years * Members of the House of Lords may vote in local and European Elections as well as elections to the Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. * In theory, members of the Royal Family, including the Monarch, are eligible to vote, although in practice it would be seen as unconstitutional if they ever did. 2015-4-2526

28 Constituency ( 选区 ): the electoral area  Constituency 1. 646 constituencies 2. a constituency of approximately 74,000 registered voters 3. Several candidates in a constituency, but only one wins by the simple majority of votes. 2015-4-2527

29 Processes of general election (1)  Processes The maximum term of the Parliament: 5 years The actual election may be held at any time before the end of the five-year term. The election is often “called” after around four years in power. The Prime Minister asks the Monarch to dissolve ( 解散 ) Parliament Royal Proclamation of the formal Writs of Election 选举令 17 working days after the date of the Proclamation Since 1935 every general election has been held on a Thursday. 2015-4-2528

30 Processes of general election (2)  Polls close at 10 p.m. The earliest results are declared by about 11 p.m. Some constituencies do not declare their results until the following day. In Northern Ireland the count itself does not begin until the next morning, with results being announced from early afternoon onwards.  Final results and the reshuffling ( 重新洗牌 )of the government 2015-4-2529

31 Reshuffling of the government 1.The first response comes from the current (and possibly outgoing) Prime Minister: 2.If the party in office win, they remain in office without the need for reconfirmation or reappointment 3.If a majority has not been achieved, and it is obvious that another party has the numbers to form a government, the Prime Minister submits a resignation to the Monarch. 4.The Monarch then commissions the leader of the new majority party to form a new government. 5.The Prime Minister has the option of attempting to remain in power even if seats have been lost. The subsequent Queen’s Speech offers a chance for the House of Commons to cast a vote of confidence or no confidence in the government through accepting or rejecting the Queen’s Speech. 6.Her Majesty’s Government, Prime Minister, The Cabinet Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition, Prime Minister in Waiting, the Cabinet in Shadow Tony Blair and his supporters (Video)Video Tony Blair entering 10 Downing Street (Video)Video 2015-4-2530

32 Political parties with elected representation at a national or international level  Party UK House of CommonsScotlandWalesN. IrelandEurope ____________________________________________________________________________________ Labour Party3554626N/A19 Conservative Party1971712027 Liberal Democrats63166N/A12 Democratic Unionist Party9N/AN/A360 Scottish National Party647N/AN/A2 Sinn Féin5N/AN/A281 Party of Wales3N/A15N/A1 Social Democratic and Labour Party3N/AN/A160 Ulster Unionist Party1N/AN/A181 Respect Coalition1N/A0N/A0 Independent Kidderminster Hospital and Health Concern 1N/AN/AN/AN/A Scottish Green Party02N/AN/A0 Alliance Party of Northern Ireland0N/AN/A70 Progressive Unionist Party0N/AN/A10 Green Party in Northern Ireland0N/AN/A10 UK Independence Party000010 Green Party of England and Wales0N/A0N/A2 _____________________________________________________________________________________ (updated 28 Mar. 2007) 2015-4-2531

33 Popular vote by party in general election (1832-2005)  00 2015-4-2532

34 Thank youThank you! 2015-4-2533

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