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The Russian Revolution -Key Concepts-. I. Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative.

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Presentation on theme: "The Russian Revolution -Key Concepts-. I. Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Russian Revolution -Key Concepts-

2 I. Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions No type of representative political institutions Nicholas II became Tsar in 1884 Nicholas II became Tsar in 1884 Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God Revolution broke out in 1905 Revolution broke out in Russo-Japanese War (1904)

3 II. The Revolution of 1905 The creation of a discontented working class The creation of a discontented working class Vast majority of workers concentrated in St. Petersburg and Moscow Vast majority of workers concentrated in St. Petersburg and Moscow Help from the countryside: poor peasants Help from the countryside: poor peasants No individual land ownership No individual land ownership

4 II. Revolution of 1905 (cont) Russia industrialized on the backs of the peasants Russia industrialized on the backs of the peasants Tremendous historic land hunger among peasants Tremendous historic land hunger among peasants Real winners of the 1905 Revolution: Middle Class Real winners of the 1905 Revolution: Middle Class --Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets) --Duma

5 III.Conservatism Continues: Tsar paid no attention to the Duma Tsar paid no attention to the Duma Duma harassed and political parties suppressed Duma harassed and political parties suppressed Nicholas was personally a very weak man Nicholas was personally a very weak man Tsar became increasingly remote as a ruler Tsar became increasingly remote as a ruler

6 IV. Alexandra: The Power Behind the Throne Even more blindly committed to autocracy than her husband Even more blindly committed to autocracy than her husband The influence of Rasputin over Alexandra The influence of Rasputin over Alexandra Origins of Rasputin ’ s power Origins of Rasputin ’ s power Scandals surrounding Rasputin served to discredit the monarchy Scandals surrounding Rasputin served to discredit the monarchy

7 Alexis: Alexandra ’ s Son with Hemophilia

8 V. World War I: “ The Last Straw ” War revealed the ineptitude and arrogance of the country ’ s aristocratic elite War revealed the ineptitude and arrogance of the country ’ s aristocratic elite The Russian “ Steam Roller ” The Russian “ Steam Roller ” Corrupt military leadership and contempt for ordinary Russian people Corrupt military leadership and contempt for ordinary Russian people Average peasant has very little invested in the War Average peasant has very little invested in the War

9 V. World War I (cont) Poorly supplied troops Poorly supplied troops Result: Chaos and Disintegration of the Russian Army Result: Chaos and Disintegration of the Russian Army --Battle of Tannenberg (August, 1914) Spreading Discontent Spreading Discontent

10 VI. The Collapse of the Imperial Government Nicholas leaves for the Front— September, 1915 Nicholas leaves for the Front— September, 1915 Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos Alexandra and other high government officials accused of treason Alexandra and other high government officials accused of treason

11 VI. The Collapse of the Imperial Government (cont) Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916 Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916 Refusal to receive assistance of the Russian Middle Class Refusal to receive assistance of the Russian Middle Class Complete mismanagement of the wartime economy Complete mismanagement of the wartime economy

12 VII. The Two Revolutions of 1917 The March Revolution (March 12) The March Revolution (March 12) The November Revolution (November 6) The November Revolution (November 6)

13 VIII. The March Revolution Origins: Food riots and strikes Origins: Food riots and strikes Duma declared itself a Provisional Government on March12th Duma declared itself a Provisional Government on March12th Tsar abdicated on March 17 th Tsar abdicated on March 17 th Composition of the Provisional Government Composition of the Provisional Government --Alexander Kerensky Very Popular Revolution Very Popular Revolution The Petrograd Soviet The Petrograd Soviet --Order #1

14 IX. Soviet Political Ideology More radical and revolutionary than the Provisional Government More radical and revolutionary than the Provisional Government Most influenced by Marxist socialism Most influenced by Marxist socialism Emulated western socialism Emulated western socialism Two Factions Two Factions -- “ Mensheviks ” -- “ Bolsheviks ”

15 X.Founder of Bolshevism: Vladimir Lenin His Early Years His Early Years --Exiled to Siberia in 1897 Committed to Class Struggle and Revolution Committed to Class Struggle and Revolution Moved to London in 1902 and befriended Leon Trotsky Moved to London in 1902 and befriended Leon Trotsky What is to be Done? Tract What is to be Done? Tract

16 X. Lenin (cont) Key role of the Party in the revolution Key role of the Party in the revolution -- “ Dictatorship of the Proletariat ” Bolsheviks split from the Russian Socialist Party in 1912 Bolsheviks split from the Russian Socialist Party in 1912 Character of the Bolshevik Party Character of the Bolshevik Party --Joseph Stalin --Pravda

17 XI. Vacuum of Leadership in Russia Petrograd Soviet dominated by Mensheviks Petrograd Soviet dominated by Mensheviks Failure of the Provisional Government Failure of the Provisional Government Workers refusing to work and soldiers refusing to fight Workers refusing to work and soldiers refusing to fight Peasants were expropriating the land outright Peasants were expropriating the land outright Power was literally lying in the streets of Petrograd Power was literally lying in the streets of Petrograd

18 XII. Lenin Steps into This Vacuum Amnesty granted to all political prisoners in March of 1917 Amnesty granted to all political prisoners in March of 1917 Lenin ’ s arrival in Petrograd Lenin ’ s arrival in Petrograd A tremendously charismatic personality A tremendously charismatic personality “ Peace, Land, Bread ” “ Peace, Land, Bread ” “ All Power to the Soviets ” “ All Power to the Soviets ” Bolshevik party membership exploded Bolshevik party membership exploded Consolidation of Bolshevik power Consolidation of Bolshevik power

19 XIII. The November Revolution The events of November 6 The events of November 6 Council of People ’ s Commissars Council of People ’ s Commissars All private property of wealthy was abolished and divided among the peasantry All private property of wealthy was abolished and divided among the peasantry Largest industrial enterprises nationalized Largest industrial enterprises nationalized

20 XIII. November Revolution (cont) Political Police organized: CHEKA Political Police organized: CHEKA Revolutionary army created with Trotsky in charge Revolutionary army created with Trotsky in charge -- “ Red Army ” Bolshevik Party renamed Communist Party in March of 1918 Bolshevik Party renamed Communist Party in March of 1918 The Treaty of Brest- Litovsk negotiated with the Germans The Treaty of Brest- Litovsk negotiated with the Germans Terms of the Treaty Terms of the Treaty

21 XIII. November Revolution (cont) Humiliating Treaty would be nullified since all of the west was on the verge of revolution Humiliating Treaty would be nullified since all of the west was on the verge of revolution Civil War fought between Civil War fought between “ Reds ” versus “ Whites ” Complete breakdown of Russian economy and society Complete breakdown of Russian economy and society

22 XIV. Interpreting the Russian Revolution The official Marxist Interpretation The official Marxist Interpretation --The importance of a permanent international revolution Function of Russian History and Culture Function of Russian History and Culture Imposed Revolution on an unwilling victim Imposed Revolution on an unwilling victim A Social Revolution A Social Revolution


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