Presentation on theme: "Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society"— Presentation transcript:
1Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 25Maps and Images for McKay 8eA History of Western SocietyChapter 25The Age of Nationalism,
2The Age of NationalismThe rise of nationalism became a dominant force in western society.Liberalism and nationalism provided European governments with significant problems.Nationalism became a rallying point for many disaffected peoples.
3Manet, The BarricadeIn this detail from his painting The Barricade, Edouard Manet ( ) captures a scene from the Paris Commune of The communards are trying to protect themselves with barricades from the onslaught of government troops. Although fewer than one thousand government soldiers died, over 25,000 communards were killed. (Hungarian National Museum)Manet, The Barricade
4Napoleon III and France Proved that Government could fuse liberalism and conservatism in authoritarian NationalismSecond Republic of FranceGreat name / legendPeople wanted tough ruler to provide protectionPositive program (popular with the people)Shared power with the National Assembly / seized power in a Coup d’etat.
5Portrait of Napoleon III This painted portrait of Napoleon III is an example of official art glorifying the French emperor, who reigned from 1852 to He is framed by a Roman statue on his right and the imperial eagle on his left, both symbols of strength and glory. (Giraudon/Art Resource, NY)Portrait of Napoleon III
6Napoleon III and France Napoleon III’s Second EmpireGreatest success with the economyNew investment banks / RR expansion / Public works /Showed concern for the peopleBetter housing / regulate pawnshops / right to form a Union / right to strikeGradual liberalization of the governmentNational assembly re-asserts rights / people vote in favor of new constitution
7Italian strikers, 1890sThis detail from Pelizza da Volpedo Giuseppe's ( ) study for The Fourth Estate depicts Italian strikers of the 1890s. (Arborio Mella)Italian strikers, 1890s
8Nation Building in Italy The unification of Italy was achieved by the work of Cavour and Garibaldi.Cavour of Sardinia-Piedmont led the struggle for Italian unification.Cavour built Sardinia into a liberal and economically sound state allied with France.He sought unity for the northern and central areas of Italy.Garibaldi liberated southern Italy and Sicily.Except for Rome and Venice, Italy was politically united in 1860.
9Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel For centuries many Italians had dreamed of national unity, but the reality was not achieved until This painting/fresco by Cesare Maccari ( ) depicts the historic meeting between the successful military leader of the unification drive, Giuseppe Garibaldi, and the king of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel, at the Bridge of Teano in the fall of This meeting sealed the unification of northern and southern Italy in a unified state. With only the sleeve of his red shirt showing, Garibaldi offers his hand--and his conquests--to the uniformed king and his modern monarchical government.
10Garibaldi leads "Red Shirts" The revolutionary Italian firebrand Giuseppe Garibaldi ( ) set sail for Sicily in May 1860, with but 1000 poorly armed, red-shirted followers, to help the island overthrow its Bourbon ruler. This painting shows Garibaldi leading his Red Shirts to victory over the Neapolitan Army. Garibaldi's successful conquests in the south and Count Camillo di Cavour's in the north opened the way for Italian unification.
11Map: The Unification of Italy, 1859-1870 The leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont and nationalist fervor were decisive factors in the unification of Italy. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.)Map: The Unification of Italy,
12Nation Building in Germany The unification of Germany was achieved through a series of successful wars.There was a debate about how unification should proceed.One group proposed the Klein-deutsch solution to unification.Another faction favored the Gross-deutsch solution to unification.Prussian victories over Denmark, Austria, and France helped to forge a new central European power.Bismarck’s goal of Prussian expansion was realized.Bismarck used the war with France to bring southern Germany into the union.
13Nation Building in Germany Before BismarckBlock to block between Austria and Prussia over the German ConfederationThe Custom Union (Tariff taxes) or Zollverein allowed Prussia to come out on top as it shut out AustriaPrussian King increased the military / best training / paid for with taxes not authorized by the liberal governmentFight in Prussia was over who would lead PrussiaMiddle class or the king (who had the political power)
14Nation Building in Germany BismarckPragmatic believed in “Blood and Iron” the will and ability to do it…….Danish War distracted liberals / Bismarck used Nationalism to gain Schleswig-HolsteinForced Austria into a war they could not win7 weeks / technology and organization wonBattle of Sadowa ended the warParliament liberals went over to Bismarck afterwards
15Nation Building in Germany Bismarck and ParliamentBismarck made peace with the liberal middle classWinning in Denmark made the differenceParliament followed Bismarck and nationalismThe Franco-Prussian WarBismarck wanted to drive the Southern German states into PrussiaBeat the French at Sedan / Technology and organization won the dayWilliam I proclaimed the Empire at Versailles / Germany now a State /Made France payTook Alsace and LorraineFined FranceLaid the groundwork for WW I
16Map: The Unification of Germany, 1866-1871 This map deserves careful study. Note how Prussian expansion, Austrian expulsion from the old German Confederation, and the creation of a new German empire went hand in hand. Austria lost no territory, but Prussia's neighbors in the north suffered grievously or simply disappeared. The annexation of Alsace-Lorraine turned France into a lasting enemy of Germany before (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.)Map: The Unification of Germany,
17Events Leading To German Unification 1862Otto von Bismarckis named chancellorof Prussia; Bismarckbegins to build up Prussian military1815Congressof Viennasets up GermanConfederation1834Zollvereinmoves towardeconomic unityamong Germanstates1870PrussiadefeatsFranceFrankfurt Assembly offers united German throne to Prussian King Frederick William IV1866Prussiadefeats Austria,sets up NorthGermanConfederation1871SecondReichproclaimed
18Nation Building in the United States The transformation of the United States resulted from the American Civil War (1861—1865).The American Civil War brought two regions of the country into conflict (sectionalism).Social and economic weaknesses put the South at a disadvantage.Military leadership in the South gave the South an early advantage.The North was an industrial power with a considerably greater population.A new American nationalism grew out of the Civil War.The United States began to focus on industrialization after the Civil War.The Civil War ended slavery in the United States.
19Matthew Brady, Soldiers at Antietam The American photographer Matthew Brady ( ) took haunting photos of nearly every facet of the Civil War. This one shows some of the bodies of the Confederate soldiers who died at the Battle of Antietam in 1862.
20Map: Slavery in the United States, 1860 This map illustrates the nation on the eve of the Civil War. Although many issues contributed to the developing tensions between North and South, slavery was the fundamental, enduring force that underlay all others. Lincoln's prediction, "I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free," tragically proved correct.
21Russia and Modernization The movement toward modernization in Russia came in the nineteenth century.The Crimean War loss helped to foster modernization in Russia.The hardships of the war led to the threat of peasant uprisings.The Great ReformsThe freeing of the serfs was the first and greatest step toward modernization.The ZemstvoLocal assembly made up of the three classes
22Gustave Dore's critique of Russian serfdom In this nineteenth-century engraving, the prolific French artist/illustrator Gustave Dore ( ) reveals how landowners viewed their serfs as mere property that could be won and lost with a draw on the cards.
23Russia and Modernization Growing industrialization was stimulated by railroad construction.Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway helped to modernize Russia.Alexander II assassinatedAlexander III stopped reformIn Russia Economic reform kept going / political reform stoppedSergei WitteFinance minister used the West to catch up to the westWest financed industrialization
24Russia and Modernization Revolution of 1905Russo-Japanese war of 1905Showed how weak / backward Russia wasShowed how Japan was strong and fascistsThe loss led to revolution as liberals and factory workers used the opportunity to revoltBloody Sunday troops opened fire on the people / changed the way the people looked at the Tzar / no longer a father figure let to 1917 revolutionOctober Manifesto --- Tzar issued a full civil rights decree and popularly elected Duma for the people This split the people and the middle class supported the Tzar and helped the government repress the revolution and stay in power.Duma elected by male sufferage / not powerful enough / passed the Fundamental laws / a step back / Tzar kept the veto power.
251905 "Freedom" posterThis peasant woman, who appears as the symbol of radical demands in the Russian countryside in the revolution of 1905, holds aloft a red socialist banner that reads "Freedom!" This vibrant drawing is on the first page of a new review featuring political cartoons from the rapidly growing Russian popular press. (New York Public Library, Slavonic Division)1905 "Freedom" poster
26The Responsive National States Common FrameworkMass PoliticsMass loyalty to the Nation stateWomen began to demand the votePosititive aspectsRight to vote spread / people more fairly represented / governments were responsive to needs of the peopleNations tended to manipulate the people to divert attention from other issuesManipulated the Jews as a focus of hateTerritory seized by states was supported by socialists
27The Responsive National States GermanyBismarck attacked the Catholic church in his Kulturkampf (Culture Wars)Didn’t like Pope’s infallibility stance in the churchEventually got along / supported each other for economic reasons /Tariffs (to pay for social issues) caused tensions within Europe and led to competitionFirst nation to enact social legislationBetter social programs / peoples still voted socialistWilliam II required Bismarck to resignEconomy did not improve / foreign policy got worse / Led to WWI
28Cover page of Die WehrOne of many nationalist movements in the early twentieth century, the German Army League ran organized campaigns for increases in German army expenditures. Their newspaper enjoyed a circulation of over 300,000. This engraving from the cover page of a 1914 edition of their newspaper suggests that just as Germans had to rally for the fatherland in 1813 and 1870, so they may again have to defend it.Cover page of Die Wehr
29The Responsive National States France -- After Sedan defeat / Loss of A&L / crushing the Paris CommuneFrance formed a new national unityRetained a RepublicLeon Gambetta (a Moderate) led in the unity for FranceFree education / focused of next generation / secularized the schoolsTeachers led the charge / got rid of religion in schoolThe Dreyfus AffairThe Army / anti-Semites / Catholic churchJew convicted of treason / false documents / eventually overturnedLed to reaction against the church schools funding lost outPeople were indoctrinated by government / nationalism
30Wilhelm proclaimed ruler by Bismarck The ultimate blow to French pride and the culmination of the German nationalist movement was the proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles on January 18, This painting, by the German painter Anton von Werner, depicts William (Wilhelm) I presiding over the creation of the Second Reich, while Otto von Bismarck, the nation builder, and the military theoretician Helmuth von Moltke stand at his feet. (Bismarck Museum/akg-images)
31Dreyfus being shunnedDreyfus being shunnedAlfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason. In 1898 and 1899, the case split France apart; it became known as the Dreyfus affair. Leaving an 1899 reconsideration of his original court martial, Dreyfus receives an insulting guard of dishonor from soldiers whose backs are turned. Top army leaders were determined to brand Dreyfus as a traitor. (Bibliotheque nationale de France)
32The Responsive National States Great Britain and IrelandJohn Stuart Mill – On LibertyHow do you protect the rights of the individual / minorities with the mass electorate3rd reform Bill 1884 gave the vote to all malesConservatives tried to veto the peoples Budget (Money for Social Welfare) / failed with help by David Lloyd GeorgeIrelandGladstone liberal ideas brought Ireland to equal treatmentSelf government between Ulster / Republicans not possible sectarian violence / postponed by WWI.
33Suffragist posterThis 1910 poster protested the force-feeding of suffragettes on hunger strike in Britain. It invited voters to reject the Liberal government, guilty of what suffragettes viewed as state torture. (Library of Congress)Suffragist poster
34Steps toward Democracy in Great Britain • Vote extended to all women• Vote extended to women over 301911 • Restrictions on power ofHouse of Lords• Vote extended to include most men1880s • Secret ballot introduced• Reforms in public housing and health• Free elementary education for all children• Vote extended to working-class men• Vote extended to most male property owners1830s • Redistribution of seats in House of Commons• Slavery abolished in Britain and British colonies1820s • Removal of religious restrictions• Trade unions legalizedFewer than five percent of population has right to votePolitics dominated by wealthy men / Rotten boroughsReligious restrictions on voting and holding office
35"No Home Rule" posterPosters like this one--No Home Rule--helped to foment pro-British, anti-Catholic sentiment in the northern Irish counties of Ulster before World War I. The rifle raised defiantly and the accompanying rhyme are a thinly veiled threat of armed rebellion and civil war. (National Museums of Northern Ireland)"No Home Rule" poster
36The Austro-Hungarian Empire Nationalism in the Austro-Hungarian Empire was an ethnic patchwork.After 1866 defeat by Prussia the dual monarchy was set up (two states / one monarch)Multiethnic and multinational populations posed problems.Few voting rightsThe nationalistic Magyars ruled Hungary.The language used in government and school was a particularly divisive issue. (Croats / Romanians / Slavs)Nationalism weakened the Empire would eventually destroy it
37Language Ordinances, 1897Language Ordinances, 1897The Language Ordinances of 1897, which were intended to satisfy the Czechs by establishing equality between the local language and German in non-German districts of Austria, produced a powerful backlash among Germans. This wood engraving shows troops dispersing German protesters of the new law before the parliament building.
38Jewish Emancipation / Anti-Semitism Jews gained civil rights after supporting the revolutions of 1848Prussia abolished all restrictions on JewsTraditional Jewish jobs were undermined by free marked reform but many new jobs and fields were openAnti-Semitic parties attacked Jews / blamed them for all problemsKarl Lueger (anti-Semitic party) won in ViennaLed to Zionism (Theodor Herzl) need a place to go for freedom (Palistine)
39Marxism and the Socialist Movement Nationalism was a unifying force in European NationsSocialism was fragmented with radicalsResponses to nationalism and industrialism were spearheaded by the socialist movement.Marxism led the negative response to industrialization.Socialists united in 1864 to form an international socialist organization known as the First International.Das Kapital / The Communist ManifestoScientific doctrine / anti religion/ anti-state
40"May Day" postcard"May Day" postcardIn the late nineteenth century May 1 (May Day) was declared an annual international one-day strike, a day of marches and demonstrations. Workers participated enthusiastically in these annual strikes to honor international socialist solidarity, as this German postcard from a happy woman visitor to her cousin suggests. Speeches, picnics, and parades were the order of the day, and workers celebrated their respectability and independent culture. Picture postcards developed with railroads and mass travel. (akg-images)
41Marxism and the Socialist Movement Socialism had an important psychological impact on European society.May Day (Annual one day strike)The Second International lasted until 1914.Unions / RevisionismUnions worked on progressStandards of living rose / quality of life upUnions changed from illegal to legalGradual improvement not revolution the goalRevisionismThe sin of re-interpreting Marx in modern contextJean Jaures and example
42Nationalist and Socialist Movement Both philosophies emphasized the old order’s inability to provide a positive response to people’s needs.