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The Advance of Democracy: Third French Republic, United Kingdom, German Empire Section: 14.74.

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Presentation on theme: "The Advance of Democracy: Third French Republic, United Kingdom, German Empire Section: 14.74."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Advance of Democracy: Third French Republic, United Kingdom, German Empire Section: 14.74

2 How did the role of government change from the Congress of Vienna to the establishment of a Unified Germany? From 1815-1870 liberals agitated for constitutionalism, parliamentarians, civil liberties, responsible ministers 1871-1914 male suffrage (the Vote) was extended to the working class (Republicans) –Governments extended this own their own within monarchical/aristocratic paradigms

3 Mass political parties emerged Governments in part became more responsive to counteract the spread of socialism, became more humanitarian Saw the need to assume responsibility to social/economic problems of industrialization The welfare state began

4 France: The Establishment of the Third Republic Sept. 1870 Napoleon lost the Franco- Prussian War the revolutionaries of Paris proclaimed the Republic Their provisional go wanted to continue the war but it was hopeless Jan 1871 the siege of Paris ended In order to make peace with a legitimate government Bismarck insisted on free elections for members of a National Assembly

5 Elections led to large monarchist presence in the National Assembly (400 out of 600) Republicans were distrusted by French people, especially in rural areas as violent, stupid in foreign policy, unfriendly to Church, and too socialistic in property views Monarchists are again split between two royal houses and checkmated each other (b/t Bourbons and Orleanist) Paris republicans refused to accept the National Assembly (they had defended France when Nap surrendered) Civil war between National Assembly (Versailles) and the Paris republicans ensued

6 Paris Commune Paris Commune lasted from (March to May 1871) Was a revival of Jacobinism (’93) more than a social revolution Republicans characterized by patriotic, anti-bourgeois, anti-aristocrats/clergy, pro price, wage control, and working condition supervision But not sweepingly socialist Communards burned public buildings, murdered archbishop of Paris

7 National Assemblies armies finally triumphed 330 thousand were denounced 38 thousand were arrested 20,000 were executed 7, 500 were deported to New Caledonia Third Republic born amidst class hatred and terror Some saw socialism rising within the republicans This led to fierce reaction, which is what Marx was hoping for

8 Parliamentary Primacy Monarchist of the assembly were evenly divided b/t Bourbons and Orleanists Bourbon candidate’s insistence of the white flag (of his family) led to monarchist blocking each others power Assembly adopted Constitutive laws in 1875 (not a constitution) Henri, comte de Chambord AKA: A Bourbon

9 Basically a new republic was established Called for: President, Parliament (2 chambers) Senate (indirect suffrage) Chamber of Deputies (direct suffrage) Council of ministers (headed by a premier)

10 Parliamentary Primacy Continued Roles of these new posts were clarified in 1877 when President Marshal MacMahon tried to dismiss a premier (who was supported by the chamber) President dissolved the Chamber but they were restored in election –Napoleon’s authoritarianism still fresh in their minds

11 Premier and the council became the true executive (under eye of the legislature) Dozen or more political parties prevented any president or premier from dissolving the Chamber What emerged was an unstable coalition government process What seems like a radical change in the Third Republic is really a continuation The machinery of the state (ministers, prefectures, courts, police, army were still centralized and run the same way Napoleon I had done

12 Troubles of the Third French Republic Gov had changed so often since 1789 that they all seemed temporary Minor philosophical questions now seemed like deep fundamental issues Monarchy v republicanism Upper class, Catholics, army conservatives hated the republic

13 Some middle class supported the Third Republic b/c they felt bad about the brutal way Commune was repressed, saw no other alternative Republicanism expanded as it became less revolutionary Won both houses in 1879 Radicalism was reduced to founding compulsory schools that denied clerical influence

14 Dreyfus Affair (1886-89) Republicanism came under assault for next 25 years Captain Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer, was found guilty of treason and deported to Devil’s Island Evidence emerged that he was innocent & that guilty man was Major Esterhazy, an adventurer with gambling debts Army refused to reopen the case & admit error Staff officer Major Henry even forged documents to confirm Dreyfus’s guilt

15 anti-Semites, anti-republicans, royalists, militarist and the “best” people said that reopening the case would be unpatriotic Conservatives and republicans took sides Conservatives supported the military Republicans supported Dreyfus Dreyfus was pardoned in 1899 Fallout prompted the increase in republicanism Series of laic laws in 1905 led to a Separation of church and state in France

16 The Strength and Weakness of the Republic Born unwanted and accidentally Strengths it now had loyalty of mass of French It became domesticated republicanism –showed that republicanism (so militant before 1870) to be compatible with law, order, parliament, prosperity, tolerance France was a population of painters, writers, scholars, scientists, bankers, bourgeois, and farmers living comfortably on the savings of generations

17 Weaknesses Not the stuff of leadership for the modern age (technological, industrial power) lagged behind Germany industrially entrepreneurs not willing to take risks Plagued by short lived ministries (political instability) 50 between 1871-1914 (disruptive to continuity)

18 The Radical Socialists French labor still discontented Still longed for a “social republic” The Radical Socialist Party were radical republicans Patriotic, anti clerical, for the small shopkeepers, small propertied people Not necessarily pro labor Took steps to prevent social legislation, blocked strikes and prevented unionization

19 Further alienated the French workers from politics Third Republic had to contend with disgruntled workforce, monarchists, church, army interests and finally GERMANY in WWI It survived WWI but was knocked out in 1940

20 The British Constitutional Monarchy GB was the greatest example of a peaceable parliamentary government Queen Victoria (1837-1901) and her reign mark era of material, literary progress, political stability Liberal and conservative (heirs of Whigs and Tories) took form in the 1850s Gladstone and Disraeli

21 Extension of Suffrage March of egalitarian democracy was cautious and slow in GB Reform Bill of 1832 gave vote to just 1/8 adult male pop 1867 Reform Bill (the Second Reform Bill) –Vote was extended to most workers –extended from 1 to 2 mil –adopted by Disraeli Conservatives –Lord Derby called it a “leap in the dark”

22 Reform Bill 1884: Under liberal control vote was extended to rural areas enfranchising ¾ of male pop 1918 Universal male suffrage women over 30 also included gov is still controlled by the wealthy not until 1911 were salaries of HOC paid But parties actually tried to outdo one another rather than reverse each other (healthy politics)

23 Liberals Gladstone (liberal) Leaned somewhat more on the industrial and commercial side More willing to pioneer Forster Education Act of 1870 developed idea of Public education introduced secret ballot, legalized labor unions, examinations for civil service posts, eliminated the sale of commissions in the army, abolished religions tests in universities –Being member of Anglican Church no longer required

24 Gladstone did institute some provisions for workers in his second ministry (1880-1885) Workers’ compensation, Fourth ministry (1892-94) he campaigned for shorter working hours

25 The Conservatives Disraeli (conservative) –Followed in Tory tradition –Leaned somewhat on the landed aristocracy side –Not supporters of business (or laissez faire) Under Disraeli (2 nd ministry 1874-80) –public sanitation improved –workplace conditions improved –regulation of housing conditions of the poor

26 British Political Changes after 1900 Labor became an independent political force Rise of labor caused the liberal party to pass a social welfare program Caused liberals to abandon laissez-faire, took up policy of gov intervention and social legislation for working class Sickness, accident, old-age, unemployment insurance, right to strike, minimum wage were their crusades

27 Liberals (1906-1916) led by Herbert Asquith (prime minister) & Lloyd George (chancellor of exchequer) were in control of the gov Pushed through major program of social welfare Sickness, accident, old age, unemployment insurance were adopted Minimum wage law enacted Strikes permitted

28 A War Against Poverty Lloyd George called for a progressive income and inheritance tax forcing the landed aristocracy to pay Called it a “war budget” intended to defeat poverty House of Lords objected Parliament Act of 1911 Deprived H of Lords of all veto power in money matters and only a delaying power in all other matters Gov also called for salaries for parliament members Conservative –became party of industry, laissez faire, Manchester School and landed wealth Labor party replaced the liberal party after the liberal party split (split over Ireland) –Party of workers, social programs, government intervention

29 Government also called for salaries for parliament members Conservative became party of industry, laissez faire, Manchester School and landed wealth Labor party replaced the liberal party after the liberal party split (split over Ireland) Party of workers, social programs, government intervention

30 The Irish Question Ireland was incorporated into the UK as a defensive measure against pro-French Irish during French Rev. Irish Reps of Parliament were obstructionists as a means of protest Why? Irish peasants were defenseless against landlords and were obliged to pay tithes to Church of Ireland (Anglican) even thou they were Catholic Gladstone disestablished the Church of Ireland and initiated protective laws for Irish peasants and helped them buy out absentee landlords

31 Home Rule

32 Bismarck and the German Empire, 1871 – 1890 German Empire was a federation of 25 German monarchies under the Prussian Kaiser Did not develop constitutionalism or democracy in a strong way Bismarck has consolidated power and leaned on the National Liberals

33 He usually tried to have a majority in Reichstag but still followed Realpolitik (no philosophical loyalty except to the emperor) Legislative power of the lower house were very restricted and upper chamber (princes) was favored by the gov But even they did not favor his actions (democratic concessions)

34 The Catholic Church Syllabus of Errors (1864) –Called all Catholics to support the interests of the Pope –Denounced government encroachment in educational and church affairs 1870 dogma of papal infallibility in matter of faith and morals This pronouncements came as Bis was trying to consolidate unity of empire (to be subordinate to empire) –Remember Absolutism!! And centralization of power?

35 Catholics in the south had organized a strong Center party and upheld church pronouncements In 1871 Bismarck launched Kulturkampf (Battle for modern civilization) He was eagerly supported by liberals They were anticlerical and disapproved of the Church influence in public and private life Jesuits were expelled Some bishops were arrested or exiled Restrictions upon Catholic worship and education (later he backed off) Knew that he would need the support of Center party Realized he had overestimated the danger

36 Repression of Socialism 1879 protective tariffs were established (to the liberals dismay) to finance the government and placate the agricultural and industrial interests Industrialism in empire also brought socialism German Social Democratic party was founded in 1875 Was a fusion of Marxian socialists and reformist of Ferdinand Lassale (Basically a moderate socialism) Bismarck still equated it with Paris Commune, violence

37 2 assassination attempts on the emperor (neither by SDP) gave him an excuse Bismarck set out to end socialism (failed) 1878 to 1890 socialism was driven underground meetings forbidden, newspapers closed down 1880s he also used carrot approach Reforms were made through social legislations Workers insurance (for sickness, old age, accidents) This is years ahead of GB, France, AND US 1890 at 75 Bismarck was forced to retire

38 The German Empire after 1890: William II William I died in 1888 Frederick III (his son) died (of cancer) three months after coming to the throne William II (Fred’s son) 1888- 1918 came to the throne 29 and full of ideas about his personal power uncomfortable in presence of elder statesmen (Bismarck) whom he saw respectfully as an old fogy

39 argued with Bismarck about anti- socialist legislation, foreign affairs Bismarck ordered ministers not to meet with him unless he was present 1890 he retired Bismarck was known as “dropping the pilot” Kaiser Replaced Bismarck as the dominant political figure (and led Germany to WWI)

40 Young Wilhelm

41 A New Course Wilhelm I led Germany on new course colonial expansion Naval expansion –GB won’t like this aggressive diplomatic policy dropped the antisocialist laws expanded the social welfare system Social Democrats elected 110 members to the Reichstag Retained none of the highest government offices Imperial Germany was moving toward a conflict with constitutional interests and democracy

42 German Naval Power

43 Developments Elsewhere, general Observations Political scene in Italy Had become a constitutional monarchy in 1860 and completed unification in 1870 Unsteady trasformismo (crossing over) Deputies moved from one party to another for favors Popes refused to recognize the Italian kingdom and forbade Catholics to participate (but they did anyway) Vote was extended to the working class Poverty and illiteracy remained problems (south) Direction of the future was unclear

44 Austria-Hungary Emperor-King Francis Joseph ruled through ministries responsive to both legislatures Francis Joseph dominated foreign affairs and military questions and help broaden powers of decree Socialism was repressed and offset by social provisions Most serious problem was agitation by various nationalities Austria introduced universal male suffrage In Hungary the Magyars resisted universal male suffrage as it would undermine the Magyar political position

45 Democratic Advances Other countries introduced universal male suffrage Vote for women was less advanced Europe as a whole remained monarchical Parliaments were largely restricted United States, Britain, and France were the most advanced democracies

46 Expansion of the vote was leading to mass political parties Socialist Religious Constitutionalism and democracy was replacing older political organizations Criticism of corporations, financial institutions, and European ideas and attitudes provoked opposition Socialism was a growing force criticisms of imperialism began critics eventually influenced many outside Europe

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