1 (A) Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (1) Background
2 (A) Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (2) Economic Reform and Opening
3 (A) Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (3) The Four Modernizations
4 (A) Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (4) Regional Economic Development
5 1a. What problems did Deng face in 1978? (15) b. How did Deng tackle the problems That you mentioned in a? (15)
6 2a. What attempts were made by Deng To modernize China in the last two Decades of the 20 th century? (15) b. How far did the attempts contribute To the modernization of China? (15)
7 Socialism with Chinese Characteristics A.Return of Deng and beginning of a new era In 1977, Deng resumed/ rehabilitated After the death of Zhou. In 1978, he announced the shift of focus: Change from class struggle and proletarian Revolutions to economic development and Socialist modernization. It was known as “reform and openness”
8 In 1977, Deng Xiaoping became Deputy Premier and Vice-Chairman of the Communist Party of China. He and his supporters started to regain control of the government and the CPC. Deng Xiaoping
9 The third Plenum of the 11th Central Committee of the CPC ( 中國共產黨第十一屆三中全會 ) was held in 1978. Deng introduced the policy of reform and opening. Deng Xiaoping making a speech at the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Central Committee of the CPC
10 building socialism with Chinese characteristics ( 建設具中國特色的社會主義 ) 12th National Party Congress of the CPC ( 中國共產黨第十二屆全國 代表大會, 1982) One Centre, Two Bases ( 一個中心，兩個基本點 ) 13th National Party Congress of the CPC (1987)
11 One Centre Two Bases Economic construction ( 經濟建設 ) Reform and Opening ( 改革開放 ) Uphold the Four Cardinal Principles (to keep to the socialist road and to uphold the people‘s democratic dictatorship, leadership by the Communist Party of China, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought ) [ 堅持四項基本原則： 堅持社會主義道路、堅持人民民主專 政、堅持中國共產黨的領導、堅持馬 克思列寧主義毛澤東思想 ]
12 B. Socialism with Chinese Characteristics What does it mean? Four modernization Focus on economic construction, improve Productivity and develop technology Socialist market economy Certain people get rich first and lead the Whole country to prosperity Carried out in 3 stages: 1990-2000-2050
13 Differences between Mao and Deng Mao: stressed ideological thinking Deng: called for economic and technological Changes Mao: emphasized on class struggle Deng: unity among the classes
14 Mao: demanded self sufficiency Deng: opened China for trade, investment And joint ventures Mao: all achieved through ideological Motivation Deng: all achieved through material Incentives.
15 (A) Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (2) Economic Reform and Opening
16 (a) Agricultural Reforms (i) The Household Responsibility System (HRS) The Household Responsibility System ( 包產到戶 ) introduced in 1978 aimed at increasing peasants’ incentive to work allowed peasants to keep agricultural output after handing in a fixed amount to the state allowed peasants to sell their crops on the free market Cadres taking part in the Household Responsibility System
17 The Household Responsibilty System increased agricultural production. The government extended the contracted period from 15 years to 30 years in 2003.
18 (a) Agricultural Reforms (ii) Reforming the Procurement System In 1979, the procurement prices of crops was increased to raise peasants’ income. A peasant selling his crops to government officials
19 The Household Responsibility System and the increase in procurement prices improved the livelihood of the peasants. Peasants buying television sets in 1980
20 (b) Industrial Reforms (i) Developing Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) Local governments set up township and village enterprises ( 鄉鎮企業 ) to provide employment opportunities and to promote economic development.
21 The number of TVEs and workers engaged in these enterprises increased rapidly in the last 20 years. No. of TVEsEmployment 1978Less than 2 millionAbout 28 million 1990About 18 millionAbout 100 million
22 Significance of TVEs provided government with 94 billion Rmb taxes in 1992 provided township and village governments with revenue to develop agriculture absorbed over 50% of surplus rural labour force Workers of a TVE
23 (b) Industrial Reforms (ii) Encouraging Domestic Private Enterprises The government also encouraged people to set up private enterprises ( 民企 ). These enterprises have become an important sector in China’s economy. Domestic private enterprises
24 (b) Industrial Reforms (iii) Reforming State- owned Enterprises (SOEs) Problems faced by SOEs ( 國有企業 ) poor economic performance lack of incentive to improve productivity because of standardization of wages
25 Measures to reform SOEs allowed SOEs to retain a share of profit to improve workers’ welfare and technology gave SOEs greater power in making economic decisions replaced the jobs-for-life policy with contract system introduced Manager Responsibility System ( 廠長責任制 ) allowed SOEs to be privatized or merge together
26 (C) The Open Door Policy In 1978, China introduced the Open Door Policy to attract foreign investment. YearPolicy 1980 Shenzhen ( 深圳 ), Zhuhai ( 珠海 ), Shantou ( 汕頭 ) and Xiamen ( 廈門 ) became Special Economic Zones ( 經濟特區 ). Shenzhen Zhuhai
28 YearPolicy 1984Three Economic Open Zones were set up in the Changjiang Delta, the Zhujiang Delta and the Xiamen- Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Triangle ( 廈門 — 漳州 — 泉州三角 ). Xiamen
29 YearPolicy 1988 Hainan ( 海南 ) became a Special Economic Zone. Shandong Peninsula ( 山東半島 ) and Liaodong Peninsula ( 遼東半島 ) became Economic Open Zones ( 經濟開海區 ). Hainan Shandong
30 YearPolicy 1990 Pudong ( 浦東 ) development in Shanghai was approved. Pudong
31 YearPolicy 1991-92 Cities along the Changjiang ( 長江 ) were opened. Border Economic Cooperation Zones ( 邊境合作區 ) were set up. “Opening up along the coast, along the Changjiang and along the border”( 沿海、沿江、沿邊開放 ) became the slogan of the Open Door Policy. http://www.cn777.com.cn/Index.asp
32 YearPolicy 1995 The Open Door Policy was extended to the hinterland with more than thirty cities being given preferential policies similar to those of Shenzhen and Zhuhai. Xian
33 (A) Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (3) The Four Modernizations
34 (a) Background In 1975, Premier Zhou Enlai suggested carrying out the programme of Four Modernizations ( 四個現代化 ).
35 The 11th National Party Congress of the CPC Four Modernizations written into the party constitution at the 11th National Party Congress in 1977 written into the state constitution
36 (b) Agricultural Modernization http://www.abchina.com/abc on/pages/index.html Agricultural policies re-opened the Agricultural Bank of China to centralize the management of agricultural funds and loans in 1979 increased financial support to agriculture
37 Carried out water-conservation projects to prevent floods Introduced new farming machines to improve productivity Taught farmers knowledge on animal breeding, animal disease, varieties of seeds and new farming methods
38 Set up agricultural universities to develop new farming techniques
39 (c) Industrial Modernization China’s industries developed rapidly with the opening of the country in 1978. During 1978-98, industrial production increased about 12% annually. Rapid industrial development has created a lot of employment opportunities in China. Most of China’s manufactured products are exported to overseas markets.
40 China has put great effort into the development of hi- tech information, automobile and petrochemical industries. Lenovo, a famous computer company in China Automobile industry Petrochemical industry
41 (d) Scientific and Technological Modernization Policies towards scientific and technological modernization To re-organize scientific research institutions To develop more scientific centres http://english.cas.cn/Eng2003 /page/home.asp China Academy of Science is one of the most important scientific research institutes in China.
42 To train more professional scientific researchers
43 (A) Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (4) Regional Economic Development
44 (a) Inland-development Policy China started to promote the industrial development in inland China in the 1950s. Goals of the Inland-development Policy to redress the imbalance in industrial development of different regions to promote provincial self-reliance and self-sufficiency
45 (b) Coastal-development Policy In 1988, China introduced the Coastal Development Plan ( 沿海發展計劃 ). Goals of the Coastal Development Plan to accelerate the development of the coastal regions to maximize the benefits of the export trade to attract more foreign investment An automobile factory in Guangdong ( 廣東 )
46 Zhuhai ( 珠海 ) is a coastal city undergoing rapid economic development.
47 (c) Western-development Policy In the 1990s, China started to place more emphasis on achieving a balanced regional development. YearPolicy 1996 1999 2000 the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) and the 2010 Long Term Development Plan (2010 年遠景目標綱要 ). President Jiang Zemin’s proposal of western- development strategy Introduction of the Western Development Plan ( 西 部大開發計劃 )
48 Preferential Treatment of Foreign Investment tax concessions for foreign enterprises investing in ‘government encouraged projects’ in the Central and Western Regions Preferential Loan The National Development Bank ( 國家開發銀行 ) provides a loan of 53 billion Rmb for construction projects in Sichuan ( 四川 ). http://www.cdb.com.cn/index.html
49 Preferential Taxation The central-local revenue sharing system will be adjusted to benefit the Western Region. Transportation Development to build eight main roads of 15,000 km in the next 20 years to build 18,000 km of railways in the Western Region by 2005 to rebuild and expand airports in the Western Region A highway in Chengdu ( 成都 )
50 Ecological Development to invest 200 million Rmb to protect virgin forests Energy Development to speed up the project of ‘Supplying natural gas from the Western Region to the Eastern Region’ ( 西氣東輸 )
51 Social Reform: 1.Improvements in education and culture Schools and universities resumed admission Nine year compulsory education introduced Cultural and sports activities flourished A variety of books and movies available. Olympic Games Birth Control-”One child family policy”