Presentation on theme: "New Balance of Power Social and International Social Impacts of Industrialization and growth of Nations including Japan."— Presentation transcript:
New Balance of Power Social and International Social Impacts of Industrialization and growth of Nations including Japan
What were the origins and goals of labor movements and socialist politics in the late nineteenth century? A combination of industrialization and revolutionary ideology produced both the labor movement and socialism. Both movements were reactions to social changes –Labor Unions formed – demand better pay & working conditions Socialism began as an intellectual movement - Karl Marx –Socialists believed that workers created value through their labor –labor that was exploited by the wealthy class
Why did the populations of Euro-American cities grow so fast between 1850 and 1914, and how did technological transformation in those cities affect urban life? The populations of Europe and America grew faster between 1850 and 1914 than at any other time. Industrialization caused a population shift from the countryside to cities. Cities grew larger, taking up more space, and the mushrooming of suburbs adjacent to cities added to the size of metropolitan areas. There were improved living conditions in cities. Public services made cities safer and more desirable places to inhabit.
Describe the role of nationalism (both liberal and conservative nationalism) in the creation of Germany, both before and after Nationalism – the idea that citizens of a nation are linked by a common government, territory, and culture. Germany reorganized itself under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, and between 1864 and 1871 fought wars against Denmark, the Austrian Empire, and France. Liberal states - Britain and France - sovereignty of the people under a constitution and required a popularly elected representative government Conservative nationalist states - such as Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia - used nationalism to maintain older and more hierarchical forms of government
If the German, British, and French peoples were strengthened by the forces of nationalism, why did nationalism weaken Russia and Austria-Hungary? Russia and Austria-Hungary were far more divided socially and ethnically than the German, British, or French peoples. Tsar Alexander II attempts to improve conditions for the Russian masses: the emancipation of the peasants from serfdom –the Russian people remained uneducated and subordinate. –Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 led to popular protest and some temporary reforms, which destabilized the aristocratic class. –Because only 45 percent of all those within the Russian Empire spoke Russian, language could not be used as a unifying element. –That empire’s diverse population included Czechs, Slovaks, and Poles, as well as the peoples of the Balkans—an area referred to as the “tinderbox of Europe” for its volatility. Ethnic differences, combined with differences in religions, made it impossible to forge unity based on a national consciousness.
New technologies in the latter half of the nineteenth century revolutionized everyday life and transformed the world’s economy. What were some of those new technologies, and how did they affect society? Railroads boomed after 1850 Steel ships made transport quick and inexpensive, and telegraph cables made worldwide communication almost instantaneous. The chemical industry was responsible for many new inventions and innovations, such as chemical dyes (which impoverished the nations that harvested vegetable dyes), powerful explosives, which revolutionized war. Electricity powered the next generation of factories, as well as lit homes and public ways. Electric streetcars and subways relieved cities of congestion. Sanitation problems caused by horse-drawn trolleys and steam locomotives were also alleviated. Far-flung corners of the world were brought into the global economy as a result of electricity. The world was drawn into an increasingly global economy, at an unprecedented scale and rate.
What were the immediate and the long-term results of the Tokugawa Shogunate’s response to the threat of Euro-American invasions? Tokugawa Japan tried to strengthen its finances and military However, because of the decentralized nature of Tokugawa government and the growing power of regional leaders, the Tokugawa government crumbled. The rebel governors overthrew Tokugawa government and created a strong central government, which completed the political, economic, and industrial transformation of Japan. Within decades, Japan became a world naval power.
Describe the lives of upper-, middle-, and working- class women in English-speaking countries between 1850 and Women in English-speaking countries were subjected to the rules of behavior and ideology of the Victorian Age They were supposed to refrain from wage work, improve the family’s social status, maintain the household, and rear the children. As household technology improved, women were held to increasingly higher standards of cleanliness. The only education available for those women—usually music, drawing, and embroidery—was intended to make them better prospects for marriage and to showcase their social talents. At the end of the nineteenth century, women began to be accepted in some professions, most notably teaching and nursing.
Compare and contrast the influence of Europe and the United States on China and Japan between 1850 and China resisted the West and became weak and dependent Japan adopted Western industrial and military structures, becoming independent and strong The Chinese government was hostile to modern technology Japan used Western contact to rapidly industrialize and militarize. Japan’s defeat of Russia and China at the beginning of the twentieth century demonstrated the effects of rapid industrialization and militarization.