Presentation on theme: "Contemporary Western Political Ideology Introduction I. About the terms of contemporary, modern and ancient. II. About the term “contemporary western political."— Presentation transcript:
Contemporary Western Political Ideology Introduction I. About the terms of contemporary, modern and ancient. II. About the term “contemporary western political ideology”: the French Destutt de Tracy ( 特拉西， 1754 一 1836), a French Enlightenment aristocrat and philosopher coined the term “ideology", which means science of ideas, taking perception as basis of ideas (perception, memory, judgment, volition), in contrast to "psychological," sides of humanity.FrenchEnlightenmentaristocrat III. About the Contemporary Political ideology by Andrew Vincent ( 安德鲁 · 文森特, Professor of Political Theory, University of Sheffield) : Nature of ideology, liberalism, conservatism, socialism, anarchism, fascism, feminism, ecologism, nationalism and iconolatry and iconoclasm. IV. Concept of “contemporary western political ideology” used in the textbook, see P. 2. V. Contents of “contemporary western political ideology” defined in the textbook: 1. Theoretical basis for “contemporary western political ideology”; 2. Basic values; 3. Perspectives on the realistic social and political issues; 4. Opinions about ideal social and political life, institution, principles and policies; 5. The ways for realizing an ideal society.
VI. Historicity and regionalism of “contemporary western political ideology” VII. Social and historical background for the formation of “contemporary western political ideology”: 1. Reflection on the intensification of economic and political contradictions in the liberal capitalism: Fascism, new liberalism (social liberalism, modern liberalism against classic liberalism), social democracy, welfare state and anarchism; 2. Reflection on the postwar society and politics: Christian democracy; 3. Reflection on the postindustrial society, economic globalism: New Left, new social movement, ecologism, feminism; 4. Reverse action against the New Left and civil right movement: modern conservatism, neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism, New Right. VIII. Features of the “contemporary western political ideology”: 1. Diversity; 2. Focus on capitalist and socialist ideologies; 3. Mutual conflict, reference and infiltration of various ideologies (conservative liberalism or center-left, liberal conservatism or center-right). IX. Guiding principles for studying and doing research on the “contemporary western political ideology”: assimilate the essence, reject the dross, and make foreign things serve China.
John Locke Edmund Burke John Stuart Mill Thomas Hill Green John Dewey ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Leonard Trelawny John Bordley Rawls Friedrich Hayek Milton Friedman Daniel Bell Hobhouse ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Samuel P. Huntington György Lukács Antonio Gramsci Herbert Marcuse Mary Wollstonecraft ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Chapter One Liberalism
Section One Liberalism: An Introduction I. Formation and development of liberalism: the classic liberalism, economic liberalism, utilitarianism, new liberalism, neoliberalism. 1. Bourgeois revolution, Renaissance, Enlightenment, innate rights of man and natural rights 2. Major scholars: John Locke, Adam Smith, Kant, Humboldt, Montesquieu, Constant, Tocqueville, John Mill 3. Principles of classic liberalism: human rights, limited government, rule by law, representative system, division of powers, separation of government and religion, consent of people, decision by majority 4. Utilitarianism: social and individual freedom. The intermediate between classic liberalism and new liberalism.
II. The rise of new liberalism 1. Historical background: free capitalism, monopolistic capitalism, welfare states 2. British new liberals (modern or social liberals): Thomas Hill Green ( 格林, , an English philosopher, political radical and temperance reformer, and a member of the British idealism movement, influenced by the metaphysical historicism of G.W.F. Hegel, a thinkers behind the philosophy of social liberalism; Social union is the indispensable condition of the development of the special capacities of its individual members ), John Atkinson Hobson ( 霍布森, , an English economist and critic of imperialism, In The Industrial System,he argued that maldistribution of income led, through oversaving and underconsumption, to unemployment and that the remedy lay in eradicating the "surplus" by the redistribution of income through taxation and the nationalization of monopolies ), Leonard Trelawney Hobhouse ( 霍布豪斯, , sociologist and philosopher, property was acquired not only by individual effort but by societal organization ), B. Bosanquet ( 博赞克特, , an English philosopher and political theorist, and an influential figure on matters of political and social policy in late 19th and early 20th century Britain. In Philosophical Theory of the State, he argued that the state is the real individual and that individual persons are unreal by comparison with it ), Ernest Barker ( 埃里克 - 巴克, , a liberal British political scientist ). Main viewpoint: positive liberalism. 3. American new liberals: Herbert Croly ( 克罗利, , in The Promise of American Life (1909) he looked to the conservative spirit of effective government as espoused by Alexander Hamilton, combined with the democracy of Thomas Jefferson ), John Dewey ( 杜威, , philosopher, educator and psychologist, most influential to both west and oriental cultures ), Woodrow Wilson ( 威尔逊， president ), Franklin Roosevelt ( 罗斯福 ). Main viewpoints: new individualism, social responsibility. Policies: new statism, new liberalism, New Deal, three Rs.
III. Two major kinds of postwar liberalism: New liberalism (Social Democracy carries out similar policy in Europe); conservative liberalism. Economic reforms: Keynesianism, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money ； War on poverty and New Frontier of Kennedy, Great Society of Johnson, Clinton’s and Obama’s third way; welfare states. Countertrend: Resurgence of classic liberalism and economic liberalism expressed by conservative liberalism, liberal conservatism, neoconservatism, neoliberalism and libertarianism in economics. Friedrich Hayek ， The Road to Serfdom; Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty; Sartory, The Theory of Democracy Revisited; Oakeshott, Rationalism in Politics. Neoliberalism in economics: Laffer’s supply side, Buchanan’s public choice, Coase’ and Narth’s neo-institutionalism, Nozick’s justice of holdings, Friedman’s minimal government. IV. Major differences between conservative liberalism and new liberalism: Rationalism vs. empiricism, positive liberalism vs. negative liberalism, governmental interference vs. free market, democratic participation vs. representative democracy (elitism).
Section Two: New Liberalism I. New individualism: Old individualism: Locke, Mill, emphasizing personal rights. New individualism ： Dewey, Individualism, Old and New; Hobhouse, Liberalism; emphasize sociality, social responsibility, cooperation, be gregarous. II. Positive liberalism (vs. negative liberalism, Berlin): Green, Liberal Legislation and Freedom of Contract; emphasizing cooperation and creativity, winning the rights; Hobhouse: positive state, citizen freedom, financial freedom, individual freedom, social freedom, economic freedom, family freedom, national freedom, international freedom. III. Governmental interference and welfare state: Green, Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation: common good; Hobhouse, Social Evolution and Political Theory, The Elements of Social Justice: national economic sovereignty, citizen wage (minimum wage, life wage, maximum Hours); Bosanquet, The Philosophical Theory of the State: public ownership of land; Keynes, The End of Laissez-fare: innate freedom and social contract do not exist; private interests do not conform to social interests; policy of laissez-fare brings about serious imbalance in distribution, increase of unemployment and failure of business expectancy.
IV. Justice and fair distribution: A theory of Justice by Rawls Principles of Justice First Principle: Liberty Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. Second Principle: Wealth Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity. V. Pluralist democracy: Robert Dahl, A Preface to Democratic Theory, Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy, On Democracy. A theory of polygarchy (interest group politics) against Madison and Rousseau; Institution of pluralist democracy (political market); Defects of the pluralist politics.
I. Value pluralism and the negative liberalism: Isaiah Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty （《自由四论》） Different values cannot be commonly measured, so personal freedom is reasonable; definition of negative liberalism and positive liberalism; criticism against positive liberalism. II. Criticism against planned economy and defects of welfare states Friedrich August Hayek （弗里德里希 · 奥古斯特 · 冯 · 哈耶克）, The Road to Serfdom ( 《通往奴役之路》 ): Economic cycles root in the changes of investment caused by the changes in credit. The stagnated inflation of the 1970s resulted from Keynesian policy. Socialism limited selfish motivation and cannot be efficient. Planned economy leads to governmental totalitarianism. Milton Friedman （米尔顿 · 弗里德曼）， Capitalism and Freedom （《资本主义与自由主义》）, Free to Choice （《自由选择》） Section Three Conservative Liberalism
III. Spontaneous order and limited government: Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty （法律、立法与自由》）, The Constitution of Liberty （《自由秩序原理》）, The Fatal Concept: Or the Errors of Socialism （《不幸的观念：或社会主义的错误》） : spontaneous order vs. Artificial order, constructive reason vs. evolutionary reason, private property is the basis for freedom, fairness and order. Friedman: Minimal government; free market, competitive capitalism, return to Adam Smith IV. Justice of holdings and criticism against justice of distribution: Hayek: Justice of distribution hinders individual freedom, destroys the rule by law and spontaneous order of market, criticism against the Universal Declaration of Human Right and other human right acts. Robert Nozick ( 罗伯特 · 诺齐克 ), Anarchy, State and Utopia （《无政 府、国家与乌托邦》） : Criticism against Rawls’ difference principle, justice of acquisition, justice of transfer, return to Locke （洛克）. V. Liberal democracy and constitutionalism: Giovanni Sartory （乔万 尼 · 萨托利）, The Theory of Democracy Revisited （《民主新论》） : Egalitarianism harms liberty, criticism against big government, return to constitutional government, liberal democracy. Hayek: Rule by law, criticism against positive jurisprudence and pluralist democracy, a constitutional model.
Chapter Two Social Democracy Introduction: Liberalism and socialism emerged simultaneously, interosculate and mutually conflict in the society of capitalism. They are both opposed to conservatism. The Fabian Society logo of 2008 evoked Edward Bernstein Karl Kautsky Aesop's fable, The Tortoise and the Hare. Official symbol of Socialist International
Section One Historical Development of Social Democracy I. Socialism and Social Democracy: 1. The early utopian socialism: Thomas More, Utopia, 1516; Campanella, City of the Sun, The utopian socialism in the early 1800s: Henri Saint-Simon, Joseph Fourier, Robert Owen. 3. Social democratic movements and thoughts against the discrimination and unfairness in capitalist democracy and economy: Demand for a universal suffrage and parliamentary system, chartist movement (People’s Charter), Louis Blanc ( ), Proudhon ( ), trade unionism (The British Trade Union Congress ）, AFL, CIO (Congress of Industrial Organization), KOL (Knights of Labor)), Lassalle ( , refer to Marx: Critique of the Gotha Program). 4. Marx, Engels and the Social Democrats 5. Reformism and revisionism: Fabianism, possibilists, Bernstein ( ), Berne International, Vienna International and Socialist Workers International (vs. Communist International or Commintern), Kautsky ( , Dictatorship of the Proletariat), Blum ( , The Popular Front ( 人民阵线, an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party, the French Section of the Workers' International and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period ), French prime minister of , 1938, ).left-wing
II. From social democracy to democratic socialism 1. Socialist International, Frankfurt Manifesto (1951), Godesberg Program (1959), Keynesianism, and the first climax of social democratic ruling ( the 1950s, political democracy, economic democracy, social democracy and international democracy ). 2. Nationalization, New Left and the second climax of social democratic ruling (the mid 1970s). 3. Crisis of welfare states, resurrection of conservatism, Berlin Program (SDP, 1989) and decline of democratic socialism. Anthony Crosland, The Future of Socialism; the Swedish functional socialism ( central directive and regulation socialism: corporatist (fascist) state economics, the running of the country by the state in cooperation with labor unions and confederations of employers ), fund socialism (employee investment fund) III. Return to social democracy (background: Reagan, Thatcher) 1. Francis Fukuyama (P.75), The End of History; Thomas Meyer, Introduction to Democratic Socialism-Social Democracy; “social democracy” replaces “democratic socialism”. 2. Thomas Meyer, Transition of Social Democracy; assimilation of social democracy and neo-liberalism. 3. Setbacks of neo-conservatism, the third way and the third climax of social democratic ruling: Bill Clinton and Tony Blaire; Anthony Giddens, The Third Way: the Renewal of Social Democracy.
Section Two ： Defects and Changes of Capitalism I. Defects of capitalism: 1. Gap of the rich and the poor resulting from the unrestrained private ownership and free market is in conflict with the capitalist promise of liberty, equality and universal love. 2. The reason for social democrats’ rejection of socialism (defects of state-owned and planned economy). II. New changes in capitalism: 1. Social democrats’ understanding of capitalism: A. About economic structure; B. About class structure: new middle class, stock company; C. About economic crisis: credit, trust, cartel, concern; D. About the poverty of workers. E. About class struggle: democracy promotes reforms for the benefits of laborers (labor legislation, trade unionism). 2. Social democrats’ understanding of contemporary capitalism: A. The nature of capitalist society has been changed (nationalization, socialization, welfare state, public goods); B. About class structure and class relationship: managerial revolution, white collar or new middle class; C. The nature of capitalist state has been changed: universal suffrage, the state as arbitrator and safeguard for public interest. III. Actual social problems: Berlin Program （柏林纲领）, new privileges, gender inequality, environmental and global economic issues, defects of welfare states.
Section Three Basic Values of Social Democracy I. Ethic foundation of socialism: 1. Return to Kant: Christianity, Hegel, Bernstein, existentialism, phenomenology, critical rationalism (“I suggest that the greatest step towards a better and more peaceful world was taken when the war of swords was first supported, and later sometimes even replaced, by a war of words.”- Karl Popper ), social critical theory ( an examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities. The term has two different meanings with different origins and histories: one originating in sociology and the other in literary criticism. ), neo-Kantianism ( The "back to Kant" movement began in the 1860s, as a reaction to the materialist controversy in German thought in the 1850s. The Neo-Kantian schools tended to emphasize scientific readings of Kant, often downplaying the role of intuition in favour of concepts. However the ethical aspects of Neo- Kantian thought often drew them within the orbit of socialism and they had an important influence on Austromarxism and the revisionism of Edward Bernstein. ); about Kant’s subjective idealism and subjectivist ethics.sociologyliterary criticism materialistsocialismAustromarxismEdward Bernstein 2. Power of ideas instead of economic necessity: A. Interest as an idea; B. Relative and utopian knowledge; C. Ethic consciousness or idea of right as a creative power. 3. Neo-Kantianist ethic socialism: As an absolute order, “man is goal” is a guideline and value source for socialist ethic; social conditions and institutions are means for realizing value goals. II. Basic values of socialism: 1. Liberty: New liberal idea of liberty. 2. Fairness: Comparable to John Rawls’ theory of justice. 3. Mutual aid: Expansion of Dewey’s new individualism.
Section four The Democratic Society of Social Democracy Frankurt Manifesto: Political democracy, economic democracy, social democracy and international democracy against capitalist democracy. I. Political democracy: A democracy based on human rights and pluralism. 1. Universal political freedom and democratic rights: James Harold Wilson (former British prime minister), The Relevance of British Socialism. 2. Multi-party system. 3. Intra- party democracy. 4. Corruption of west democracy: Den Uyl ( Prime Minister of the Netherlands from ). 5. Discursive democracy: based on deliberative democracy; Anthony Giddens, Politics beyond the Left and the Right. Democratized democracy (P.76). II. Economic democracy: Opposed to monopolization of economic power. Fritz Naphtali, Economic Democracy ( 1928, Germany ). 1. Mixed economy: Functional Socialism, Fund Socialism or financial socialism, Giddens’ mixed economy. 2. Social supervision: distribution of social responsibility, participation of government, unions in business management, supervision by public opinion.
III. Social democracy: 1. Democracy is a life style; poverty, oppression, repression and personal dependence in capitalist society. 2. New liberalist social democracy: Frankfurt Manifesto (1951), Berlin Program (1989). 3. Social democracy of the third way: A. Positive welfare; B. Cooperative and tolerant social relationship: Stakeholder; C. Democratic family: Democratized personal life, love democracy. IV. International democracy: 1. International cooperation against absolute sovereignty. 2. Opposed to any imperialism and oppression and exploitation against any peoples. 3. Giddens: Transition from nation-states to cosmic states: border, frontier. 4. Cultural pluralism and uncertain national identity. 5. Cosmic democracy and global governance.
Section Five The Democratic Way of Social Democracy I. Consensual revolution or peaceful revolution: Parliamentary way. II. The revisionist and reformist understanding of capitalism: Joop den Uyl ( 登厄伊尔, Prime Minister of the Netherlands, , member of the social-democratic Dutch Labour Party or PvdA) ， Bruno Kreisky ( 克莱 斯基, Chancellor of Austria, , Austrian Social Democratic Party ) ， 维 纳尔 ( 无法确认 ) III. It is only by their own democratic experience that people can establish a socialist democratic state; the right to self- determination; democracy as a life style. IV. Peaceful revolution is conditional. V. New middle class, white collar workers or the intermediate class as a leading force of the historical motive power in place of proletariat; Olof Palme ( 帕尔梅,Sweden Prime Minister, , ).