Presentation on theme: "Disharmony cities; rich, elites, companies Periphery Third world, & since 1990, Second world countries Center First world countries rural areas; workers,"— Presentation transcript:
disharmony cities; rich, elites, companies Periphery Third world, & since 1990, Second world countries Center First world countries rural areas; workers, farmers, poor cities; rich, elites, multi-nationals Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model center periphery center periphery rural areas; workers, farmers, poor harmony Richest 10% of Latin Americans take 48% of total national incomes. Brazil: 3% of pop (190 million) own 66% of arable land. 35,000 families control 50% of farmland. Poorest 10% of Latin Americans get 1.6% of total national incomes. Richest 10 % in the First World take 29% of total national incomes. USA, the richest 20% consume 60%; the poorest 20% consume 3%. Poorest 10% in the First World get 2.5 % of total national incomes.
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Examples Center-center: all of the US intelligence budget & 40 % of the defense budget is secret. CIA devoted $28 billion to study the Soviet Union (USSR), yet in the 1980s they never noticed the economic collapse of the USSR. Center-center: US budget for international affairs: 93% to Pentagon; 7% to State Department. Center-center: 1.4 million US military people around the world in 725 military bases from Iceland to Japan. Center-center: British empire on the eve of the World War I had a trade surplus of 7% of GDP; USA, for the last 15 years, has had a trade deficit of 5% every year – imperial overreach? periphery center Other examples The top 10 percent of Chinese households have 57 percent of national income. South Africa is the most unequal society in the world. The top 10 percent of households (almost all Whites) pocketed 58 percent of the national income United States
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Three Stages of Imperialism 1) plunder 2) barter 3) monetary exchange: Since World War II, the USA has dominated world financial institutions, such as the World Bank and Internal Monetary Fund (IMF), world trade organizations (GATT and WTO), and regional trade associations (NAFTA and FTAA). Meanwhile, illegal, or underground, economies play important roles: 8% of GDP in USA; 22% in Italy; 25% in Greece In 2008, 72 % of Americans haggled compared with 56 % in 2007. They were successful about 80 % of the time.
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Five Types of Imperialism 1) economic: A) U.S. blockades of Cuba and Nicaragua in violation of United Nation resolutions B) U.S. security inspections in major ports around the world (Would the U.S. allow other countries to inspects its ports?)
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Five Types of Imperialism l economic: US blockades of Cuba, Nicaragua, etc. in violation of United Nation resolution l economic: income inequality around the world l political: Chile, 1973 – 400 USA CIA agents assisted Augusto Pinochet, commander-in-chief of the army, to kill President Salvador Allende and overthrow his freely elected socialist government. U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger said: Chilean people were irresponsible in voting for Allende!
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Five Types of Imperialism 2) political: Chile, 1973 – 400 USA CIA agents assisted Augusto Pinochet, commander-in-chief of the army, to kill President Salvador Allende and overthrow his freely elected socialist government. U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger said: “Chilean people were irresponsible in voting for Allende”! 3) military: U.S. invasions in... Vietnam ($500 billion) Panama (3,000 killed) Grenada ( 1983, President Ronald Reagan wanted to get rid of socialist govt. United Nations General Assembly condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law“),United Nations General Assemblyinternational law Afghanistan (dead: 70,000 Afghans & 3,400 U.S. soldiers; $2 trillion costs) Iraq ($2.2 trillion, including veterans’ medial and disability costs)
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model The United States has 730 military bases around the world View another map of U.S. involvement.another map
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model As imperial power, Britain has invaded all the countries shown in red, except 22 (not shown: Sao Tome and Principe)!
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Five Types of Imperialism 4) communication, e.g., U.S. computer expertise, air travel are all in English (heritage of the British empire) 5) cultural, e.g., movies, music: l U.S. movies 83% of global cinema box-office revenues l U.S. software is so popular that much of it is illegally copied in countries like China, India, Russia, and Brazil.
Extra Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Summary of US Imperialism in Latin America Mexico lost about half its territory to the United States in the war of 1846-48. Only 11% of the Mexicans have mainly a favorable view USA. Cubans resent the United States ever since 1898, when their hard- and long-fought war of independence against Spain was stolen from them by the yanquis in the Spanish-American War. The United States had made some 30 military interventions in and around the Caribbean by the early 20 th century, many of them under Smedley Butler, a marine corps general, who summed up his career and the attitude of the USA government: “I helped make Honduras “right” for American fruit companies in 1903. I helped make Mexico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-12. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916.”