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Indian Politics 1.Nehru Dynasty 1947-1996 2.Years of Competition 1996-present – Two Party System? – Two Half Parties? – Regional parties?

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Politics 1.Nehru Dynasty 1947-1996 2.Years of Competition 1996-present – Two Party System? – Two Half Parties? – Regional parties?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Politics 1.Nehru Dynasty Years of Competition 1996-present – Two Party System? – Two Half Parties? – Regional parties?

2 1. Nehru Dynasty Jawaharlal Nehru Indira GandhiRajiv Gandhi

3 Congress Party Manmohan Singh Sonja Gandhi Rahul Gandhi PM President General Secretary of the Party(one of nine)

4 Congress’ Ideology Secularism Socialist economics Economic Reform 1991-present Economic Reform Manifesto for 2009 elections Manifesto

5 Congress Dominates Election YearSeats for CongressSeats for Second Largest Party (lost power) (Janata Party alliance) (lost power) (formed coalition)226120

6 Indira Gandhi

7 Congress (I)

8 Congress after Indira Gandhi Rajiv GandhiP. V. N. Rao

9 2. Years of Competition Factors End of Nehru Dynasty Economic reform Corruption in Congress Rise of regional, religious, caste- based parties

10 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)(BJP) Hindutva (Hindu Nationalism) Hindutva RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) RSS

11 Others Leftist parties – Communist Party of India (Marxist) Communist Party of India (Marxist) Regional parties – AIADMK (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhigam) regional party of Tamil Nadu state AIADMK – Janata Dal (Secular) (Karnataka, Kerala) Janata Dal (Secular) – Telugu Desam Party (Andrha Pradesh) Telugu Desam Party – Samajwadi Party (Uttar Pradesh) Samajwadi Caste-based Parties – Bahujan Samaj Party Bahujan Samaj Party

12 Why Did Congress Party Lose its Appeal? Nehru Dynasty over Corruption 1991 Economic Reforms

13 Socialist Economic Policy Nationalization National Planning Commission – 1950 – Five Year Plans “Hindu Rate of Growth” %

14 1990s Economic Crisis

15 Political-Military Crisis

16 The Reforms Open up economy to foreign investment Privatization Ending government control of economy Reduce government regulation Export Processing Zones Architect of reforms – Finance Minister Manmohan Singh

17 Economic Results (from BBC News: China and India, Key Facts;

18 Political Results 1996 Election Party1991 Seats1996 Seats Congress BJP119160

19 BJP Constituency Elites who benefit from government policy Government employees Business protected by the government Poor who live off government assistance Anti-affirmative action groups Hindu nationalists

20 1996 Election Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 160 Congress Party 136 National Front 110 National Front forms government

21 1998 BJP forms government National Democratic Alliance (15 parties) PM A. B. Vajpayee Indian nuclear tests MayMay 1998

22 1998 Election BJP 176 Congress Party 140 United Front 97

23 21 st Century: Congress Regroups Sonia Gandhi

24 1999 Election BJP 182 Congress Party 112 BJP/NDA remains in power

25 2004 Election BJP/NDA “India Shining” vs. Congress/United Progressive Alliance (UPA) “It is a contest between the Congress…and the BJP that is systematically undermining the very essence of Indian civilization and destroying the very idea of India.” 2004 Election Manifesto

26 2004 Election BJP 138 Congress Party 145 (UPA 219) Left Parties56 UPA and Leftist parties form coalition PM Manmohan Singh

27 2009 Election BJP 116 Congress Party 206 UPA retains power PM Manmohan Singh

28 Challenges and Developments 1.Two parties or Two Half Parties 2.Regional parties 3.Can Congress get beyond the Dynasty?

29 1. Two parties or Two Half Parties? 272 (273) the magic number! Stability? PartyCongressBJP

30 2. Regional Parties 2009 Lok Sabha 2 National parties 1 semi-national party (CPI-M) with seats in four states 39 Regional parties

31 3. Congress and the Nehru Dynasty

32 Liberhan Commission Report Narendra Modi Chief Minister of Gujarat


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