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1 Origins of Progressive Reform: Municipal, State, and National and Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson as Progressive Presidents.

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1 1 Origins of Progressive Reform: Municipal, State, and National and Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson as Progressive Presidents

2 2 The Bull Moose Party In the election of 1912, former president Theodore Roosevelt split the Republican Party when he lost the nomination to William Howard Taft. In the election of 1912, former president Theodore Roosevelt split the Republican Party when he lost the nomination to William Howard Taft. In response to the claim that Roosevelt was no longer fit for the office, he responded that he was "fit as a bull moose;" it was from this comment that the Progressive Party received its nickname. In response to the claim that Roosevelt was no longer fit for the office, he responded that he was "fit as a bull moose;" it was from this comment that the Progressive Party received its nickname. The Progressives substantially overshadowed the Republicans in the election, but never again regained the amount of support garnered in the 1912 election, primarily due to adjustments on behalf of both of the mainstream parties. The Progressives substantially overshadowed the Republicans in the election, but never again regained the amount of support garnered in the 1912 election, primarily due to adjustments on behalf of both of the mainstream parties.

3 3 Socialism The Progressive movement was not the only reform movement in play at the turn of the century; the Socialists were also growing in prominence. Often at odds with Progressives, the Socialists followed a different ideology, ranging from radicalism to social democracy. Eugene V. Debs was the most prominent Socialist of his time; he was promoted as the Socialist candidate for the presidency 5 times.

4 4Tariffs Tariffs were one of the most salient and contentious issues in Progressive era politics; they were the largest source of income for the United States government through the end of World War I. Tariffs were one of the most salient and contentious issues in Progressive era politics; they were the largest source of income for the United States government through the end of World War I. For this reason, the rate of tariffs varied dramatically over the turn of the century and throughout the course of Progressive presidencies, each man tailoring the tariff rates to his specific ideology. For this reason, the rate of tariffs varied dramatically over the turn of the century and throughout the course of Progressive presidencies, each man tailoring the tariff rates to his specific ideology.

5 5 Trade Regulation The first time government regulated business was in 1887 when the Interstate Commerce Act was passed. The first time government regulated business was in 1887 when the Interstate Commerce Act was passed. Many farmers in the Western half of the country resented the control that the railroads exerted over them, they set the prices for shipping at will and often much higher than market value. Many farmers in the Western half of the country resented the control that the railroads exerted over them, they set the prices for shipping at will and often much higher than market value. Regulation was first attempted at the state level, but the laws were deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Regulation was first attempted at the state level, but the laws were deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. The Interstate Commerce Act effectively created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), the first federal regulatory commission. The Interstate Commerce Act effectively created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), the first federal regulatory commission. Designed to keep the railroads from forming monopolies and employing unfair business practices, the Act mandated reasonable, published shipping rates and outlawed price discrimination and secret rebates to preferred customers. Designed to keep the railroads from forming monopolies and employing unfair business practices, the Act mandated reasonable, published shipping rates and outlawed price discrimination and secret rebates to preferred customers. The responsibilities of the ICC expanded to include worker safety and anti discrimination through two subsequent acts, Elkins Act of 1903 and the Mann-Elkins Act of The responsibilities of the ICC expanded to include worker safety and anti discrimination through two subsequent acts, Elkins Act of 1903 and the Mann-Elkins Act of 1920.

6 6 Trust Busting Along with the rise of industry and corporations in America, was the emergence of trusts and monopolies, business entities that aimed to control an entire market in order to manipulate prices and garner profits significantly higher than the market would allow. Along with the rise of industry and corporations in America, was the emergence of trusts and monopolies, business entities that aimed to control an entire market in order to manipulate prices and garner profits significantly higher than the market would allow. Senator John Sherman initially introduced the legislation to prevent trusts from forming to protect the American Consumer. Senator John Sherman initially introduced the legislation to prevent trusts from forming to protect the American Consumer. Although Theodore Roosevelt is most closely associated with trust busting, William Howard Taft and William McKinley both played major roles in the era, by beginning anti-trust proceedings and initiating the Industrial Commission on Trusts. Although Theodore Roosevelt is most closely associated with trust busting, William Howard Taft and William McKinley both played major roles in the era, by beginning anti-trust proceedings and initiating the Industrial Commission on Trusts.

7 7 The first, United States v E. C. Knight Co., decided in 1895, was the first case heard by the Supreme Court concerning the Sherman Anti- Trust Act. The first, United States v E. C. Knight Co., decided in 1895, was the first case heard by the Supreme Court concerning the Sherman Anti- Trust Act. The Court decided that the Legislature did not have the authority to regulate the monopoly in question and it effectively limited the government’s power over them. The Court decided that the Legislature did not have the authority to regulate the monopoly in question and it effectively limited the government’s power over them. The second, Northern Securities v United States, decided in 1904, determined that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was sufficient to regulate a monopoly, overturning the earlier E.C. Knight Co. decision. The second, Northern Securities v United States, decided in 1904, determined that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was sufficient to regulate a monopoly, overturning the earlier E.C. Knight Co. decision. Northern Securities was a railroad conglomerate formed by the financiers JP Morgan, James Hill, JD Rockefeller, and EH Harriman and essentially controlled all rail lines in the northern portion of the United States. The decision dissolved the trust. Northern Securities was a railroad conglomerate formed by the financiers JP Morgan, James Hill, JD Rockefeller, and EH Harriman and essentially controlled all rail lines in the northern portion of the United States. The decision dissolved the trust. The third decision listed is that of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v United States from The third decision listed is that of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v United States from The company was found guilty of intentionally monopolizing the petroleum market and forced to split into multiple competing organizations. The company was found guilty of intentionally monopolizing the petroleum market and forced to split into multiple competing organizations.

8 8 Coal Strike 1902 In 1902, the United Mine Workers of America launched a strike in the Anthracite coalfields in eastern Pennsylvania that effectively changed the government’s relationship with labor and corporations. In 1902, the United Mine Workers of America launched a strike in the Anthracite coalfields in eastern Pennsylvania that effectively changed the government’s relationship with labor and corporations. Whereas no coal was being mined and the nation used coal to heat homes, and in light of the coming winter, the president was forced to intervene to prevent a national disaster. Whereas no coal was being mined and the nation used coal to heat homes, and in light of the coming winter, the president was forced to intervene to prevent a national disaster.

9 9 Conservation The Conservation Movement began in the late 19th century, but enjoyed greater support through legislation, such as the Forest Reserve Act and the Newlands Reclamation Act, during the early 20th century. The conservation movement was supported by Theodore Roosevelt and promoted the protection of forests “for the greater good for the greatest length.” Conservationists wanted to use lands for public activities and commercial endeavors, whereas an offshoot group, the preservationists, wanted the lands to be preserved for their natural beauty, scientific study, and recreation. "Public opinion throughout the United States has moved steadily toward a just appreciation of the value of forests, whether planted or of natural growth."

10 10Muckrakers A muckraker, in the early 19th century, was a journalist who investigated and exposed societal issues, usually amid a flurry of controversy and with the goal of reform. A muckraker, in the early 19th century, was a journalist who investigated and exposed societal issues, usually amid a flurry of controversy and with the goal of reform. The term is credited to Theodore Roosevelt who was in favor of the muckraking journalists; he said of them in a speech : “There are, in the body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and there is urgent necessity for the sternest war upon them. There should be relentless exposure of and attack upon every evil man whether politician or business man, every evil practice, whether in politics, in business, or in social life. I hail as a benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, with merciless severity makes such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers that the attack is of use only if it is absolutely truthful." The term is credited to Theodore Roosevelt who was in favor of the muckraking journalists; he said of them in a speech : “There are, in the body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and there is urgent necessity for the sternest war upon them. There should be relentless exposure of and attack upon every evil man whether politician or business man, every evil practice, whether in politics, in business, or in social life. I hail as a benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, with merciless severity makes such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers that the attack is of use only if it is absolutely truthful."

11 11 The excerpts below are from two of the better known muckrakers. The excerpts below are from two of the better known muckrakers. The first is a selection from Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle” which describes the conditions of the meat packing industry and was directly related to both the Meat Inspection and Pure Food and Drug Acts. The first is a selection from Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle” which describes the conditions of the meat packing industry and was directly related to both the Meat Inspection and Pure Food and Drug Acts. The second is a selection from Ida Tarbell’s “History of the Standard Oil Company” that exposed the ways big business attempted to circumvent anti-trust legislation an still maintain a monopoly. The second is a selection from Ida Tarbell’s “History of the Standard Oil Company” that exposed the ways big business attempted to circumvent anti-trust legislation an still maintain a monopoly. "the other men who worked in tank-rooms full of steam, and in some of which there were open vats near the level of the floor, their peculiar trouble was that they fell into the vats; and when they were fished out, there was never enough of them left to be worth exhibiting,—sometimes they would be overlooked for days, till all but the bones of them had gone out to the world as Durham’s Pure Leaf Lard!"-The Jungle "the other men who worked in tank-rooms full of steam, and in some of which there were open vats near the level of the floor, their peculiar trouble was that they fell into the vats; and when they were fished out, there was never enough of them left to be worth exhibiting,—sometimes they would be overlooked for days, till all but the bones of them had gone out to the world as Durham’s Pure Leaf Lard!"-The Jungle "As for independent pipelines, there were so many ways of "discouraging" their building that it did not seem probable that any one would ever go far. It was only a matter of time, then, when all remaining outside refiners must come into his fold or die."-History of the Standard Oil Company "As for independent pipelines, there were so many ways of "discouraging" their building that it did not seem probable that any one would ever go far. It was only a matter of time, then, when all remaining outside refiners must come into his fold or die."-History of the Standard Oil Company

12 12 Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. was the 26th president of the United States of America, rising to power following the assassination of William McKinley. The Republican Party bosses attempted to marginalize his influence by making him vice president, a presumed dead-end position, but their plan backfired with the death of his predecessor. Roosevelt was a Progressive reformer who wanted to bring conservative ideals into the 20th century. In the 1912 election, he split from the mainstream party and created the Bull Moose platform, running for the presidency on a third party ticket.

13 13 William Howard Taft William Howard Taft became the 27th President of the United States of America after Theodore Roosevelt refused the Republican nomination for president in the 1908 election. William Howard Taft became the 27th President of the United States of America after Theodore Roosevelt refused the Republican nomination for president in the 1908 election. Taft was a Progressive, however, his policies differed from mainstream Progressive politics. Taft was a Progressive, however, his policies differed from mainstream Progressive politics. He was more focused on the legal aspect of the ideology, rarely confronting business practices in his speeches, but initiating at least 90 anti-trust suits. He was more focused on the legal aspect of the ideology, rarely confronting business practices in his speeches, but initiating at least 90 anti-trust suits. Taft is very closely associated with his goals for tariff reform, of which he spoke often, and his advancements in foreign policy. Taft is very closely associated with his goals for tariff reform, of which he spoke often, and his advancements in foreign policy.

14 14 Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson was the 28th president of the United States of America, elected during the highly contested election of A Democrat, but a Progressive president nonetheless, Wilson is most recognized for his regulation of the monetary system having pursued the Federal Reserve Act of Instead of pursuing multiple anti-trust suits, as did his predecessors, Wilson encouraged competition through monetary policy and the Federal Trade Commission. Whereas the legislation previously in place had begun to set a legal precedent, that which Wilson initiated created governing bodies that could be held responsible for the rules set in place.

15 15 Election of 1912 The Presidential election of 1912 was greatly affected by the introduction of the third party ticket, with former president Theodore Roosevelt running for the Progressive Party (Bull Moose), against the Republican incumbent William Howard Taft, and the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson. The Presidential election of 1912 was greatly affected by the introduction of the third party ticket, with former president Theodore Roosevelt running for the Progressive Party (Bull Moose), against the Republican incumbent William Howard Taft, and the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson. Many say that Roosevelt split the Republican vote allowing Wilson to win the presidency, but his party also appealed to many Democrats, from whom he also received a number of votes. Many say that Roosevelt split the Republican vote allowing Wilson to win the presidency, but his party also appealed to many Democrats, from whom he also received a number of votes. Roosevelt made a good showing, but fell in second place, while Taft came in a distant third. Wilson garnered the majority of both the popular and electoral votes. Roosevelt made a good showing, but fell in second place, while Taft came in a distant third. Wilson garnered the majority of both the popular and electoral votes.

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