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General Overview of Communism & the Russian Revolution AP World History Chapter 22 “The Rise and Fall of World Communism” (1917 – Present)

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Presentation on theme: "General Overview of Communism & the Russian Revolution AP World History Chapter 22 “The Rise and Fall of World Communism” (1917 – Present)"— Presentation transcript:

1 General Overview of Communism & the Russian Revolution AP World History Chapter 22 “The Rise and Fall of World Communism” (1917 – Present)

2 Communism: A General Overview Socialism = the belief that the economy should be controlled by society, either directly or through the government Socialism = the belief that the economy should be controlled by society, either directly or through the government Believe in: a classless society, equal distribution of wealth, gender equality, etc. Believe in: a classless society, equal distribution of wealth, gender equality, etc. How is communism different? How is communism different? It really isn’t very different  think of communists as “extreme socialists” It really isn’t very different  think of communists as “extreme socialists” Socialists believe their ideal society can be achieved slowly through progression and evolution of the government Socialists believe their ideal society can be achieved slowly through progression and evolution of the government Communists believe this society can only be achieved by overthrowing the government Communists believe this society can only be achieved by overthrowing the government

3 Communism: A General Overview Cold War = 1946 – 1991 Cold War = 1946 – 1991 Global rivalry between the Soviet Union and the U.S. Global rivalry between the Soviet Union and the U.S. Capitalism vs. Communism Capitalism vs. Communism Divided continents, countries, and cities Divided continents, countries, and cities Spawned the space race Spawned the space race Spawned a dangerous arms race focused on nuclear weapons Spawned a dangerous arms race focused on nuclear weapons

4 Communism: A General Overview The Soviet Union The Soviet Union Eastern Europe Eastern Europe China China North Korea North Korea North Vietnam North Vietnam Laos Laos Cambodia Cambodia Cuba Cuba Afghanistan Afghanistan Major countries/regions in the communist “bloc”:

5 Communism: A General Overview During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and its allies were brought together by: During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and its allies were brought together by: Warsaw Pact = military alliance designed to counter NATO Warsaw Pact = military alliance designed to counter NATO Council on Mutual Economic Assistance = tied together the economies of the Soviet Union and those of Eastern European countries Council on Mutual Economic Assistance = tied together the economies of the Soviet Union and those of Eastern European countries

6 Communism: A General Overview Communist parties also existed in non- communist countries Communist parties also existed in non- communist countries 1950s = small communist party developed in the U.S. 1950s = small communist party developed in the U.S. Sparked fear and political repression Sparked fear and political repression McCarthyism = movement of political repression against communists in the U.S.  involved making accusations of disloyalty and treason without proper regard for evidence McCarthyism = movement of political repression against communists in the U.S.  involved making accusations of disloyalty and treason without proper regard for evidence Many people lost their jobs, had their careers destroyed, or were even imprisoned without any evidence that they were communists or communist sympathizers Many people lost their jobs, had their careers destroyed, or were even imprisoned without any evidence that they were communists or communist sympathizers

7 The Russian Revolution (1917)

8 Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions No type of representative political institutions Nicholas II became czar in 1884 Nicholas II became czar in 1884 Last ruler from the Romanov family Last ruler from the Romanov family Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God Russo-Japanese War (1904) = defeat for Russia in this war led to political instability Russo-Japanese War (1904) = defeat for Russia in this war led to political instability

9 Russia in WWI Suffered harsh defeats Suffered harsh defeats Shortages of both food and weapons Shortages of both food and weapons Morale in the Russian army = hit rock bottom Morale in the Russian army = hit rock bottom Russian civilians suffering at home too Russian civilians suffering at home too All supplies & food went to the army, not them All supplies & food went to the army, not them Demanded: “PEACE AND BREAD!” Demanded: “PEACE AND BREAD!” These losses in WWI made Czar Nicholas II very unpopular These losses in WWI made Czar Nicholas II very unpopular Russian soldiers running from advancing German troops

10 Czar Nicholas II & Alexandra Alexandra = Czar Nicholas II’s wife Alexandra = Czar Nicholas II’s wife Both the Czar and his wife = very unpopular because they were politically incompetent and foolish Both the Czar and his wife = very unpopular because they were politically incompetent and foolish Both relied on the guidance of a mystic healer named Rasputin Both relied on the guidance of a mystic healer named Rasputin This also made them look weak and silly This also made them look weak and silly

11 Rasputin Known as the “mad monk” Known as the “mad monk” Wandered around Russia, claiming to have special powers Wandered around Russia, claiming to have special powers Czar & his wife asked him to cure their son Czar & his wife asked him to cure their son He had hemophilia He had hemophilia Built up a bad reputation in St. Petersburg Built up a bad reputation in St. Petersburg Slept with dozens of women Slept with dozens of women Alcoholic Alcoholic

12 Alexis: Alexandra’s Son with Hemophilia

13 Death of Rasputin Killed by the Czar’s relatives in 1916 to save the monarchy Killed by the Czar’s relatives in 1916 to save the monarchy 1 st = served cake and wine laced with cyanide 1 st = served cake and wine laced with cyanide No effect – stayed alive No effect – stayed alive 2 nd = shot several times 2 nd = shot several times No effect – stayed alive; staggering around wounded and bleeding No effect – stayed alive; staggering around wounded and bleeding 3 rd = the men pushed his body through a hole in an iced- over river 3 rd = the men pushed his body through a hole in an iced- over river Moved about for several minutes before dying Moved about for several minutes before dying

14 The March Revolution of 1917 People organized strikes and protests demanding food and fuel People organized strikes and protests demanding food and fuel Soldiers who were sent to stop the protests ended up joining the protestors Soldiers who were sent to stop the protests ended up joining the protestors Czar Nicholas II abdicated (gave up) his power on March 15, 1917 Czar Nicholas II abdicated (gave up) his power on March 15, 1917 End of the 300-year Romanov dynasty in Russia End of the 300-year Romanov dynasty in Russia

15 The Provisional Government Provisional Government = temporary central government in Russia after the Czar stepped down Provisional Government = temporary central government in Russia after the Czar stepped down Led by: Alexander Kerensky Led by: Alexander Kerensky Saw the war effort as the #1 priority Saw the war effort as the #1 priority Had to deal with: soldiers deserting, transportation problems, low arms production, etc. Had to deal with: soldiers deserting, transportation problems, low arms production, etc.

16 The Provisional Government Russian masses wanted 3 things: Russian masses wanted 3 things: 1) Immediate peace & withdrawal from WWI 2) Transfer of land to the peasants 3) Control of factories by workers Provisional government did not pull Russia out of the war and did not enact any social reforms Provisional government did not pull Russia out of the war and did not enact any social reforms Lost popularity Lost popularity Led to its downfall Led to its downfall

17 The Bolsheviks Bolsheviks = radical revolutionary group in Russia Bolsheviks = radical revolutionary group in Russia Wanted a socialist society in Russia Wanted a socialist society in Russia Led by: Vladimir Lenin Led by: Vladimir Lenin Slogan = “Peace, land, and bread!” Slogan = “Peace, land, and bread!”

18 The Russian Revolution November 1917 November 1917 Also known as the: Bolshevik Revolution Also known as the: Bolshevik Revolution Bolsheviks staged a coup d’etat in St. Petersburg Bolsheviks staged a coup d’etat in St. Petersburg Overthrew the provisional government Overthrew the provisional government Members of the provisional government fled or were arrested Members of the provisional government fled or were arrested Relatively bloodless Relatively bloodless Bolsheviks claimed absolute power Bolsheviks claimed absolute power

19 The Russian Revolution Bolsheviks began building a socialist state Bolsheviks began building a socialist state Ended private ownership of property Ended private ownership of property Distributed land among the peasants Distributed land among the peasants Gave workers control of factories and mines Gave workers control of factories and mines Bolshevik Party = officially renamed the Communist Party in March 1918 Bolshevik Party = officially renamed the Communist Party in March 1918 Wanted to spread the Communist revolution throughout the world Wanted to spread the Communist revolution throughout the world

20 Peace with Germany Lenin’s 1 st order of business = get Russia out of WWI Lenin’s 1 st order of business = get Russia out of WWI Signed peace treaty with Germany in March 1918 Signed peace treaty with Germany in March 1918 Russia lost much of its western territory and 1/3 of its population Russia lost much of its western territory and 1/3 of its population Peace Conference between Russia and Germany

21 Russian Civil War 1918 – – 1921 Communists vs. their political opponents Communists vs. their political opponents Political opponents = Royalists, Liberal Democrats, Moderate Socialists, Landlords, etc. Political opponents = Royalists, Liberal Democrats, Moderate Socialists, Landlords, etc. Communists = “the Reds” Communists = “the Reds” Their opponents = “the Whites” Their opponents = “the Whites”

22 Russian Civil War: The Red Army Communist Army = called the Red Army Communist Army = called the Red Army Led by Leon Trotsky Led by Leon Trotsky

23 Russian Civil War Both sides burned villages and killed civilians Both sides burned villages and killed civilians In the meantime: workers and peasants were starving and the Russian economy was crumbling In the meantime: workers and peasants were starving and the Russian economy was crumbling

24 Russian Civil War: The Terror Bolsheviks imposed a policy called “war communism” Bolsheviks imposed a policy called “war communism” Took direct control over all industries Took direct control over all industries Forced peasants to send food to the cities Forced peasants to send food to the cities Killed the imprisoned Czar & his family Killed the imprisoned Czar & his family Set up secret police force = the Cheka Set up secret police force = the Cheka Arrested (and often executed) anyone considered an “enemy of the revolution” Arrested (and often executed) anyone considered an “enemy of the revolution” Placed severe restrictions on the Russian Orthodox Church Placed severe restrictions on the Russian Orthodox Church Communists = anti-religion Communists = anti-religion

25 Russian Civil War “Whites” surrendered in 1921 “Whites” surrendered in 1921 Outnumbered, disorganized, poorly equipped armies Outnumbered, disorganized, poorly equipped armies Lenin and the Communists then had complete control of Russia Lenin and the Communists then had complete control of Russia Lenin = ruled from Lenin = ruled from State of Russia = horrible State of Russia = horrible From = 27 million Russians had died From = 27 million Russians had died Economy = in shambles Economy = in shambles Peasants = still starving Peasants = still starving

26 Lenin in Power 1922 = Russia becomes USSR = Union of Soviet Socialist Republics = Soviet Union 1922 = Russia becomes USSR = Union of Soviet Socialist Republics = Soviet Union New constitution written = makes it a socialist state New constitution written = makes it a socialist state In theory = Soviet Union supposed to be run by the workers In theory = Soviet Union supposed to be run by the workers But really the Communist Party did But really the Communist Party did

27 Lenin in Power Lenin died in 1924 at the age of 54 Lenin died in 1924 at the age of 54

28 Trotsky vs. Stalin Fought for power after Lenin died Fought for power after Lenin died Leon Trotsky = leader of the Red Army during the Civil War Leon Trotsky = leader of the Red Army during the Civil War Joseph Stalin = General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin = General Secretary of the Communist Party Difference = Trotsky wanted to spread Communism all over the world immediately & Stalin wanted to make it strong in the Soviet Union first Difference = Trotsky wanted to spread Communism all over the world immediately & Stalin wanted to make it strong in the Soviet Union first

29 Trotsky vs. Stalin Trotsky = closer to Lenin and more well-known Trotsky = closer to Lenin and more well-known Stalin = outmaneuvered Trotsky politically Stalin = outmaneuvered Trotsky politically Ability to remove and appoint government officials Ability to remove and appoint government officials Once he gained control of the government, he exiled Trotsky to Siberia in 1929 Once he gained control of the government, he exiled Trotsky to Siberia in 1929 Trotsky eventually moved to Mexico City  Stalin sent an assassin there to kill him Trotsky eventually moved to Mexico City  Stalin sent an assassin there to kill him

30 Joseph Stalin Ruled the Soviet Union from 1929 – 1953 Ruled the Soviet Union from 1929 – 1953 Responsible for the next major extension of communist control Responsible for the next major extension of communist control In Eastern Europe after WWII In Eastern Europe after WWII Soviet military forces already there after the war  stayed there to help impose communist regimes per Stalin’s orders Soviet military forces already there after the war  stayed there to help impose communist regimes per Stalin’s orders Stalin wanted to be surrounded by “friendly” governments as security against invasions from the West Stalin wanted to be surrounded by “friendly” governments as security against invasions from the West


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