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1 USING ASA CITATION STYLE  20citations.pdf 20citations.pdf 

2 Charlotte Perkins Gilman The glory of our race is its power of communication. We share our strength and knowledge and rise as one; we share our failure and weakness and help each other bear it.“ Charlotte Perkins Gilman, "Our Place Today," 1891

3 Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) Famous American family  Aunt Harriet Beecher Stowe: Wrote 30 books (Uncle Tom’s Cabin)  Aunt Isabella: Active in the women's suffrage movement  Henry Ward Beecher: Active in abolitionist movement  Catharine Beecher: Founded many schools for young women & was a prolific author

4 Marriage and Motherhood  Born in 1860  Committed suicide in 1935 when cancer prevented her from working  Father abandoned her & her mother  Financial strain on them  Educated herself  Married Charles Walter Stetson, a painter  They had a daughter

5 Marriage and Motherhood  Post-partum depression  Stay at home cure  Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper  Friendly divorce in 1894  Daughter lived with father  Married G. Houghton Gilman in 1900

6 Other Relationships & Influences  Jane Addams:  Both supported democracy & education for social improvement  Both rejected conflict & revolution for equality  Gillman disagreed with Addams’ focus on underprivileged & pathology  Gillman’s focus was all people in society

7 Other Influences  George Bernard Shaw  British Fabian Socialist An upper middle-class intellectual group Sought social improvement through: Education of a few powerful British government officials Not revolution Lead reforms from within government Work within the social structure rather than building a new one

8 Sidney & Beatrice Webb  Gilman was influenced by Webbs’ writings on the economy  Webbs’ views on non-revolutionary change  They were also Fabian Socialists

9 Gilman’s Ideas  Democracy & education for social reform  Supported cooperative socialism  Emphasized education for all  Social reforms: Child-rearing professionals Meal preparation professionals

10 Gilman’s Ideas  Views on Gender: Three Themes 1) Excellence of women’s values & abilities 2) Belief in biological & evolutionary origin of women’s superior attributes 3) Socialist’s vision of political & social equality between men & women

11 Gilman’s Views on Gender  Men & women born equal Difference is socially created  Overemphasize women as: Maternal Sex objects

12 Gilman’s Views on Gender  Society does not benefit from women’s other talents & qualities such as:  Cooperation  Peacefulness

13 Gilman’s Ideas  Reform Darwinism  Social Darwinism combined: Survival of the fittest with support for status quo, individualism, & capitalism  Reform Darwinism emphasized the evolution of cooperation and caring (not survival of fittest)  Cooperation is good for society & produces progress  Progress includes gender cooperation

14 Gilman’s Ideas Cultural Feminism  Historically women were equal or superior to men  Five stage theory of societal evolution 1. Asexuality to sexuality (appearance of males) 2. Males become superior in size & strength 3. Society changes from matriarchy to patriarchy 4. Monogamous mating 5. Eventually (future), women become free economically & socially

15 Gilman’s Ideas Socialism:  Gillman agreed with Marx that work was basic  Women needed to be economically independent  More a critic of capitalism than proponent of socialism  Professionals should do parenting rather than amateurs  Food should be mass-produced in cooperative kitchens  Focus on collective & cooperative activity

16 Gilman’s Ideas Functionalism  Society is made of individual parts  Interrelated  Specialized functions  Society is based on cooperation

17 Gilman’s Ideas Summary  Gillman wanted men & women to experience fulfillment  Possible to make society good  Society was cooperative, evolutionary, & could be reformed  Supported women’s right to vote  Writings encouraged people to change their behavior

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