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Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Nils Petter Gleditsch Centre for the Study of Civil War (CSCW at International Peace Research Institute, Oslo.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Nils Petter Gleditsch Centre for the Study of Civil War (CSCW at International Peace Research Institute, Oslo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Nils Petter Gleditsch Centre for the Study of Civil War (CSCW at International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) & Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology An irreverent history of peace research Henrik-Steffens-Vorlesung, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,3 June 2008

2 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Two anniversaries 2009: PRIO at : The ISA at 50 What happened to peace? What happened to peace research?

3 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Armed conflicts 1946–2006 Data from Harbom & Wallensteen (2007) and

4 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Battle deaths, 1946–2005

5 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Periodization Pre-history ( –1959) The behavioral revolution (1959–68) The socialist revolution (1968–78) The wilderness years (1978–89) The post-Cold War years (1989– ) The liberal peace – or? (2001– )

6 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Themes Academic disciplines Methodology School in IR Politics Institutionalization The concept of peace

7 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Pre-history (until the late 1950s) Law, history, philosophy, political science Traditional methodology, essayistic, legalistic Realist thinking (deterrence, alliance politics) Politically pro-West (traditionalism) Beginning institutionalization (Royal Institute …, NGOs) Avoid war (at most), peace not a serious academic concept

8 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history The behavioral revolution (1959–68+) Sociology, economics, etc., multi-disciplinary ideal Quantitative methodology (statistics, mathematical modeling) Liberal thinking (modernization, integration, nonviolent norms); Gandhian influence Politically neutral (pacifism); analogy to medicine Rapid institutionalization ( JCR, CCR, PRIO, JPR, IPRA, PRS/PSS, chairs) Negative peace (avoid war) and positive (integration)

9 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history The socialist revolution (1968–78) Trans-disciplinary ideal (but: ascendance of political science) Liberation methodology (invariance-breaking) Radical thinking (dependency, marxism, structural) Politically pro-East (revisionism), pro-South (third- worldism); research (for the underdogs) Conquer or destroy institutions (Denmark, chairs in peace research) Peace as negation of direct and structural violence

10 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history The wilderness years (1979–89) A subfield of political science? Weak methodology (anything goes) Radicalism becomes traditionalism Politically correct with declining faith Trying to save or to patch up institutions Peace as anything

11 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history The post-Cold War years (1989– ) Multiple backgrounds (cross-d., not trans-d.) Pluralist methodology (post-modern challenge) Neoliberal thinking (the liberal peace) Apolitically pro-West (only game in town) De-institutionalization, privatization, individualism, new emphasis on academic quality Peace as reduction of direct violence; lasting peace

12 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history The liberal peace – or? (2001– ) Competing challenges The temporary peace Hegemonic peace Clash of civilizations Sustainable peace The virtual peace The male peace Capitalist peace

13 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Boulding's three forms of power Threat power (destruction) Economic power (exchange) Integrative power (legitimacy)

14 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history Integrative power

15 Environmental Conflict?An irreverent history - or?


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