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Patterns of Industrialization 1750-1914. Foundations of Industrialization Coal critical to early indust. of Britain –Shift from wood to coal in 18 th.

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Presentation on theme: "Patterns of Industrialization 1750-1914. Foundations of Industrialization Coal critical to early indust. of Britain –Shift from wood to coal in 18 th."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patterns of Industrialization

2 Foundations of Industrialization Coal critical to early indust. of Britain –Shift from wood to coal in 18 th C; deforestation –Abundant, accessible coal reserves Overseas colonies = raw materials –Plantations in Americas: sugar & cotton –Colonies= British manufactured goods market –After 1830, grain, timber, & beef shipped to Britain from US

3 Foundations of Industrialization, con’d Demand for cheap cotton spurred mechanization –John Kay, 1733 (flying shuttle) –Samuel Crompton, 1779 (spinning mule) –Edmund Cartwright, 1785 (power loom) James Watt  steam engine, 1765 –Burned coal, which turned a piston, which turned a wheel –Widespread use by 1800=increased productivity, cheaper prices

4 Yet more industrial foundations Iron & steel important industries –Coke (purified coal) replaced charcoal –Bessemer converter (1856) made cheaper, stronger steel Improved transportation –1 st steam-powered locomotive, 1815 –Steamships replace sailing ships, mid-19 th C –Railroads & steamships lowered transportation costs

5 The Factory System Replaced the putting-out system –Required division of labor; everyone did single task –High degree of coordination, work discipline, close supervision Work conditions = harsh –Workers lost status: not skilled, just wage-earners –Harsh work discipline, fast pace, frequent accidents Industrial protest –Luddites struck against mills & destroyed machines,

6 More factory system The early spread of industrialization –Industrialization in western Europe British industrial monopoly, , forbade immigration of skilled workers Napoleon abolished internal trade barriers in W. Europe/dismantled trade guilds Belgium & France moved toward industrialization, mid-19 th C After unification, Bismark sponsored heavy industry, arms, shipping

7 More factory system The early spread of industrialization –In North America, slow to start; few laborers; little capital British craftsmen started cotton textile industry in New England, 1820s Heavy iron & steel industries, 1870s Rail network developed in 1860s

8 More factory systems Industrial capitalism –Mass production promoted cheaper goods Eli Whitney: interchangeable parts for firearms Henry Ford (1913): assembly line to car production –Industrialization expensive; large-capital investment Encouraged large-scale corporations w/ hundreds of investors New laws protected investors from liability –Monopolies, trusts, cartels Competitive associations

9 Industrial Society The fruits of industry –Population growth Raised material standards for living Populations of Europe & America sharply rose, Better diets & sanitation reduced death rates –Demographic transition Declining birthrate in response to declining mortality Voluntary birth control through contraception

10 Industrial Society Urbanization and migration –Drew migrants from country to urban centers By 1900, 50% of population of industrialized countries lived in towns By 1900, more than 150 cities with over 100,000 people in Europe & N. America Urban problems: shoddy houses, etc. By late 19 th C., gov’t passed building codes, sewers –Transcontinental migration , 50 million Europeans migrated to N & S America Fled: famine in Ireland, anti-Semitism in Russia, etc.

11 Industrial Society Industry & society –New social classes Captains of industry: new aristocracy of wealth Middle class: managers, etc. Working class –Changes to industrial family Long hours outside home Increasingly separate lives

12 Industrial society Industry & society –Men gained increased stature & responsibility Middle & upper-class sole providers Valued self-improvement, discipline, & work ethic Values on working-class men –Workers resisted work discipline –Working-class culture

13 Industrial society Industry & society –Opportunities for women narrowed Can’t bring children to mines or factories Middle-class women need to stay home & care for children Increased opportunities in domestic service –Many children forced to work to support family 1840s Parliament begins regulating child labor 1881, mandatory primary education in England

14 Industrial society The Socialist Challenge –Utopian socialists: Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, & their followers Established model communities based on principle of equality Stressed cooperative control of industry, education of children

15 Industrial society Socialist challenge –Marx ( ) and Engels ( ) Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic & unproductive Critique industrial capitalism –Unrestrained competition led to ruthless exploitation of working class –State, court, police: all tools of the capitalist ruling class –The Communist Manifesto, 1848 Excesses of capitalism would lead communist revolution “dictatorship of the proletariat” Socialism would follow: fair, just, egalitarian society Ideas dominated European and international socialism

16 Industrial Society Socialist challenge: –Social reform came gradually Regulated hours & restricted work for women & children Under Bismark, Germany provided medical insurance & social security –Trade unions formed to represent workers Stiff opposition from employers & governments Forced employers to be more responsive to needs

17 Global effects of industrialization Continuing spread beyond Europe & N. America –Industrialization of Russia by tsarist gov’t Between , built 35,000 miles of RR Finance minister, Sergei Witte, promoted industry –Oversaw construction of tran-Siberian RR –Reformed commercial law to protect industries & steamship companies –Promoted nautical & engineering schools –Encouraged foreign investors By 1900, Russia produced ½ the world’s oil, also iron & armaments

18 Global effects of industrialization Continuing spread beyond Europe & N. America –Industrialization in Japan also promoted by gov’t Hired thousands of foreign experts to establish modern industries Created new industries; opened technical institutes & universities Government-owned businesses then sold to private entrepreneurs (zaibatsu) Japan most industrialized in Asia by 1900

19 Global effects of industrialization International division of labor –Increased demand for raw materials Non-industrial societies became suppliers of raw goods Cotton from India; rubber from Brazil, Malay, & Congo River basin –Economic development better in lands colonized by Europe High-wages encouraged labor-saving tech

20 Global effects of industrialization International division of labor –Economic dependency more common in other countries Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, S. Asia, SE Asia Foreign investors owned & controlled plantations & production Free-trade policy favored foreign products over domestic World divided into producers & consumers


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