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Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century World Civilizations 4th ed. Chapter 33 1914 to Present.

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Presentation on theme: "Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century World Civilizations 4th ed. Chapter 33 1914 to Present."— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century World Civilizations 4th ed. Chapter 33
1914 to Present

2 Latin America After World War II
End of World War II saw stronger economies Cold War inspires Marxist revolutionary agitation Despite Coup, Peronism remains popular

3 Mexico and the PRI Stability of PRI undercut by corruption and lack of social improvement In 1995, Zapatista guerilla movement Government negotiates NAFTA Vicente Fox of the PAN party is elected - promises to end corruption and improve working conditions

4 Vicente Fox

5 Zapatistas

6 Radical Options in the 1950s
Radical unrest in several smaller countries Mexico - increasingly conservative Venezuela and Costa Rica - reform minded democrats in open elections New post World War II revolutionaries look to Marxism as a guide Government interest in order, not reform

7 Radical Options in the 1950s
Cold War ideological battle between Soviet Bloc and the West makes Socialist path dangerous Failures of political democratization, economic development, and social reform throughout Latin America Economy based solely on export crops

8 Guatemala: Reform and United States Intervention
Middle-class/labor elected Arevalo starts “spiritual socialism”. Fights foreign interests (UFC) United States fears communist takeover, organizes military takeover of Guatemala U.S.-friendly government reverses change

9 The Cuban Revolution: Socialism in the Caribbean
Cuba has large middle class, high literacy and health care levels Batista’s reforms marred by corruption Castro meets Ernesto “Che” Guevera, gathers military forces, gains strength “26th July Movement” gains support U.S. hostility, Soviet Union support, missile crisis, economic change fails

10 Fidel Castro

11 Ernesto “Che” Guevera

12 The Search for Reform and the Military Option
Programs based in Catholic, Marxist, and capitalist doctrines seek solutions Liberation theology combines Catholic theology and socialist principles to seek social justice Stress social equality as a form of personal salvation Changing stance of church in Latin America provokes violence

13 Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power
Success of Cuban Revolution worried opponents of communist revolutionary change Military forces had been involved in politics since caudillos in 19th century Professionalized military began to see themselves as above selfish interests of political parties

14 Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power
Military establishments intervene directly in politics, fearing leftist shift Brazilian military (with U.S. support) overthrows elected president who promised sweeping reforms Chilean military overthrows Allende’s socialist government Soldiers in power establish economic stability; place nationalist interest first

15 Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power
Policies formulated and applied by military styled bureaucracy Goal of government was development; burden falls heaviest on working class Industrialization increased, social situations stagnant Peruvian reform policies successful

16 The New Democratic Trends
By the mid-1980s, government was returning to civilian politicians Reduced threat of Cuban style communism End of Cold War ends U.S. support for repressive anticommunist regimes Shining Path, a leftist guerilla movement, interrupted Peruvian elections

17 The New Democratic Trends
A return of electoral democracy becomes widespread in Latin America U.S. reaffirms its power in the region with capture of Noriega Large foreign loans for development created huge debt, which caused inflation Drug trade creates powerful cartels

18 Manuel Noriega

19 The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence
After World War I, U.S. was predominant power in the hemisphere Economies of Latin American countries closely tied to the United States Banana Republics - friendly dictatorships Foreign interventions lead to growing nationalist reactions

20 The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence
Roosevelt introduces the Good Neighbor policy, promised to deal fairly Cold War leads to changing U.S. strategy for Latin America United States stemmed socialist spread by supporting democratic or anticommunist governments.

21 The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence
Alliance for Progress aimed to develop regions economically ’s: pragmatic U.S. policy U.S. agreed to cede the Panama Canal to Panama

22 Societies in Search of Change
Social relations changed slowly, women granted more rights Politicians and artists tried to identify and confront persistent problems Social, racial, and gender relations changed slowly Indians still looked down upon, but they are a recognized part of the Latin American culture

23 Slow Change in Women’s Roles
Most Latin American women gained suffrage in the 1940’s and 50’s Latin American nations also feel the pressure of feminist organizations, as well as the international community Greater equality for women by 1990s.

24 The Movement of People High fertility and low mortality rates in the latter half of the century caused a population boom in Latin America Major trend was immigration to Latin Urban migration plays a large role Huge urban centers in Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Buenos Aires

25 The Movement of People Lack of jobs for the new onslaught of urbanization, shantytowns for housing Horrible living conditions in favelas Percentage of urban population is greatest of developing countries

26 Mexico City

27 Cultural Reflections of Despair and Hope
Latin America remains amalgamation of cultures and peoples Catholicism is still dominant Struggle for social justice, economic security, and successful political formulas is an inspiration for artistic creativity

28 Global Connections: Struggling Toward the Future in a Global Economy
Latin America still searches and struggles for economic growth, social justice, and political stability The world economy has allowed Latin America to grow economically

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