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Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century World Civilizations 4 th ed. Chapter 33 1914 to Present.

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Presentation on theme: "Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century World Civilizations 4 th ed. Chapter 33 1914 to Present."— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century World Civilizations 4 th ed. Chapter to Present

2 Latin America After World War II  End of World War II saw stronger economies  Cold War inspires Marxist revolutionary agitation  Despite Coup, Peronism remains popular

3 Mexico and the PRI  Stability of PRI undercut by corruption and lack of social improvement  In 1995, Zapatista guerilla movement  Government negotiates NAFTA  Vicente Fox of the PAN party is elected - promises to end corruption and improve working conditions

4 Vicente Fox

5 Zapatistas

6 Radical Options in the 1950s  Radical unrest in several smaller countries  Mexico - increasingly conservative  Venezuela and Costa Rica - reform minded democrats in open elections  New post World War II revolutionaries look to Marxism as a guide  Government interest in order, not reform

7 Radical Options in the 1950s  Cold War ideological battle between Soviet Bloc and the West makes Socialist path dangerous  Failures of political democratization, economic development, and social reform throughout Latin America  Economy based solely on export crops

8 Guatemala: Reform and United States Intervention  Middle-class/labor elected Arevalo starts “spiritual socialism”. Fights foreign interests (UFC)  United States fears communist takeover, organizes military takeover of Guatemala  U.S.-friendly government reverses change

9 The Cuban Revolution: Socialism in the Caribbean  Cuba has large middle class, high literacy and health care levels  Batista’s reforms marred by corruption  Castro meets Ernesto “Che” Guevera, gathers military forces, gains strength  “26th July Movement” gains support  U.S. hostility, Soviet Union support, missile crisis, economic change fails

10 Fidel Castro

11 Ernesto “Che” Guevera

12 The Search for Reform and the Military Option  Programs based in Catholic, Marxist, and capitalist doctrines seek solutions  Liberation theology combines Catholic theology and socialist principles to seek social justice  Stress social equality as a form of personal salvation  Changing stance of church in Latin America provokes violence

13 Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power  Success of Cuban Revolution worried opponents of communist revolutionary change  Military forces had been involved in politics since caudillos in 19th century  Professionalized military began to see themselves as above selfish interests of political parties

14 Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power  Military establishments intervene directly in politics, fearing leftist shift  Brazilian military (with U.S. support) overthrows elected president who promised sweeping reforms  Chilean military overthrows Allende’s socialist government  Soldiers in power establish economic stability; place nationalist interest first

15 Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power  Policies formulated and applied by military styled bureaucracy  Goal of government was development; burden falls heaviest on working class  Industrialization increased, social situations stagnant  Peruvian reform policies successful

16 The New Democratic Trends  By the mid-1980s, government was returning to civilian politicians  Reduced threat of Cuban style communism  End of Cold War ends U.S. support for repressive anticommunist regimes  Shining Path, a leftist guerilla movement, interrupted Peruvian elections

17 The New Democratic Trends  A return of electoral democracy becomes widespread in Latin America  U.S. reaffirms its power in the region with capture of Noriega  Large foreign loans for development created huge debt, which caused inflation  Drug trade creates powerful cartels

18 Manuel Noriega

19 The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence  After World War I, U.S. was predominant power in the hemisphere  Economies of Latin American countries closely tied to the United States  Banana Republics - friendly dictatorships  Foreign interventions lead to growing nationalist reactions

20 The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence  Roosevelt introduces the Good Neighbor policy, promised to deal fairly  Cold War leads to changing U.S. strategy for Latin America  United States stemmed socialist spread by supporting democratic or anticommunist governments.

21 The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence  Alliance for Progress aimed to develop regions economically  ’s: pragmatic U.S. policy  U.S. agreed to cede the Panama Canal to Panama

22 Societies in Search of Change  Social relations changed slowly, women granted more rights  Politicians and artists tried to identify and confront persistent problems  Social, racial, and gender relations changed slowly  Indians still looked down upon, but they are a recognized part of the Latin American culture

23 Slow Change in Women’s Roles  Most Latin American women gained suffrage in the 1940’s and 50’s  Latin American nations also feel the pressure of feminist organizations, as well as the international community  Greater equality for women by 1990s.

24 The Movement of People  High fertility and low mortality rates in the latter half of the century caused a population boom in Latin America  Major trend was immigration to Latin  Urban migration plays a large role  Huge urban centers in Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Buenos Aires

25 The Movement of People  Lack of jobs for the new onslaught of urbanization, shantytowns for housing  Horrible living conditions in favelas  Percentage of urban population is greatest of developing countries

26 Mexico City

27 Cultural Reflections of Despair and Hope  Latin America remains amalgamation of cultures and peoples  Catholicism is still dominant  Struggle for social justice, economic security, and successful political formulas is an inspiration for artistic creativity

28 Global Connections: Struggling Toward the Future in a Global Economy  Latin America still searches and struggles for economic growth, social justice, and political stability  The world economy has allowed Latin America to grow economically


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