Presentation on theme: " France- unitary state ◦ Elections held with considerable frequency at every territorial level ◦ Communes ◦ First European country to enfranchise a mass."— Presentation transcript:
France- unitary state ◦ Elections held with considerable frequency at every territorial level ◦ Communes ◦ First European country to enfranchise a mass electorate ◦ Women age 21 and older granted the vote in 1944 ◦ Voting age lowered to 18 in 1974
Presidential Elections by Direct Popular Suffrage is the most important expression of the General Will in France
Right and left Electoral system of the Fifth Republic favors simplification of political alignments French party organizations skeletal ◦ Fragmentary ◦ Modest linkage between national and local ◦ Party membership low Party system became more competitive in 1980s Main political parties dominate the organization of parliamentary work and the selection of candidates ◦ Less important as mass membership organizations
19952002 Socialists nominate Lionel Jospin RPF nominates Jacques Chirac (Mayor of Paris) The second round ◦ Chirac 53% ◦ Jospin 47% First Round ◦ Chirac 20% ◦ Le Pen edges out Jospin (16.2%) ◦ Socialists shocked, demoralized Second Round ◦ Chirac 82% ◦ Le Pen 18%
Historically levels of participation high Fifth Republic: lower ◦ Abstention seldom reached 33% in parliamentary elections ◦ Elections for European parliament abstention rises to almost 50% Elected every five years (577 members)
First RoundSecond Round ◦ Similar to primary elections in US ◦ Absolute majority for election ◦ One week after first round ◦ Dropped if didn’t receive 12.5% of registered voters on first ◦ Plurality wins ◦ Many “deals” between first and second rounds
Two large camps ◦ Left of center to far left ◦ Right of center to far right Most political parties emerged from groups that began inside of the legislature ◦ Mandate of “career, conscience, and constituency ◦ Slow and irregular industrialization hampered strong working-class party Multiparty tradition
Rally for the Republic (RPF) Charles De Gaulle ◦ Conservative, rightist, older and wealthier voters ◦ Lineal descendant of Gaullist party Thrown together in 1958 Georges Pompidou – organizer For 16 years held both presidency and premiership Held majority in National assembly after the massive demonstrations of 1968
◦ 1981 -1988 Jacques Chirac’s presidential bid ends in defeat by Mitterand ◦ 1995 – President Chirac squeks in: Alain Juppé Prime Minister (RPF) ◦ 1997 election defeat of RPF/Juppé replaced by Leonel Jospin (Socialist) ◦ 2002 victory - and naming of Jean-Pierre Raffarin ◦ 2005 (May) – Chirac names Dominique Villepin as Prime Minister
Union for French Democracy ◦ Valery Giscard d’Estaing and the Republicans ◦ Centerist alliance of 1978 creates UDN (Union for French Democracy) ◦ UDF becomes third party on right after the election of national assembly elections of 1997 and the regional elections of 1998
Jean-Marie Le Pen – visible and vocal Far right, support from working class Young Issues of law and order – and immigration Split in 1998
Socialists: Party of Government in 1980’s Return to power in 2012 Francois Mitterrand ◦ Stronger in local elections than in central elections ◦ Party of Francois Mitterrand (after 1968) ◦ Emphasis on Culture and public goods Greater concern with social justice than with orthodox Marxist ideology
Growing sense in 1990’s that Socialist Party leadership had “worn out” or lost touch ◦ Socialist voters abandoned the government in the Maastrich referendum of 1992 ◦ Massive loss of parliamentary seats in 1993 Unexpected recovery in 1997 2002 – again a massive loss of seats in the National Assembly
Socialist Party ◦ Alliance with working class – weak ◦ Middle class favor ◦ Support Industrial north Wine growers of south Civil servants Teachers Fixed income individuals
Communist Party of France French Communist Party Headquarters – Paris ◦ Major force until 1970’s ◦ Closely aligned with the Soviet Communist Party ◦ Swift electoral decline ◦ Georges Marchais replaced by Robert Hue - 1994
From National party to local prominence ◦ 1978 -1979, national youth delegate for the RPR. ◦ 1979 – 1981,p resident of the national youth delegates under Jacques Chirac (presidential election of 1981) ◦ 1983 – becomes mayor in the town of Neuilly-sur-Seine.
Upward in the National Party ◦ 1988, national secretary of the RPR, in charge of youth and teaching issues. ◦ Since 1993, member of the RPR political office. ◦ 1993 - 995, Minster for the budget in the cabinet of Prime Minister Edouard Balladur. ◦ 1995 - 1997, spokesman for the RPR ◦ 1998 - 1999, Secretary General of the RPR
1 Full employment by a policy of encouragement and incentive to work for all. 2 Higher wages by increasing working time on a voluntary base and a policy of competitiveness of our companies. 3 Reduction of the social contributions to the professional associations. 4 Increase the skill of workforce make education more available vocational training
1 Equal opportunity to education 2 Evaluation of teachers based on what students have learned. 3 To give autonomy to the school establishments 4 Allow the parents to choose and remove school establishment. 5 To allow all the parents to choose sports and cultural activities in place of specified mandatory activities.
1 Adapt annual flows of immigration to the needs and the capacities of reception of France., 2 Eliminate concern with country of origin 3 Preferences to stable families 4 To attract the best students according to the needs for our economy and those of the countries of origin. 5 To develop the use of biometric technologies to insure integrity of the official documents.
1 Increase and protect the budget devoted to the Ministry for the Culture 2 Emphasize acquisition of works, rather than on the administrative expenditures. 3 Put artistic education at the school in the middle of the step of cultural democratization. 4 Allow artistic young people more access to the large schools and in the university courses. 5 Regulate role of patrons and foundations
Difficulties associated with being a female candidate (attacks from within her own party) First female candidate for president
Anti-abortion Forced military service Reinstatement of the death penalty Opposes immigration, particularly of Muslims Repeats proposal to “send back” 3 million non-Europeans to their homeland
The 2005 riots made immigration and immigrants from North Africa a key issue in the 2007 French presidential election.
Le Pen: longtime proponent of addressing immigration and reinstating law and order, has become more popular and relevant as a result of the riots. Villipin : as Prime Minister implemented tougher restrictions on immigration immediately after the riots. Sarkozy: referred to the young people living in housing projects “scum.” President Chirac: perceived mishandling of early riots and the socio-economic factors leading to more rioting that damaged the candidates most associated with him (especially Dominique de Villipan)
Nicolas Sarkozy Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire) 11,448,663 31.18% Nicolas SarkozyUnion for a Popular Movement Ségolène Royal Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) 9,500,112 25.87%Ségolène RoyalSocialist Party François Bayrou Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française) 6,820,119 18.57% François BayrouUnion for French Democracy Jean-Marie Le Pen National Front (Front national) 3,834,530 10.44% Jean-Marie Le PenNational Front Results- Round 1 (Major Candidates)
Olivier Besancenot Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) 1,498,581 4.08% Olivier BesancenotRevolutionary Communist League Philippe de Villiers Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France) 818,407 2.23% Philippe de VilliersMovement for France Marie-George Buffet Popular and anti-liberal Left, supported by the French Communist Party (gauche populaire et antilibérale, soutenue par le Parti communiste français) 707,268 1.93% Marie-George BuffetFrench Communist Party Dominique Voynet The Greens (Les Verts) 576,666 1.57% Dominique VoynetThe Greens Results - Round 1 (Minor Candidates)
Nicolas Sarkozy Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire) Nicolas SarkozyUnion for a Popular Movement 18,983,138 53.06% Ségolène Royal Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) Ségolène RoyalSocialist Party 16,790,440 46.94%
Hollande 56.85.%Aubry 43.15% Favors European Constitution Advisor to Mitterrand Author of heath care legislation From industrial north
LeftRight Socialists Sarkoxie – ran for reelection
Marine Le Pen Marine Le Pen National Front (Front national) National Front FN 6,421,426 17.90% Jean-Luc Mélenchon Jean-Luc Mélenchon Left Front (Front de gauche) Left Front FG 3,984,822 11.10% François Bayrou François Bayrou Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate) Democratic Movement MoDem 3,275,122 9.13% Europe Écologie–The Greens (Europe Écologie–Les Verts) Europe Écologie–The Greens 828,345 (2.31%) Others (2.9% ) Others (2.9% )
François Hollande François Hollande Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) Socialist Party PS 10,272,705 28.63% 18,000,668 51.64% Nicolas Sarcoxie Nicolas Sarcoxie Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire) Union for a Popular Movement UMP 9,753,629 27.18% 16,860,685 48.36%