Presentation on theme: "Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 25 The Age of Nationalism, 1850-1914 Chapter 25."— Presentation transcript:
Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 25 The Age of Nationalism, Chapter 25
The rise of nationalism became a dominant force in western society. –Liberalism and nationalism provided European governments with significant problems. –Nationalism became a rallying point for many disaffected peoples. The Age of Nationalism
Manet, The Barricade In this detail from his painting The Barricade, Edouard Manet ( ) captures a scene from the Paris Commune of The communards are trying to protect themselves with barricades from the onslaught of government troops. Although fewer than one thousand government soldiers died, over 25,000 communards were killed. (Hungarian National Museum) Manet, The Barricade
Proved that Government could fuse liberalism and conservatism in authoritarian Nationalism –Second Republic of France Great name / legend People wanted tough ruler to provide protection Positive program (popular with the people) –Shared power with the National Assembly / seized power in a Coup d’etat. Napoleon III and France
Portrait of Napoleon III This painted portrait of Napoleon III is an example of official art glorifying the French emperor, who reigned from 1852 to He is framed by a Roman statue on his right and the imperial eagle on his left, both symbols of strength and glory. (Giraudon/Art Resource, NY) Portrait of Napoleon III
Napoleon III’s Second Empire –Greatest success with the economy New investment banks / RR expansion / Public works / –Showed concern for the people Better housing / regulate pawnshops / right to form a Union / right to strike –Gradual liberalization of the government National assembly re-asserts rights / people vote in favor of new constitution Napoleon III and France
Italian strikers, 1890s This detail from Pelizza da Volpedo Giuseppe's ( ) study for The Fourth Estate depicts Italian strikers of the 1890s. (Arborio Mella) Italian strikers, 1890s
The unification of Italy was achieved by the work of Cavour and Garibaldi. –Cavour of Sardinia-Piedmont led the struggle for Italian unification. –Cavour built Sardinia into a liberal and economically sound state allied with France. He sought unity for the northern and central areas of Italy. –Garibaldi liberated southern Italy and Sicily. Except for Rome and Venice, Italy was politically united in Nation Building in Italy
Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel For centuries many Italians had dreamed of national unity, but the reality was not achieved until This painting/fresco by Cesare Maccari ( ) depicts the historic meeting between the successful military leader of the unification drive, Giuseppe Garibaldi, and the king of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel, at the Bridge of Teano in the fall of This meeting sealed the unification of northern and southern Italy in a unified state. With only the sleeve of his red shirt showing, Garibaldi offers his hand--and his conquests--to the uniformed king and his modern monarchical government. Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel
Garibaldi leads "Red Shirts" The revolutionary Italian firebrand Giuseppe Garibaldi ( ) set sail for Sicily in May 1860, with but 1000 poorly armed, red-shirted followers, to help the island overthrow its Bourbon ruler. This painting shows Garibaldi leading his Red Shirts to victory over the Neapolitan Army. Garibaldi's successful conquests in the south and Count Camillo di Cavour's in the north opened the way for Italian unification. Garibaldi leads "Red Shirts"
Map: The Unification of Italy, The Unification of Italy, The leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont and nationalist fervor were decisive factors in the unification of Italy. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.)
Nation Building in Germany The unification of Germany was achieved through a series of successful wars. –There was a debate about how unification should proceed. –One group proposed the Klein-deutsch solution to unification. Another faction favored the Gross-deutsch solution to unification. –Prussian victories over Denmark, Austria, and France helped to forge a new central European power. –Bismarck’s goal of Prussian expansion was realized. –Bismarck used the war with France to bring southern Germany into the union.
Nation Building in Germany Before Bismarck –Block to block between Austria and Prussia over the German Confederation The Custom Union (Tariff taxes) or Zollverein allowed Prussia to come out on top as it shut out Austria Prussian King increased the military / best training / paid for with taxes not authorized by the liberal government Fight in Prussia was over who would lead Prussia –Middle class or the king (who had the political power)
Nation Building in Germany Bismarck –Pragmatic believed in “Blood and Iron” the will and ability to do it……. –Danish War distracted liberals / Bismarck used Nationalism to gain Schleswig-Holstein –Forced Austria into a war they could not win 7 weeks / technology and organization won Battle of Sadowa ended the war Parliament liberals went over to Bismarck afterwards
Nation Building in Germany Bismarck and Parliament –Bismarck made peace with the liberal middle class –Winning in Denmark made the difference Parliament followed Bismarck and nationalism The Franco-Prussian War –Bismarck wanted to drive the Southern German states into Prussia –Beat the French at Sedan / Technology and organization won the day –William I proclaimed the Empire at Versailles / Germany now a State / –Made France pay Took Alsace and Lorraine Fined France Laid the groundwork for WW I
Map: The Unification of Germany, The Unification of Germany, This map deserves careful study. Note how Prussian expansion, Austrian expulsion from the old German Confederation, and the creation of a new German empire went hand in hand. Austria lost no territory, but Prussia's neighbors in the north suffered grievously or simply disappeared. The annexation of Alsace- Lorraine turned France into a lasting enemy of Germany before (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.)
1815 Congress of Vienna sets up German Confederation Zollverein moves toward economic unity among German states 1848 Frankfurt Assembly offers united German throne to Prussian King Frederick William IV 1862 Otto von Bismarck is named chancellor of Prussia; Bismarck begins to build up Prussian military 1866 Prussia defeats Austria, sets up North German Confederation 1870 Prussia defeats France 1871 Second Reich proclaimed Events Leading To German Unification
Nation Building in the United States The transformation of the United States resulted from the American Civil War (1861—1865). –The American Civil War brought two regions of the country into conflict (sectionalism). –Social and economic weaknesses put the South at a disadvantage. Military leadership in the South gave the South an early advantage. –The North was an industrial power with a considerably greater population. –A new American nationalism grew out of the Civil War. The United States began to focus on industrialization after the Civil War. The Civil War ended slavery in the United States.
Matthew Brady, Soldiers at Antietam The American photographer Matthew Brady ( ) took haunting photos of nearly every facet of the Civil War. This one shows some of the bodies of the Confederate soldiers who died at the Battle of Antietam in Matthew Brady, Soldiers at Antietam
Map: Slavery in the United States, 1860 Slavery in the United States, 1860 This map illustrates the nation on the eve of the Civil War. Although many issues contributed to the developing tensions between North and South, slavery was the fundamental, enduring force that underlay all others. Lincoln's prediction, "I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free," tragically proved correct.
Russia and Modernization The movement toward modernization in Russia came in the nineteenth century. The Crimean War loss helped to foster modernization in Russia. The hardships of the war led to the threat of peasant uprisings. The Great Reforms The freeing of the serfs was the first and greatest step toward modernization. The Zemstvo –Local assembly made up of the three classes
Gustave Dore's critique of Russian serfdom In this nineteenth-century engraving, the prolific French artist/illustrator Gustave Dore ( ) reveals how landowners viewed their serfs as mere property that could be won and lost with a draw on the cards. Gustave Dore's critique of Russian serfdom
Russia and Modernization –Growing industrialization was stimulated by railroad construction. Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway helped to modernize Russia. Alexander II assassinated Alexander III stopped reform –In Russia Economic reform kept going / political reform stopped –Sergei Witte Finance minister used the West to catch up to the west –West financed industrialization
Russia and Modernization –Revolution of 1905 Russo-Japanese war of 1905 –Showed how weak / backward Russia was –Showed how Japan was strong and fascists The loss led to revolution as liberals and factory workers used the opportunity to revolt –Bloody Sunday troops opened fire on the people / changed the way the people looked at the Tzar / no longer a father figure let to 1917 revolution –October Manifesto --- Tzar issued a full civil rights decree and popularly elected Duma for the people This split the people and the middle class supported the Tzar and helped the government repress the revolution and stay in power. –Duma elected by male sufferage / not powerful enough / passed the Fundamental laws / a step back / Tzar kept the veto power.
1905 "Freedom" poster This peasant woman, who appears as the symbol of radical demands in the Russian countryside in the revolution of 1905, holds aloft a red socialist banner that reads "Freedom!" This vibrant drawing is on the first page of a new review featuring political cartoons from the rapidly growing Russian popular press. (New York Public Library, Slavonic Division) 1905 "Freedom" poster
Common Framework –Mass Politics –Mass loyalty to the Nation state –Women began to demand the vote Posititive aspects –Right to vote spread / people more fairly represented / governments were responsive to needs of the people Nations tended to manipulate the people to divert attention from other issues – Manipulated the Jews as a focus of hate –Territory seized by states was supported by socialists The Responsive National States
Germany –Bismarck attacked the Catholic church in his Kulturkampf (Culture Wars) Didn’t like Pope’s infallibility stance in the church Eventually got along / supported each other for economic reasons / –Tariffs (to pay for social issues) caused tensions within Europe and led to competition First nation to enact social legislation Better social programs / peoples still voted socialist William II required Bismarck to resign –Economy did not improve / foreign policy got worse / Led to WWI The Responsive National States
Cover page of Die Wehr One of many nationalist movements in the early twentieth century, the German Army League ran organized campaigns for increases in German army expenditures. Their newspaper enjoyed a circulation of over 300,000. This engraving from the cover page of a 1914 edition of their newspaper suggests that just as Germans had to rally for the fatherland in 1813 and 1870, so they may again have to defend it. Cover page of Die Wehr
France -- After Sedan defeat / Loss of A&L / crushing the Paris Commune France formed a new national unity Retained a Republic Leon Gambetta (a Moderate) led in the unity for France –Free education / focused of next generation / secularized the schools –Teachers led the charge / got rid of religion in school –The Dreyfus Affair The Army / anti-Semites / Catholic church –Jew convicted of treason / false documents / eventually overturned Led to reaction against the church schools funding lost out People were indoctrinated by government / nationalism The Responsive National States
Wilhelm proclaimed ruler by Bismarck The ultimate blow to French pride and the culmination of the German nationalist movement was the proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles on January 18, This painting, by the German painter Anton von Werner, depicts William (Wilhelm) I presiding over the creation of the Second Reich, while Otto von Bismarck, the nation builder, and the military theoretician Helmuth von Moltke stand at his feet. (Bismarck Museum/akg-images) Wilhelm proclaimed ruler by Bismarck
Dreyfus being shunned Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason. In 1898 and 1899, the case split France apart; it became known as the Dreyfus affair. Leaving an 1899 reconsideration of his original court martial, Dreyfus receives an insulting guard of dishonor from soldiers whose backs are turned. Top army leaders were determined to brand Dreyfus as a traitor. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Dreyfus being shunned
Great Britain and Ireland –John Stuart Mill – On Liberty How do you protect the rights of the individual / minorities with the mass electorate 3 rd reform Bill 1884 gave the vote to all males Conservatives tried to veto the peoples Budget (Money for Social Welfare) / failed with help by David Lloyd George – Ireland Gladstone liberal ideas brought Ireland to equal treatment Self government between Ulster / Republicans not possible sectarian violence / postponed by WWI. The Responsive National States
Suffragist poster This 1910 poster protested the force- feeding of suffragettes on hunger strike in Britain. It invited voters to reject the Liberal government, guilty of what suffragettes viewed as state torture. (Library of Congress) Suffragist poster
Fewer than five percent of population has right to vote 1815 Politics dominated by wealthy men / Rotten boroughs Religious restrictions on voting and holding office 1820s Removal of religious restrictions Trade unions legalized Vote extended to most male property owners 1830s Redistribution of seats in House of Commons Slavery abolished in Britain and British colonies 1867 Vote extended to working-class men 1870 Free elementary education for all children Vote extended to include most men 1880s Secret ballot introduced Reforms in public housing and health 1911 Restrictions on power of House of Lords 1918 Vote extended to women over Vote extended to all women Steps toward Democracy in Great Britain
"No Home Rule" poster Posters like this one--No Home Rule--helped to foment pro-British, anti- Catholic sentiment in the northern Irish counties of Ulster before World War I. The rifle raised defiantly and the accompanying rhyme are a thinly veiled threat of armed rebellion and civil war. (National Museums of Northern Ireland) "No Home Rule" poster
The Austro-Hungarian Empire Nationalism in the Austro-Hungarian Empire was an ethnic patchwork. –After 1866 defeat by Prussia the dual monarchy was set up (two states / one monarch) –Multiethnic and multinational populations posed problems. Few voting rights The nationalistic Magyars ruled Hungary. The language used in government and school was a particularly divisive issue. (Croats / Romanians / Slavs) Nationalism weakened the Empire would eventually destroy it
Language Ordinances, 1897 The Language Ordinances of 1897, which were intended to satisfy the Czechs by establishing equality between the local language and German in non-German districts of Austria, produced a powerful backlash among Germans. This wood engraving shows troops dispersing German protesters of the new law before the parliament building. Language Ordinances, 1897
Jewish Emancipation / Anti-Semitism Jews gained civil rights after supporting the revolutions of 1848 –Prussia abolished all restrictions on Jews –Traditional Jewish jobs were undermined by free marked reform but many new jobs and fields were open Anti-Semitic parties attacked Jews / blamed them for all problems –Karl Lueger (anti-Semitic party) won in Vienna –Led to Zionism (Theodor Herzl) need a place to go for freedom (Palistine)
Marxism and the Socialist Movement Nationalism was a unifying force in European Nations Socialism was fragmented with radicals Responses to nationalism and industrialism were spearheaded by the socialist movement. –Marxism led the negative response to industrialization. Socialists united in 1864 to form an international socialist organization known as the First International. Das Kapital / The Communist Manifesto Scientific doctrine / anti religion/ anti-state
"May Day" postcard In the late nineteenth century May 1 (May Day) was declared an annual international one- day strike, a day of marches and demonstrations. Workers participated enthusiastically in these annual strikes to honor international socialist solidarity, as this German postcard from a happy woman visitor to her cousin suggests. Speeches, picnics, and parades were the order of the day, and workers celebrated their respectability and independent culture. Picture postcards developed with railroads and mass travel. (akg-images) "May Day" postcard
Marxism and the Socialist Movement Socialism had an important psychological impact on European society. May Day (Annual one day strike) The Second International lasted until Unions / Revisionism –Unions worked on progress –Standards of living rose / quality of life up –Unions changed from illegal to legal –Gradual improvement not revolution the goal Revisionism –The sin of re-interpreting Marx in modern context –Jean Jaures and example
Nationalist and Socialist Movement Both philosophies emphasized the old order’s inability to provide a positive response to people’s needs.