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Causes of WWII. Brain Tickler Why might leaders of and agitators within European nations E, S, P destroyed by the Great War turn to Existentialist Philosophy?

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of WWII. Brain Tickler Why might leaders of and agitators within European nations E, S, P destroyed by the Great War turn to Existentialist Philosophy?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of WWII

2 Brain Tickler Why might leaders of and agitators within European nations E, S, P destroyed by the Great War turn to Existentialist Philosophy? Why might leaders of and agitators within European nations E, S, P destroyed by the Great War turn to Existentialist Philosophy?

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4 Italy Post WWI Economic Crisis Economic Crisis Debt, Inflation, Unemployment Debt, Inflation, Unemployment Treaty of Versailles & Italian Resentment Treaty of Versailles & Italian Resentment Italian Nationalism: Ancient Roman Empire Italian Nationalism: Ancient Roman Empire Political Crisis – Too much Democracy Political Crisis – Too much Democracy Opportunities for Ideologues & Heroes Opportunities for Ideologues & Heroes Restore Confidence after Humiliation of WWI Restore Confidence after Humiliation of WWI

5 I will restore Italy’s pride and rebuild the great Roman Empire (shakes fist in air)! The new Italy will not be fooled by British and French promises of lands, we are self-reliant and we will take what is rightfully ours…. by force if necessary (crosses arms over chests and sticks chin out in great defiance)! Il Duce ! I’m too sexy for this hat, too sexy for this…..

6 Italian Fascism Extreme Nationalism Extreme Nationalism Militaristic & Expansionist Militaristic & Expansionist Anti-communist Anti-communist (class conflict) (class conflict) Rejects Liberalism & Democracy Rejects Liberalism & Democracy State vs. Individual State vs. Individual Corporate Syndicates Corporate Syndicates Totalitarian Single Party Dictatorship Totalitarian Single Party Dictatorship Authoritarian – “order” rather than “vague social justice” Control E,S, P institutions

7 Mussolini’s (Fasci) Rise to Power Socialist: Supported Italian entry into WWI Socialist: Supported Italian entry into WWI Fasci – Authoritarian – “order” rather than “vague social justice” Fasci – Authoritarian – “order” rather than “vague social justice” Futurist: Action, Modern, Violence Futurist: Action, Modern, Violence Futurist: Action, Modern, Violence Futurist: Action, Modern, Violence Black Shirts destroy socialist papers/attack party Black Shirts destroy socialist papers/attack party Work “outside” and inside Italian democracy Work “outside” and inside Italian democracy 1921 Party gaining influence (Local) 1921 Party gaining influence (Local) 1922 March on Rome (Given PM position) 1922 March on Rome (Given PM position) 1922 March on Rome 1922 March on Rome

8 How does Hitler’s Mein Kampf detail the Nazi goals/ambitions of a greater Germany?

9 Post WWI Diplomacy Reliance on Democracy to keep Peace Reliance on Democracy to keep Peace Defensive Measures (Diplomatic): Defensive Measures (Diplomatic): League of Nations League of Nations USA: Washington Naval Conf. (1922) USA: Washington Naval Conf. (1922) Dawes Plan (1924) - Reparations Dawes Plan (1924) - Reparations Dawes Plan (1924) - Reparations Dawes Plan (1924) - Reparations Locarno Pact (1925) Locarno Pact (1925) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Impact of Global Economic Depression Impact of Global Economic Depression Early 1930’s ‘national gov’ts’ exposes weaknesses of International “System” Early 1930’s ‘national gov’ts’ exposes weaknesses of International “System”

10 The Dawes Plan (Keynesian Econ.) Germany- $2B in reparations To Britain & France Britain & France $2.6B in war debts to U.S. U.S. loans $2.5B to German corporations

11 Western Democracies Coalition Governments – Resolve economic crisis, no real comprehensive (united) foreign policy Coalition Governments – Resolve economic crisis, no real comprehensive (united) foreign policy Britain’s ‘National Government’ Britain’s ‘National Government’ France’s ‘Popular Front’ France’s ‘Popular Front’ American New Deal (Roosevelt) American New Deal (Roosevelt) Relief, Recovery, Reform Relief, Recovery, Reform

12 Germany: The Rise of Hitler Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Mein Kampf (My Struggle) National Socialist Workers Party (Nazi) Fascism w/ racist ideology Economic, Social, Political reordering Revenge for WWI Revenge for WWI Stab in the Back Theory Treaty of Versailles & German rights Unification & Lebensraum (Living Space) Unification & Lebensraum (Living Space) Restoring German confidence Restoring German confidence

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14 Japanese Expansion Resistance to Western Imperialism Resistance to Western Imperialism Model: Western Industrial & Military Build Up Model: Western Industrial & Military Build Up Growth of Nationalism & Industrial Expansion (Resources / Self-sufficiency / Power) Growth of Nationalism & Industrial Expansion (Resources / Self-sufficiency / Power) Population Growth Population Growth Russo-Japanese War Russo-Japanese War Spheres of Influence (Manchuria & Korea) Spheres of Influence (Manchuria & Korea) WWI: League v. Independence, Equality? WWI: League v. Independence, Equality? Treaty Confirmed Western Arrogance/Power Treaty Confirmed Western Arrogance/Power

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16 Emperor Hirohito & Militarism “Cult of Personality” Cult of PersonalityCult of Personality

17 Japan (cont.) 1920’s & 1930’s Economic Collapse: 1920’s & 1930’s Economic Collapse: Hurt by Tariffs & Limited Resources/Markets Hurt by Tariffs & Limited Resources/Markets Internal Conflict: Liberalism vs. Dictatorship Internal Conflict: Liberalism vs. Dictatorship 1931: Manchuria (China): Western Reaction 1931: Manchuria (China): Western Reaction 1931: Manchuria (China): Western Reaction 1931: Manchuria (China): Western Reaction 1932 Coup: Militarists & Zaibatsus 1932 Coup: Militarists & Zaibatsus A nti-communist, Expansionist, Defiant A nti-communist, Expansionist, Defiant Economic growth = success of new direction Economic growth = success of new direction Instill Bushido Code & Shinto Instill Bushido Code & Shinto Destiny: Naval Build Up & Colonial Expansion Destiny: Naval Build Up & Colonial Expansion Despite Washington Naval Conference / West Despite Washington Naval Conference / West

18 War continued in East… Japanese Invasion of China 1937 Japanese Invasion of China

19 *Reality: Japan relied heavily on Western oil, steel & markets. In the late 1920’s Japanese military and industrial leaders began pushing for expansion into China’s rich resources.

20 Japanese Destiny 1931 Manchuria 1931 Manchuria League of Nations League of Nations U.S. reaction U.S. reaction Stimson Doctrine Stimson Doctrine 1937 Sino-Japanese Conflict 1937 Sino-Japanese Conflict 1937 Sino-Japanese Conflict 1937 Sino-Japanese Conflict Quarantine Speech Quarantine Speech Neutrality Acts Neutrality Acts Growing fears in U.S., Britain, USSR Growing fears in U.S., Britain, USSR ‘Allied’ Aid to China ‘Allied’ Aid to China

21 Allied National Agendas France: Domestic Economy, Maginot Line, Isolate Germany thru treaties & reparations, Empire France: Domestic Economy, Maginot Line, Isolate Germany thru treaties & reparations, Empire Britain: Focus on Domestic Economy & Empire Britain: Focus on Domestic Economy & Empire USA – FDR’s New Deal, Isolation, Public Opinion, & ‘Magic Wand’ USA – FDR’s New Deal, Isolation, Public Opinion, & ‘Magic Wand’ USSR (Stalin): Industrialization, Distrust of West & Purges USSR (Stalin): Industrialization, Distrust of West & Purges Scandinavian “Socialist” States Scandinavian “Socialist” States Eastern Europe: Dictatorships and Instability Eastern Europe: Dictatorships and Instability

22 The March of Nazi and Fascist Aggression Belligerents will challenge (gamble on) perceived Weakness/Disunity of WWI allies Belligerents will challenge (gamble on) perceived Weakness/Disunity of WWI allies 1933 Hitler pulls Germany out of L. of N Hitler pulls Germany out of L. of N Non-aggression pact w/ Poland 1934 Non-aggression pact w/ Poland 1934 Support Nazi putsch in Austria (Mussolini, not West challenged), failed 1934 Support Nazi putsch in Austria (Mussolini, not West challenged), failed 1935 Hitler denounces Treaty of Versailles 1935 Hitler denounces Treaty of Versailles Goals: Revenge, Unification, & Lebensraum Goals: Revenge, Unification, & Lebensraum

23 March of Fascism March of Fascism (cont.) March of Fascism 1935 Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (League) 1935 Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (League) 3/1936 – German army reoccupies Rhineland 3/1936 – German army reoccupies Rhineland Hitler prepared to pull out if confronted Hitler prepared to pull out if confronted 11/1936 – Rome - Berlin - Tokyo Axis 11/1936 – Rome - Berlin - Tokyo Axis Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War March 1938 – Anschluss (Union w/ Germany) March 1938 – Anschluss (Union w/ Germany) Western protests fail to save Austria Western protests fail to save Austria Sept 1938 – Hitler demands Sudeten (Czech) Sept 1938 – Hitler demands Sudeten (Czech) Czechoslovakia key to Hitler’s war / Allied defense Czechoslovakia key to Hitler’s war / Allied defense

24 Spanish Civil War ( ) Germany and Italy aid Franco’s fascist regime against liberal/socialist national gov’t Germany and Italy aid Franco’s fascist regime against liberal/socialist national gov’t Britain, France & U.S. refuse intervention Britain, France & U.S. refuse intervention USSR aids national gov’t (Western fears) USSR aids national gov’t (Western fears) Brutality of ideological conflict is ‘Dress Rehearsal’ for WWII Brutality of ideological conflict is ‘Dress Rehearsal’ for WWII

25 The Munich Pact 9/1938 Neville Chamberlain, the British P.M., was the architect of an agreement to avoid war. He and the French premier Daladier gave Hitler the Sudeten. I have Hitler’s assurance that he will demand no more lands. We have “Peace with Honor” I hope his fingers were not crossed.

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27 The Munich Pact is now considered an act of “Appeasement”. In March 1939 German troops occupied all of Czech. The British & French at this point knew war was inevitable.

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29 Nazi-Soviet Pact (Aug 1939): Non- Aggression Pact to divide Poland

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31 WWII – was a global ideological struggle between Fascism, Democracy, and Communism

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33 U.S. Neutrality and the War Neutrality Acts (1935 & 1936) Neutrality Acts (1935 & 1936) Public Opinion – Historical Isolationism - WWI Public Opinion – Historical Isolationism - WWI Neutrality Act of 1939: “Cash & Carry” Neutrality Act of 1939: “Cash & Carry” Support for Democracies & Allies Support for Democracies & Allies What else did FDR do to protect US interests? What else did FDR do to protect US interests? Lend Lease (Dec. 1940) Lend Lease (Dec. 1940) US provide material aid to Britain, return for leasing naval bases in Pacific US provide material aid to Britain, return for leasing naval bases in Pacific Soviet Union & China also received aid Soviet Union & China also received aid

34 Atlantic Charter August 1941 American-British Agreement on Principles of Conflict and Post War World American-British Agreement on Principles of Conflict and Post War World No territorial aggrandizement No territorial aggrandizement Self Determination of all peoples (colonial) Self Determination of all peoples (colonial) Post War economic global collaboration Post War economic global collaboration Economic & Political (Unite Nations) Economic & Political (Unite Nations) Rights of all Peoples: to live in Peace Freedom from Want, Freedom from Fear, & Freedom from Aggression Rights of all Peoples: to live in Peace Freedom from Want, Freedom from Fear, & Freedom from Aggression Wilsonian Moral Diplomacy? Wilsonian Moral Diplomacy?

35 Japanese Empire by early 1942

36 European Dynamics The Obvious: Germany & Italy are aggressive The Obvious: Germany & Italy are aggressive Problem of European dynamics Problem of European dynamics French & British do not trust USSR French & British do not trust USSR Fear another war (preparedness issues) Fear another war (preparedness issues) Domestic Issues - Depression Domestic Issues - Depression U.S. isolation weakens global response to aggression U.S. isolation weakens global response to aggression

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