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Europe between the Wars. Recovery from World War I A.Economic Problems 1.Europe near bankruptcy 2.Japan and US in good shape a)US expected debt to be.

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Presentation on theme: "Europe between the Wars. Recovery from World War I A.Economic Problems 1.Europe near bankruptcy 2.Japan and US in good shape a)US expected debt to be."— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe between the Wars

2 Recovery from World War I A.Economic Problems 1.Europe near bankruptcy 2.Japan and US in good shape a)US expected debt to be repaid B.End of Absolutism 1.Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia 2.New democracies unstable

3 Germany and the Weimar Republic A.Weak government B.Had to sign the Treaty of Versailles A.Took responsibility for war, had to pay reparations, lost territory B.Unpopular with people C.Article 48 – allowed for a dictator in times of crisis

4 D.Economic crisis 1.Did not raise taxes to pay for war 2.Printed more money to pay reparations a)Caused massive inflation i.1914 – 1 dollar = 4.2 marks ii.1921 – 1 dollar = 64 marks iii.1924 – 1 dollar = 800,000,000 marks 3.Dawes Plan – US plan to loan money to Germany


6 The Rest of Europe A.France – wanted reparations and to limit Germany B.Great Britain – was dealing with colonial issues (Ireland, India, the Commonwealth) C.United States 1.Wanted to be isolated

7 Post-War Treaties A.Locarno Pact (1924) 1.Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Great Britain 2.Promised that France and Germany would never fight another war 3.Germany promised to respect existing borders of Belgium and France 4.“Spirit of Locarno” - optimism

8 B.Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) 1.32 countries signed 2.Each country pledged to ‘denounce war as an instrument of national policy’ 3.No enforcement possible

9 Italy under Mussolini

10 Post World War I A.Italy joined to gain territory, but only gained a little B.Peasants and workers upset because expected more C.Created a strong Communist party

11 Fascism A.Features 1.Anti-democratic, anti-Marxist / anti- Communist, anti-liberal 2.Supported by the ‘little guy’ - middle class, small businessmen, small farmers 3.Strongly nationalistic and militaristic

12 Benito Mussolini A.Early Life 1.Socialist 2.Fought and wounded in WWI 3.After war, organized Fascists (Italian for ‘Bands of Combat’)

13 B.Rise to Power 1.Created a group of men called the “Black Shirts” – anti- Socialist thugs – made him popular with people

14 2.Black Shirt March (1922) A.Led March on Rome B.Government resigned C.King appointed Mussolini Prime Minister and given dictatorial power for one year

15 C.Mussolini in Power 1.1924 – abolished freedom of the press, arrested political opponents, fixed elections, created a Fascist youth group

16 2.Lateran Agreement (1929) – Vatican recognized as independent state A.Made popular with church and Catholics 3.Women expected to be mothers – Bachelors taxed 4.No ill treatment of Jews until Hitler in power

17 Hitler and the Nazis

18 Hitler - Early Life A.Austrian B.Dropped out of high school – moved to Vienna to pursue art school – rejected and moved to Munich C.World War I 1.Joined war 2.Wounded 3.Said the war gave his life meaning

19 Hitler – Post-War A.Stayed in Munich and joined German Workers Party (later National Socialist German Workers Party – Nazi) B.Blamed Jews, Marxists, and democrats for losing war

20 Beer Hall Putsch (1923) A.Inspired by Mussolini’s March on Rome B.Hitler and Nazis tried to take over the government of Bavaria C.Put on trial where he denounced the Weimar Republic and gained a lot of sympathy from the judges and the press D.Received a light sentence – 5 years – but only served nine months

21 Road to Power A.In prison 1.He decided to take power legitimately instead of through a coup 2.Wrote “Mein Kampf” (My Struggle) A.Race B.Lebensraum – Living Space C.Fuhrer – leader/dictator with unlimited power B.1924 – 1929 1.Built up party membership but never widely popular

22 The Nazis A.Mass political movement 1.Flags, badges, uniforms 2.Youth Group 3.SA – Stormtroopers (Brown Shirts)

23 Build Up to World War II

24 Timeline 1933 –Hitler named Chancellor –Germany withdrew from League of Nations 1935 –Hitler announced rearmament and creation of an air force (Luftwaffe) –Italy invaded Ethiopia and League of Nations did nothing 1936 –Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland –Best chance to stop Hitler

25 1936 –Spanish Civil War Spain a republic since 1931 General Francisco Franco led Nationalists in revolt against government Italy and Germany helped Nationalists USSR supported Loyalists (left), but no help from Great Britain or France Guernica Nationalists won by 1939

26 1936 –Rome-Berlin Axis Pact Mussolini drew closer to Hitler because of Spanish Civil War 1938 –Anschluss (annexation) of Austria Austrians voted to join Germany Violated Treaty of Versailles – nothing done

27 –Czechoslovak Crisis (1938) Many Germans live in Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia – Hitler wanted them to join Germany Hitler threatened to annex Sudetenland and Czechololooslovakia

28 Munich Conference (Sept 1938) –Hitler, Mussolini, Neville Chamberlain (Great Britain), France – no Stalin –Choice – war or sacrifice Czechoslovakia –Hitler allowed to annex Sudetenland if promise not to take Czechoslovakia

29 1939 –Hitler took Czechoslovakia (March) –Mussolini conquered Albania –Hitler demanded access to E. Prussia and Danzig, Poland returned to Germany –Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact August 1939 Promised not to fight each other –Germany invaded Poland (Sept 1, 1939)

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