4Italy Post WWI Economic Crisis Debt, Inflation, UnemploymentTreaty of Versailles & Italian ResentmentItalian Nationalism: Ancient Roman EmpirePolitical Crisis – Too much DemocracyOpportunities for Ideologues & HeroesRestore Confidence after Humiliation of WWI
5I’m too sexy for this hat, too sexy for this….. I will restore Italy’s pride and rebuild the great Roman Empire (shakes fist in air)!The new Italy will not be fooled by British and French promises of lands, we are self-reliant and we will take what is rightfully ours…. by force if necessary (crosses arms over chests and sticks chin out in great defiance)!Il Duce!Il Duce!Il Duce!Il Duce!
6Italian Fascism Extreme Nationalism Corporate Syndicates Militaristic & ExpansionistAnti-communist(class conflict)Rejects Liberalism & DemocracyState vs. IndividualCorporate SyndicatesTotalitarian Single Party DictatorshipAuthoritarian – “order” rather than “vague social justice”Control E,S, P institutions
7Mussolini’s (Fasci) Rise to Power Socialist: Supported Italian entry into WWIFasci – Authoritarian – “order” rather than “vague social justice”Futurist: Action, Modern, ViolenceBlack Shirts destroy socialist papers/attack partyWork “outside” and inside Italian democracy1921 Party gaining influence (Local)1922 March on Rome (Given PM position)
8How does Hitler’s Mein Kampf detail the Nazi goals/ambitions of a greater Germany?
9Post WWI Diplomacy Defensive Measures (Diplomatic): Reliance on Democracy to keep PeaceDefensive Measures (Diplomatic):League of NationsUSA: Washington Naval Conf. (1922)Dawes Plan (1924) - ReparationsLocarno Pact (1925)Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)Impact of Global Economic DepressionEarly 1930’s ‘national gov’ts’ exposes weaknesses of International “System”
11Western DemocraciesCoalition Governments – Resolve economic crisis, no real comprehensive (united) foreign policyBritain’s ‘National Government’France’s ‘Popular Front’American New Deal (Roosevelt)Relief, Recovery, Reform
12Germany: The Rise of Hitler Mein Kampf (My Struggle)National Socialist Workers Party (Nazi)Fascism w/ racist ideologyEconomic, Social, Political reorderingRevenge for WWIStab in the Back TheoryTreaty of Versailles & German rightsUnification & Lebensraum (Living Space)Restoring German confidence
14Japanese Expansion Resistance to Western Imperialism Model: Western Industrial & Military Build UpGrowth of Nationalism & Industrial Expansion (Resources / Self-sufficiency / Power)Population GrowthRusso-Japanese WarSpheres of Influence (Manchuria & Korea)WWI: League v. Independence, Equality?Treaty Confirmed Western Arrogance/Power
16Emperor Hirohito & Militarism “Cult of Personality”
17Japan (cont.) 1920’s & 1930’s Economic Collapse: Hurt by Tariffs & Limited Resources/MarketsInternal Conflict: Liberalism vs. Dictatorship1931: Manchuria (China): Western Reaction1932 Coup: Militarists & ZaibatsusAnti-communist, Expansionist, DefiantEconomic growth = success of new directionInstill Bushido Code & ShintoDestiny: Naval Build Up & Colonial ExpansionDespite Washington Naval Conference / West
181937 Japanese Invasion of China War continued in East…..1937 Japanese Invasion of China
19Reality: Japan relied heavily on Western oil , steel & markets *Reality: Japan relied heavily on Western oil , steel & markets. In the late 1920’s Japanese military and industrial leaders began pushing for expansion into China’s rich resources.
20Japanese Destiny 1931 Manchuria League of Nations U.S. reaction Stimson Doctrine1937 Sino-Japanese ConflictQuarantine SpeechNeutrality ActsGrowing fears in U.S., Britain, USSR‘Allied’ Aid to China
21Allied National Agendas France: Domestic Economy, Maginot Line, Isolate Germany thru treaties & reparations, EmpireBritain: Focus on Domestic Economy & EmpireUSA – FDR’s New Deal, Isolation, Public Opinion, & ‘Magic Wand’USSR (Stalin): Industrialization, Distrust of West & PurgesScandinavian “Socialist” StatesEastern Europe: Dictatorships and Instability
22The March of Nazi and Fascist Aggression Belligerents will challenge (gamble on) perceived Weakness/Disunity of WWI allies1933 Hitler pulls Germany out of L. of N.1934 Non-aggression pact w/ Poland1934 Support Nazi putsch in Austria (Mussolini, not West challenged), failed1935 Hitler denounces Treaty of VersaillesGoals: Revenge, Unification, & Lebensraum
23March of Fascism (cont.) 1935 Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (League)3/1936 – German army reoccupies RhinelandHitler prepared to pull out if confronted11/1936 – Rome - Berlin - Tokyo AxisSpanish Civil WarMarch 1938 – Anschluss (Union w/ Germany)Western protests fail to save AustriaSept 1938 – Hitler demands Sudeten (Czech)Czechoslovakia key to Hitler’s war / Allied defense
24Spanish Civil War ( )Germany and Italy aid Franco’s fascist regime against liberal/socialist national gov’tBritain, France & U.S. refuse interventionUSSR aids national gov’t (Western fears)Brutality of ideological conflict is ‘Dress Rehearsal’ for WWII
25I hope his fingers were not crossed. The Munich Pact 9/1938I hope his fingers were not crossed.I have Hitler’s assurance that he will demand no more lands. We have “Peace with Honor”Neville Chamberlain, the British P.M., was the architect of an agreement to avoid war. He and the French premier Daladier gave Hitler the Sudeten.
27The Munich Pact is now considered an act of “Appeasement” The Munich Pact is now considered an act of “Appeasement”. In March 1939 German troops occupied all of Czech. The British & French at this point knew war was inevitable.
33U.S. Neutrality and the War Neutrality Acts (1935 & 1936)Public Opinion – Historical Isolationism - WWINeutrality Act of 1939: “Cash & Carry”Support for Democracies & AlliesWhat else did FDR do to protect US interests?Lend Lease (Dec. 1940)US provide material aid to Britain, return for leasing naval bases in PacificSoviet Union & China also received aid
34Atlantic Charter August 1941 American-British Agreement on Principles of Conflict and Post War WorldNo territorial aggrandizementSelf Determination of all peoples (colonial)Post War economic global collaborationEconomic & Political (Unite Nations)Rights of all Peoples: to live in Peace Freedom from Want, Freedom from Fear, & Freedom from AggressionWilsonian Moral Diplomacy?
36European Dynamics The Obvious: Germany & Italy are aggressive Problem of European dynamicsFrench & British do not trust USSRFear another war (preparedness issues)Domestic Issues - DepressionU.S. isolation weakens global response to aggression