3 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity: New Products & New Markets Mass SocietyIn the late 19th century, human progress was measured with material progress and consumption of material goodsEuropeans began to value leisure activities and the weekend (free from work)Lower and middle class began to take trains to amusement parks and the beachMass PoliticsAfter 1871, the focus of European life became the national stateGrowing sense of nationalism and popularity of sportsExtension of universal male suffrage leads to nationalism to influence the massesFirst Industrial RevolutionTextiles, railroads, iron, and coalSecond Industrial RevolutionSteel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
4 Possible Test Question In late nineteenth-century Europe, human progress was increasingly identified withWar.Economic inequality.Material progress or greater consumption of material goods.Sport.Spiritual beliefs and practices.
5 Possible Test Question By 1871, the focus of Europeans’ lives had becomeTheir weekends.Their schools.Their favorite sports teams.The national state.Their church.
6 Substitution of steel for iron 1860 – Britain, Germany, France, Belgium produced 125,000 tons of steel1913 – the total rose to 32 million tonsChemicalsGermany led the market in production of dyes & photographic platesElectricity (powered 2nd Industrial Revolution)Thomas Edison ( ) and Joseph Swan – light bulbAlexander Graham Bell ( ) – telephone, 1876Guglielmo Marconi ( ) – radio waves across the Atlantic, 1901Used for transportation – railways, streetcars, subwaysTransformation of factories
7 Possible Test Question Between 1860 and 1913, western European steel production went from5000 tons to 1 million tons.35,000 tons to 2 million tons.50,000 tons to 15 million tons.125,000 tons to 32 million tons.10 million tons to 100 million tons.
8 Internal Combustion Engine (1878-Gas & Air) Automobile and airplaneHenry Ford ( ) – mass production (assembly line)Zeppelin airship, 1900Wright brothers, 1903 (1st passenger air service 1919)New marketsFocused on consumer goods for domestic marketsPrices of food and manufactured goods decreasedIncreased wagesCompetition for foreign marketsTariffReaction against free trade to guarantee domestic markets for their own industriesCartelsCompanies worked together to fix prices & set production quotasLarger factoriesAssembly lines
9 Possible Test Question The first internal combustion engine burning a mixture of gas and air was produced in1798.1838.1858.1878.1898.
11 New Patterns in an Industrial Economy Economic Patterns, 1873 – 1914Depression, 1873 – 1895Economic boom, 1895 – 1914German Industrial LeadershipGermany replaces Britain as the industrial leader of EuropeNew areas of manufacturing (chemicals, electrical equipment)Industrialized later, so they invested in modern equipmentEncouraged scientific & technical education
12 Possible Test Question Germany began to replace Britain as Europe’s industrial leader by the early twentieth century largely due toBritain’s careless and radical changes made to its industries.Germany’s cautious approach and doctrine of “sticking to what works” in industry.Britain’s reliance on cartels to invest large sums of money in new industries.Germany’s development of new areas of manufacturing including chemicals and heavy electric machinery.Britain’s loss of empire during and after the Boer War.
13 European Economic Zones Advanced industrial core of Great Britain, Belgium France, the Netherlands, Germany, western part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and northern ItalyLittle industrial development in southern Italy, most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkan kingdoms, and RussiaSurplus grain and cheap transportation caused a sharp drop in agricultural prices.The Spread of IndustrializationIndustrialization in Russia and JapanJapan’s government took the lead in promoting industryEmergence of a World EconomyEurope was importing goods from around the worldForeign countries were used as markets for the surplus of manufactured goods
14 Possible Test Question The Second Industrial Revolution experiencedA drop in agricultural prices.The shift from a three-field to a two-field crop rotation system due to better chemical fertilizers.The emergence of a new class of agricultural production leaders called coloni.A sharp increase in agricultural prices.To stabilize agricultural prices at the level attained in 1850.
15 Map 23.1: The Industrial Regions of Europe by 1914
16 Women and Work: New Job Opportunities Women sought the “Right to work”Ideal of Domesticity – working class organizations supported traditional roles for womenSweatshops – subcontracting work out to women at homeWhite-Collar JobsIncrease in white-collar jobs created a shortage of male workers opening up opportunities for women (After 1870)Expansion of service sector jobs - secretaries, teachers & nursesFreedom from domestic patternsProstitutionMany lower class women became prostitutes in big cities as a way to surviveLondon – 1885 – an estimated 60,000 prostitutesContagious Diseases Acts in the 1870s & 1880sCalled for inspection of prostitutes for venereal diseasesActs were repealed over complaints that men were not being checked
17 Possible Test Question Employment opportunities for women during the Second Industrial RevolutionChanged in quality and quantity with the expansion of the service sector.Declined dramatically as prostitution became illegal.Increased greatly with working-class men pushing their wives to work outside the home.Declined when piece-work was abandoned as inefficient and “sweatshops” were outlawed.Declined because labor unions forced governments to restrict most employment opportunities to men only.
19 Organizing the Working Class Trade UnionsFirst half of the 19th CenturyTrade Unions functioned as mutual aid societiesLate 19th CenturyFormed labor unions and political parties based on ideas of Karl MarxTrade unions are increasingly aligned with socialist partiesSocialist PartiesGerman Social Democratic Party (SPD)Largest German political party by 1912Growth of socialist parties – spread to other European countriesSecond International – united socialist organizationStruggled due to internal differencesTwo divisive issues: nationalism and revisionism
20 Possible Test Question The trade union movement prior to World War IWas strongest in France after the dissolution of the Second International in 1890.Occurred despite trade unions being banned by most state governments.Varied from state to state, but was generally allied with socialist parties.Was primarily for unskilled laborers, especially the New Model unions.Focused entirely on wages and working conditions negotiated directly with employers without any government involvement in the process.
21 Evolutionary Socialism (Revisionism) Eduard Bernstein ( )Member of the German Social Democratic Party who spent years in exile in BritainArgued that Marx had made fundamental mistakes and socialists needed to stress cooperation and evolution rather than class conflict and revolutionStressed the need to work through democratic politics to create socialism, not revolution.
22 The Problem of Nationalism Variation of socialist parties from country to countryFocused on issues in their own countries instead of a unified workers movementThe Role of Trade UnionsNational variationsGerman unions were the strongestUnions and political partiesThe Anarchist AlternativeMore popular in less industrialized nations (Italy, Spain, Russia, & Portugal) where people saw no hope of peaceful political changeInitially believed that people were inherently good but got corrupted by the state and societySocialist parties and trade unions became less radical so some people turned to anarchism as a means for a social revolutionMichael BakuninRussian anarchist who advocated violence to dissolve state institutions
23 Possible Test Question Anarchist movements were most successful inIndustrialized countries like Great Britain and Germany.Toppling national governments through assassinations.Restoring legitimacy to radical movements through peaceful dialogue with political opponents.Less industrialized and less democratic countries where ordinary people could see no hope of peaceful political change.Countries with revolutionary traditions like France.
25 Emergence of a Mass Society Population GrowthmillionmillionPopulation growth– caused by increasing birth rateAfter 1880 – caused by declining mortality rateMedical discoveries and environmental conditionsSmallpox vaccinationImproved publication sanitationReduced deaths from diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, choleraImproved nutritionBetter nutrition & food hygieneFaster shipment of foodPasteurization of milkEmigrationEconomic motivesOppressed minorities went to other countries (especially U.S)Political motivesLower class citizens seeking more freedom
26 Possible Test Question Between 1850 and 1910, European populationIncreased from 270 million to 460 million.Actually decreased slightly.Increased from 45 to 60 million.Stagnated, causing severe problems for the development of leisure industries.Declined significantly because of the pollution engendered by increasing urbanization.
28 Map 23.2: Population Growth in Europe, 1820-1900
29 Transformation of the Urban Environment Urbanization of EuropeMigration from rural to urban1800 – 21 European cities with a population of 100,000+1900 – 147 European cities with a population of 100,000+People moved to the cities for job opportunitiesImproving Living ConditionsReformers: Edwin Chadwick and Rudolf VirchowPointed to relationship between living conditions and diseaseBuildings begin to be inspected for problemsPublic Health Act of 1875 in BritainClean water into the cityPrivate baths (Hot water) became accessible to people in 1860sShower appears in 1880sSewage System
30 Redesigning the Cities Housing NeedsReformer-philanthropists focused on relationship of living conditions to political and moral health of the nation – built homes for the poorGovernment support – increase in regulationsDemolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls and new, wider streetsOctavia Hill rehabilitated old homes and built new ones designed to give the poor an environment they could use to improve themselvesRedesigning the CitiesMajor European cities were redesigned after the example of Paris in the 1850sConstruction of streetcars & commuter trains created suburbs
31 Possible Test Question Reforms in urban living included all of the following exceptThe development of pure water and sewerage systems.Model homes built for the poor by wealthy philanthropists.The demolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls, replaced by wide avenues.A concerted effort to clean up all polluted rivers and lakes.Some increases in governmental regulations.
33 The Social Structure of the Society The Upper Classes5% of the population that controlled 30 to 40% of wealthPlutocrats – aristocrats who made their money on investments in railroads, public utilities, government bonds, & businessesAlliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracyCommon bonds – wealthy middle class kids admitted to elite schoolsThe Middle ClassesUpper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-classProfessionals (law, medicine, civil service)New professionals – engineers, architects, accountants, chemistsWhite-collar workers (product of the 2nd Industrial Revolution)Sales reps, bookkeepers, bank tellers, telephone operators, secretaries, department store clerksMiddle-class values came to dominateConcerned with traditional Christian values and work ethic
34 Possible Test Question The middle classes of nineteenth-century EuropeWere composed mostly of shopkeepers and manufacturers who barely lived above the poverty line.Offered little opportunity for women in improving their lot.Were very concerned with propriety and shared values of hard work and Christian morality.Viewed progress with distrust as they did not wish to lose their economic gains.Were sinking in economic and social security because of the increase of plutocrats.
35 The Lower classes80 percent of the European populationAgricultureMany were landholding peasants – sharecroppers, laborersUrban working class: Skilled, semiskilled, unskilled workers Skilled artisans – cabinet makers, printers, jewelry makerssemiskilled artisans – carpenters, bricklayers, factory workersUnskilled laborers – day laborers, domestic services
37 The “Woman Question”: The Role of Women Traditional ValuesMarriage the only honorable and available careerDecline in the birth rate in part to some birth control1840s-invention of vulcanized rubber made birth control an optionElizabeth Poole Sanford encouraged women to avoid being self-sufficient. Thought women should embrace domesticity and dependence on their husbands.Middle-Class and Working-Class FamiliesGlorified DomesticityDomestic ideal for the family emphasized togetherness with time for leisureStressed functional knowledge for their children to prepare them for future roles.Daughters of working class families worked until married1890 – 1914: higher paying jobs made it possible to live on husband’s wagesLimit size of the familyReduced work week
38 Possible Test Question For Elizabeth Poole Sanford, women shouldAvoid being self-sufficient.Strive to become equal to men.Accept their roles at home until new governmental reforms were instituted.Make it known to their husbands that they were dissatisfied.Take employment outside the home to become economically self-sufficient.
39 Education in the Mass Society Expansion of Secondary EducationUniversal Elementary EducationStates began to offer public educationBy 1900, most were free and compulsory at the primary levelStates assumed the responsibility for teacher trainingLiberal Beliefs About EducationPersonal and social developmentNeeds of industrializationDifferences in education of boys and girlsGirls - less math & science, more domestic skillsBoys – humanities plus carpentry & military drillPolitical motivesNeed for an educated electorateInstilled patriotism and nationalized the massesFemale TeachersIncreased Literacy from mass educationGrowth of Newspapers
40 Possible Test Question By 1900, most European educational systemsWere free and compulsory at least at the primary level.Were expensive to operate, and charged high tuition.Were backward and lacked good teachers.Still taught a “medieval” variety of subjects.Had declined because of lack of governmental interest and support.
41 Mass Leisure Amusement Parks Music and Dance Halls Thomas Cook ( )Pioneer “father” of mass tourismOffered vacations to EuropeSportsBoy Scouts (1908) “The real boy scout is not a sissy.”Became organized with rulesProfessional sports leagues emergedBoys were encouraged to play sports to toughen them up
42 Possible Test Question A new development in the age of mass leisure wasThe newspaper and novel.The excessive consumption of alcohol.The theater.Carnival.Professional sports.
43 Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy Reform in Britain: William GladstoneReform Act of 1867: Suffrage extendedEnglish Reform Bill of 1884Gave English agricultural workers the right to voteRedistribution Act of 1885: Reorganized the election boroughsSalaries paid to members of the House of Commons, 1911More people could run for officeCharles Parnell ( )Leader of the Irish representatives in ParliamentCalled for Home Rule for IrelandThis would have established a separate Parliament for IrelandEnglish conservatives voted against home ruleResulted in terrorist attacks by the Irish
44 Possible Test Question The English Reform Bill of 1884Enfranchised women.Gave English agricultural workers the right to vote.Did not dramatically increase the size of the electorate.Increased the total number of members in the House of Commons.Increased middle-class representatives in Parliament.
45 Reform in FranceLouis Napoleon’s 2nd Empire ended with his defeat in the Franco-Prussian WarUniversal male suffrage in 1871 enforced by BismarckPeople elected a new National AssemblyRadical republicans formed an independent government in Paris known as the CommuneFighting broke out between the Commune and the National AssemblyNational Assembly massacred thousands of members of the Paris CommuneBrutal suppression of the Paris Commune created a split between the working class and the middle classEstablishment of the Third Republic, 1875Monarchists, Catholic clergy and army officers opposed the Third RepublicGeneral Georges Boulanger - leader of a proposed coup d’etatLost the courage to carry it out and fled the countryBoulanger crisis rallied French citizens to the republic
46 Possible Test Question Splits between the French working and middle classWere largely solved by the liberal reforms of the Third Republic.Enabled the Third Republic to elect a new monarch in 1875.Led a strong parliamentary system of government.Were further widened by the brutal suppression of the Paris Commune in 1871.Ended in light of continued Prussian threats to France’s national survival.
47 Italy Had pretensions of great power status Sectional differences in ItalyItalians were loyal to their family, towns and regions, but not their countryChronic turmoil beyond the government’s controlNo universal male suffrageItaly & SpainBoth remained second rate European powers
48 Central & Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order GermanyTrappings of parliamentary government1871 constitutionEmperor commands the military in Prussian traditionBismarck’s conservatismUsed coalitions to get what he wanted & then he dropped themKulturkampf - “struggle for civilization” an attack on Catholic ChurchTried to weaken Social Democratic Party by passing antisocialist lawTried to woo workers from socialism by passing social welfare programs
49 Possible Test Question Which statement best applies to Germany under chancellor Otto von Bismarck?Prussia lost much of its influence on state politics.Coalitions were used by Bismarck to get what he wanted and then he dropped them.Socialism was almost completely stamped out by the Prussian army.Almost all regional differences disappeared under the charismatic leadership of Bismarck.The emperor became merely a figurehead and lacked any political power and influence.
50 Austria-Hungary Russia Austrian constitution of 1867 (in reality it was still an autocracy)Problem of minorities worsened with universal male suffrage, 1907RussiaAlexander III, : Overturns reform and returns to repressive measures (autocracy) after assassination of Alexander IINicholas II, : Believed in absolute rule
51 Possible Test Question The policy pursued by Russia’s Alexander III and Nicholas II after the assassination of Alexander II was a policy ofLiberalism.Nationalism.Socialism.Militarism.Autocracy.