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Causes of WWII.

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of WWII."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of WWII

2 Brain Tickler Why might leaders of and agitators within European nations E, S, P destroyed by the Great War turn to Existentialist Philosophy?


4 Italy Post WWI Economic Crisis
Debt, Inflation, Unemployment Treaty of Versailles & Italian Resentment Italian Nationalism: Ancient Roman Empire Political Crisis – Too much Democracy Opportunities for Ideologues & Heroes Restore Confidence after Humiliation of WWI

5 I’m too sexy for this hat, too sexy for this…..
I will restore Italy’s pride and rebuild the great Roman Empire (shakes fist in air)! The new Italy will not be fooled by British and French promises of lands, we are self-reliant and we will take what is rightfully ours…. by force if necessary (crosses arms over chests and sticks chin out in great defiance)! Il Duce! Il Duce! Il Duce! Il Duce!

6 Italian Fascism Extreme Nationalism Corporate Syndicates
Militaristic & Expansionist Anti-communist (class conflict) Rejects Liberalism & Democracy State vs. Individual Corporate Syndicates Totalitarian Single Party Dictatorship Authoritarian – “order” rather than “vague social justice” Control E,S, P institutions

7 Mussolini’s (Fasci) Rise to Power
Socialist: Supported Italian entry into WWI Fasci – Authoritarian – “order” rather than “vague social justice” Futurist: Action, Modern, Violence Black Shirts destroy socialist papers/attack party Work “outside” and inside Italian democracy 1921 Party gaining influence (Local) 1922 March on Rome (Given PM position)

8 How does Hitler’s Mein Kampf detail the Nazi goals/ambitions of a greater Germany?

9 Post WWI Diplomacy Defensive Measures (Diplomatic):
Reliance on Democracy to keep Peace Defensive Measures (Diplomatic): League of Nations USA: Washington Naval Conf. (1922) Dawes Plan (1924) - Reparations Locarno Pact (1925) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Impact of Global Economic Depression Early 1930’s ‘national gov’ts’ exposes weaknesses of International “System”

10 The Dawes Plan (Keynesian Econ.)

11 Western Democracies Coalition Governments – Resolve economic crisis, no real comprehensive (united) foreign policy Britain’s ‘National Government’ France’s ‘Popular Front’ American New Deal (Roosevelt) Relief, Recovery, Reform

12 Germany: The Rise of Hitler
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) National Socialist Workers Party (Nazi) Fascism w/ racist ideology Economic, Social, Political reordering Revenge for WWI Stab in the Back Theory Treaty of Versailles & German rights Unification & Lebensraum (Living Space) Restoring German confidence


14 Japanese Expansion Resistance to Western Imperialism
Model: Western Industrial & Military Build Up Growth of Nationalism & Industrial Expansion (Resources / Self-sufficiency / Power) Population Growth Russo-Japanese War Spheres of Influence (Manchuria & Korea) WWI: League v. Independence, Equality? Treaty Confirmed Western Arrogance/Power


16 Emperor Hirohito & Militarism “Cult of Personality”

17 Japan (cont.) 1920’s & 1930’s Economic Collapse:
Hurt by Tariffs & Limited Resources/Markets Internal Conflict: Liberalism vs. Dictatorship 1931: Manchuria (China): Western Reaction 1932 Coup: Militarists & Zaibatsus Anti-communist, Expansionist, Defiant Economic growth = success of new direction Instill Bushido Code & Shinto Destiny: Naval Build Up & Colonial Expansion Despite Washington Naval Conference / West

18 1937 Japanese Invasion of China
War continued in East….. 1937 Japanese Invasion of China

19 Reality: Japan relied heavily on Western oil , steel & markets
*Reality: Japan relied heavily on Western oil , steel & markets. In the late 1920’s Japanese military and industrial leaders began pushing for expansion into China’s rich resources.

20 Japanese Destiny 1931 Manchuria League of Nations U.S. reaction
Stimson Doctrine 1937 Sino-Japanese Conflict Quarantine Speech Neutrality Acts Growing fears in U.S., Britain, USSR ‘Allied’ Aid to China

21 Allied National Agendas
France: Domestic Economy, Maginot Line, Isolate Germany thru treaties & reparations, Empire Britain: Focus on Domestic Economy & Empire USA – FDR’s New Deal, Isolation, Public Opinion, & ‘Magic Wand’ USSR (Stalin): Industrialization, Distrust of West & Purges Scandinavian “Socialist” States Eastern Europe: Dictatorships and Instability

22 The March of Nazi and Fascist Aggression
Belligerents will challenge (gamble on) perceived Weakness/Disunity of WWI allies 1933 Hitler pulls Germany out of L. of N. 1934 Non-aggression pact w/ Poland 1934 Support Nazi putsch in Austria (Mussolini, not West challenged), failed 1935 Hitler denounces Treaty of Versailles Goals: Revenge, Unification, & Lebensraum

23 March of Fascism (cont.)
1935 Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (League) 3/1936 – German army reoccupies Rhineland Hitler prepared to pull out if confronted 11/1936 – Rome - Berlin - Tokyo Axis Spanish Civil War March 1938 – Anschluss (Union w/ Germany) Western protests fail to save Austria Sept 1938 – Hitler demands Sudeten (Czech) Czechoslovakia key to Hitler’s war / Allied defense

24 Spanish Civil War ( ) Germany and Italy aid Franco’s fascist regime against liberal/socialist national gov’t Britain, France & U.S. refuse intervention USSR aids national gov’t (Western fears) Brutality of ideological conflict is ‘Dress Rehearsal’ for WWII

25 I hope his fingers were not crossed.
The Munich Pact 9/1938 I hope his fingers were not crossed. I have Hitler’s assurance that he will demand no more lands. We have “Peace with Honor” Neville Chamberlain, the British P.M., was the architect of an agreement to avoid war. He and the French premier Daladier gave Hitler the Sudeten.


27 The Munich Pact is now considered an act of “Appeasement”
The Munich Pact is now considered an act of “Appeasement”. In March 1939 German troops occupied all of Czech. The British & French at this point knew war was inevitable.


29 Nazi-Soviet Pact (Aug 1939): Non-Aggression Pact to divide Poland


31 WWII – was a global ideological struggle between Fascism, Democracy, and Communism


33 U.S. Neutrality and the War
Neutrality Acts (1935 & 1936) Public Opinion – Historical Isolationism - WWI Neutrality Act of 1939: “Cash & Carry” Support for Democracies & Allies What else did FDR do to protect US interests? Lend Lease (Dec. 1940) US provide material aid to Britain, return for leasing naval bases in Pacific Soviet Union & China also received aid

34 Atlantic Charter August 1941
American-British Agreement on Principles of Conflict and Post War World No territorial aggrandizement Self Determination of all peoples (colonial) Post War economic global collaboration Economic & Political (Unite Nations) Rights of all Peoples: to live in Peace Freedom from Want, Freedom from Fear, & Freedom from Aggression Wilsonian Moral Diplomacy?

35 Japanese Empire by early 1942

36 European Dynamics The Obvious: Germany & Italy are aggressive
Problem of European dynamics French & British do not trust USSR Fear another war (preparedness issues) Domestic Issues - Depression U.S. isolation weakens global response to aggression


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