Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Mass Society in an “Age of Progress,” 1871 - 1894."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 23 Mass Society in an “Age of Progress,”
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity: New Products & New Markets Mass Society In the late 19 th century, human progress was measured with material progress and consumption of material goods Europeans began to value leisure activities and the weekend (free from work) Lower and middle class began to take trains to amusement parks and the beach Mass Politics After 1871, the focus of European life became the national state Growing sense of nationalism and popularity of sports Extension of universal male suffrage leads to nationalism to influence the masses First Industrial Revolution Textiles, railroads, iron, and coal Second Industrial Revolution Steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
Possible Test Question In late nineteenth-century Europe, human progress was increasingly identified with War. Economic inequality. Material progress or greater consumption of material goods. Sport. Spiritual beliefs and practices.
Possible Test Question By 1871, the focus of Europeans’ lives had become Their weekends. Their schools. Their favorite sports teams. The national state. Their church.
Substitution of steel for iron 1860 – Britain, Germany, France, Belgium produced 125,000 tons of steel 1913 – the total rose to 32 million tons Chemicals Germany led the market in production of dyes & photographic plates Electricity (powered 2 nd Industrial Revolution) Thomas Edison ( ) and Joseph Swan – light bulb Alexander Graham Bell ( ) – telephone, 1876 Guglielmo Marconi ( ) – radio waves across the Atlantic, 1901 Used for transportation – railways, streetcars, subways Transformation of factories
Possible Test Question Between 1860 and 1913, western European steel production went from 5000 tons to 1 million tons. 35,000 tons to 2 million tons. 50,000 tons to 15 million tons. 125,000 tons to 32 million tons. 10 million tons to 100 million tons.
Internal Combustion Engine (1878-Gas & Air) Automobile and airplane Henry Ford ( ) – mass production (assembly line) Zeppelin airship, 1900 Wright brothers, 1903 (1 st passenger air service 1919) New markets Focused on consumer goods for domestic markets Prices of food and manufactured goods decreased Increased wages Competition for foreign markets Tariff Reaction against free trade to guarantee domestic markets for their own industries Cartels Companies worked together to fix prices & set production quotas Larger factories Assembly lines
Possible Test Question The first internal combustion engine burning a mixture of gas and air was produced in
An Age of Progress
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy Economic Patterns, 1873 – 1914 Depression, 1873 – 1895 Economic boom, 1895 – 1914 German Industrial Leadership Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader of Europe New areas of manufacturing (chemicals, electrical equipment) Industrialized later, so they invested in modern equipment Encouraged scientific & technical education
Possible Test Question Germany began to replace Britain as Europe’s industrial leader by the early twentieth century largely due to Britain’s careless and radical changes made to its industries. Germany’s cautious approach and doctrine of “sticking to what works” in industry. Britain’s reliance on cartels to invest large sums of money in new industries. Germany’s development of new areas of manufacturing including chemicals and heavy electric machinery. Britain’s loss of empire during and after the Boer War.
European Economic Zones Advanced industrial core of Great Britain, Belgium France, the Netherlands, Germany, western part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and northern Italy Little industrial development in southern Italy, most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkan kingdoms, and Russia Surplus grain and cheap transportation caused a sharp drop in agricultural prices. The Spread of Industrialization Industrialization in Russia and Japan Japan’s government took the lead in promoting industry Emergence of a World Economy Europe was importing goods from around the world Foreign countries were used as markets for the surplus of manufactured goods
Possible Test Question The Second Industrial Revolution experienced A drop in agricultural prices. The shift from a three-field to a two-field crop rotation system due to better chemical fertilizers. The emergence of a new class of agricultural production leaders called coloni. A sharp increase in agricultural prices. To stabilize agricultural prices at the level attained in 1850.
Map 23.1: The Industrial Regions of Europe by 1914
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities Women sought the “Right to work” Ideal of Domesticity – working class organizations supported traditional roles for women Sweatshops – subcontracting work out to women at home White-Collar Jobs Increase in white-collar jobs created a shortage of male workers opening up opportunities for women (After 1870) Expansion of service sector jobs - secretaries, teachers & nurses Freedom from domestic patterns Prostitution Many lower class women became prostitutes in big cities as a way to survive London – 1885 – an estimated 60,000 prostitutes Contagious Diseases Acts in the 1870s & 1880s Called for inspection of prostitutes for venereal diseases Acts were repealed over complaints that men were not being checked
Possible Test Question Employment opportunities for women during the Second Industrial Revolution Changed in quality and quantity with the expansion of the service sector. Declined dramatically as prostitution became illegal. Increased greatly with working-class men pushing their wives to work outside the home. Declined when piece-work was abandoned as inefficient and “sweatshops” were outlawed. Declined because labor unions forced governments to restrict most employment opportunities to men only.
New Jobs for Women: The Telephone Exchange
Organizing the Working Class Trade Unions First half of the 19 th Century Trade Unions functioned as mutual aid societies Late 19 th Century Formed labor unions and political parties based on ideas of Karl Marx Trade unions are increasingly aligned with socialist parties Socialist Parties German Social Democratic Party (SPD) Largest German political party by 1912 Growth of socialist parties – spread to other European countries Second International – united socialist organization Struggled due to internal differences Two divisive issues: nationalism and revisionism
Possible Test Question The trade union movement prior to World War I Was strongest in France after the dissolution of the Second International in Occurred despite trade unions being banned by most state governments. Varied from state to state, but was generally allied with socialist parties. Was primarily for unskilled laborers, especially the New Model unions. Focused entirely on wages and working conditions negotiated directly with employers without any government involvement in the process.
Evolutionary Socialism (Revisionism) Eduard Bernstein ( ) Member of the German Social Democratic Party who spent years in exile in Britain Argued that Marx had made fundamental mistakes and socialists needed to stress cooperation and evolution rather than class conflict and revolution Stressed the need to work through democratic politics to create socialism, not revolution.
The Problem of Nationalism Variation of socialist parties from country to country Focused on issues in their own countries instead of a unified workers movement The Role of Trade Unions National variations German unions were the strongest Unions and political parties The Anarchist Alternative More popular in less industrialized nations (Italy, Spain, Russia, & Portugal) where people saw no hope of peaceful political change Initially believed that people were inherently good but got corrupted by the state and society Socialist parties and trade unions became less radical so some people turned to anarchism as a means for a social revolution Michael Bakunin Russian anarchist who advocated violence to dissolve state institutions
Possible Test Question Anarchist movements were most successful in Industrialized countries like Great Britain and Germany. Toppling national governments through assassinations. Restoring legitimacy to radical movements through peaceful dialogue with political opponents. Less industrialized and less democratic countries where ordinary people could see no hope of peaceful political change. Countries with revolutionary traditions like France.
“Proletarians of the World, Unite”
Emergence of a Mass Society Population Growth million million Population growth – caused by increasing birth rate After 1880 – caused by declining mortality rate Medical discoveries and environmental conditions Smallpox vaccination Improved publication sanitation Reduced deaths from diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera Improved nutrition Better nutrition & food hygiene Faster shipment of food Pasteurization of milk Emigration Economic motives Oppressed minorities went to other countries (especially U.S) Political motives Lower class citizens seeking more freedom
Possible Test Question Between 1850 and 1910, European population Increased from 270 million to 460 million. Actually decreased slightly. Increased from 45 to 60 million. Stagnated, causing severe problems for the development of leisure industries. Declined significantly because of the pollution engendered by increasing urbanization.
Table 23.2: European Emigration, 1876 – 1910
Map 23.2: Population Growth in Europe,
Transformation of the Urban Environment Urbanization of Europe Migration from rural to urban 1800 – 21 European cities with a population of 100, – 147 European cities with a population of 100,000+ People moved to the cities for job opportunities Improving Living Conditions Reformers: Edwin Chadwick and Rudolf Virchow Pointed to relationship between living conditions and disease Buildings begin to be inspected for problems Public Health Act of 1875 in Britain Clean water into the city Private baths (Hot water) became accessible to people in 1860s Shower appears in 1880s Sewage System
Housing Needs Reformer-philanthropists focused on relationship of living conditions to political and moral health of the nation – built homes for the poor Government support – increase in regulations Demolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls and new, wider streets Octavia Hill rehabilitated old homes and built new ones designed to give the poor an environment they could use to improve themselves Redesigning the Cities Major European cities were redesigned after the example of Paris in the 1850s Construction of streetcars & commuter trains created suburbs
Possible Test Question Reforms in urban living included all of the following except The development of pure water and sewerage systems. Model homes built for the poor by wealthy philanthropists. The demolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls, replaced by wide avenues. A concerted effort to clean up all polluted rivers and lakes. Some increases in governmental regulations.
Working-Class Housing in London
The Social Structure of the Society The Upper Classes 5% of the population that controlled 30 to 40% of wealth Plutocrats – aristocrats who made their money on investments in railroads, public utilities, government bonds, & businesses Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy Common bonds – wealthy middle class kids admitted to elite schools The Middle Classes Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class Professionals (law, medicine, civil service) New professionals – engineers, architects, accountants, chemists White-collar workers (product of the 2 nd Industrial Revolution) Sales reps, bookkeepers, bank tellers, telephone operators, secretaries, department store clerks Middle-class values came to dominate Concerned with traditional Christian values and work ethic
Possible Test Question The middle classes of nineteenth-century Europe Were composed mostly of shopkeepers and manufacturers who barely lived above the poverty line. Offered little opportunity for women in improving their lot. Were very concerned with propriety and shared values of hard work and Christian morality. Viewed progress with distrust as they did not wish to lose their economic gains. Were sinking in economic and social security because of the increase of plutocrats.
The Lower classes 80 percent of the European population Agriculture Many were landholding peasants – sharecroppers, laborers Urban working class: Skilled, semiskilled, unskilled workers Skilled artisans – cabinet makers, printers, jewelry makers semiskilled artisans – carpenters, bricklayers, factory workers Unskilled laborers – day laborers, domestic services
A Middle-Class Family
The “Woman Question”: The Role of Women Traditional Values Marriage the only honorable and available career Decline in the birth rate in part to some birth control 1840s-invention of vulcanized rubber made birth control an option Elizabeth Poole Sanford encouraged women to avoid being self- sufficient. Thought women should embrace domesticity and dependence on their husbands. Middle-Class and Working-Class Families Glorified Domesticity Domestic ideal for the family emphasized togetherness with time for leisure Stressed functional knowledge for their children to prepare them for future roles. Daughters of working class families worked until married 1890 – 1914: higher paying jobs made it possible to live on husband’s wages Limit size of the family Reduced work week
Possible Test Question For Elizabeth Poole Sanford, women should Avoid being self-sufficient. Strive to become equal to men. Accept their roles at home until new governmental reforms were instituted. Make it known to their husbands that they were dissatisfied. Take employment outside the home to become economically self-sufficient.
Education in the Mass Society Expansion of Secondary Education Universal Elementary Education States began to offer public education By 1900, most were free and compulsory at the primary level States assumed the responsibility for teacher training Liberal Beliefs About Education Personal and social development Needs of industrialization Differences in education of boys and girls Girls - less math & science, more domestic skills Boys – humanities plus carpentry & military drill Political motives Need for an educated electorate Instilled patriotism and nationalized the masses Female Teachers Increased Literacy from mass education Growth of Newspapers
Possible Test Question By 1900, most European educational systems Were free and compulsory at least at the primary level. Were expensive to operate, and charged high tuition. Were backward and lacked good teachers. Still taught a “medieval” variety of subjects. Had declined because of lack of governmental interest and support.
Mass Leisure Amusement Parks Music and Dance Halls Thomas Cook ( ) Pioneer “father” of mass tourism Offered vacations to Europe Sports Boy Scouts (1908) “The real boy scout is not a sissy.” Became organized with rules Professional sports leagues emerged Boys were encouraged to play sports to toughen them up
Possible Test Question A new development in the age of mass leisure was The newspaper and novel. The excessive consumption of alcohol. The theater. Carnival. Professional sports.
Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy Reform in Britain: William Gladstone Reform Act of 1867: Suffrage extended English Reform Bill of 1884 Gave English agricultural workers the right to vote Redistribution Act of 1885: Reorganized the election boroughs Salaries paid to members of the House of Commons, 1911 More people could run for office Charles Parnell ( ) Leader of the Irish representatives in Parliament Called for Home Rule for Ireland This would have established a separate Parliament for Ireland English conservatives voted against home rule Resulted in terrorist attacks by the Irish
Possible Test Question The English Reform Bill of 1884 Enfranchised women. Gave English agricultural workers the right to vote. Did not dramatically increase the size of the electorate. Increased the total number of members in the House of Commons. Increased middle-class representatives in Parliament.
Reform in France Louis Napoleon’s 2 nd Empire ended with his defeat in the Franco- Prussian War Universal male suffrage in 1871 enforced by Bismarck People elected a new National Assembly Radical republicans formed an independent government in Paris known as the Commune Fighting broke out between the Commune and the National Assembly National Assembly massacred thousands of members of the Paris Commune Brutal suppression of the Paris Commune created a split between the working class and the middle class Establishment of the Third Republic, 1875 Monarchists, Catholic clergy and army officers opposed the Third Republic General Georges Boulanger - leader of a proposed coup d’etat Lost the courage to carry it out and fled the country Boulanger crisis rallied French citizens to the republic
Possible Test Question Splits between the French working and middle class Were largely solved by the liberal reforms of the Third Republic. Enabled the Third Republic to elect a new monarch in Led a strong parliamentary system of government. Were further widened by the brutal suppression of the Paris Commune in Ended in light of continued Prussian threats to France’s national survival.
Italy Had pretensions of great power status Sectional differences in Italy Italians were loyal to their family, towns and regions, but not their country Chronic turmoil beyond the government’s control No universal male suffrage Italy & Spain Both remained second rate European powers
Central & Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order Germany Trappings of parliamentary government 1871 constitution Emperor commands the military in Prussian tradition Bismarck’s conservatism Used coalitions to get what he wanted & then he dropped them Kulturkampf - “struggle for civilization” an attack on Catholic Church Tried to weaken Social Democratic Party by passing antisocialist law Tried to woo workers from socialism by passing social welfare programs
Possible Test Question Which statement best applies to Germany under chancellor Otto von Bismarck? Prussia lost much of its influence on state politics. Coalitions were used by Bismarck to get what he wanted and then he dropped them. Socialism was almost completely stamped out by the Prussian army. Almost all regional differences disappeared under the charismatic leadership of Bismarck. The emperor became merely a figurehead and lacked any political power and influence.
Austria-Hungary Austrian constitution of 1867 (in reality it was still an autocracy) Problem of minorities worsened with universal male suffrage, 1907 Russia Alexander III, : Overturns reform and returns to repressive measures (autocracy) after assassination of Alexander II Nicholas II, : Believed in absolute rule
Possible Test Question The policy pursued by Russia’s Alexander III and Nicholas II after the assassination of Alexander II was a policy of Liberalism. Nationalism. Socialism. Militarism. Autocracy.