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The Rise of Nationalism World History, FHS May 2010.

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1 The Rise of Nationalism World History, FHS May 2010

2 Nationalism What is a nation? Many scholars believe that “nation” refers to people who share ideas about themselves. These ideas come from sources like a shared language, ethnicity, culture, religion, geography, spirituality, and politics.

3 Nationalism (cont’d) Nationalism began as people started taking the symbols of their nations and making them part of their sense of themselves. This can happen consciously or unconsciously. As a result, a feeling of belonging to a nation becomes part of people’s identity. This sense of national identity can be understood as a form of collective identity that is shared by many people.

4 Nationalism (cont’d) Nationalism defined: love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination So, why do you think nationalism might have played a part in causing World War II?

5 While you watch, TAKE NOTES and be sure to jot down any examples you see/hear of nationalism (click to play)

6 … “isms” In some countries, such as Germany, Russia, Japan and Italy, nationalism led to a lot of struggle over power, economics and land. The different leaders who wielded this power tried to use it in different ways that they saw as best for their countries. These different policies resulted in a lot of “isms” (ideological ways to run the countries): Socialism Communism Fascism Totalitarianism Militarism

7 Socialism The Nazi Party (also called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party) is an example of a socialist government. Hitler, the leader of the party, spoke out against communism. Socialism doesn’t have to be led by a dictator, and isn’t racist by nature. However, under Hitler, socialism was the basis for a totalitarian dictatorship.

8 Socialism (cont’d) Socialism defined: A completely classless society, where the government controls all means of production and distribution of goods A society characterized by equal access to resources for all individuals with a method of compensation based on the amount of labor expended Characterized by the absence of private property The idea is that if everyone works, everyone will reap the same benefits and prosper equally. Therefore, everyone receives equal earnings, medical care and other necessities.

9 Communism Lenin took over Russia in 1917 and was the first leader to put socialism to the test (before Hitler) His form of socialism was communism. He started the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Communism is a more aggressive form of socialism, though they both aim to eliminate class struggle by encouraging government control of the economy

10 Communism (Cont’d) Lenin died of a stroke 7 years after he started the Russian Revolution. Josef Stalin took control in 1927 and eliminated all of his rivals by Stalin’s Soviet Communism is sometimes called Stalinism. He became the world leader of the international communist movement. He controlled the economy, made all farming collective, and controlled religion (promoting atheism)

11 Communism (Cont’d) Communism defined: a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership a branch of socialism that uses militant action to overthrow the upper class and government to achieve a utopian society a political theory favoring collectivism in a classless society

12 Fascism In 1922, Benito Mussolini along with a small group of men marched into Rome and demanded that they be allowed to form a government. They feared the spread of communism and “stopped its spread” when the king gave in to their demand. Mussolini formed a fascist totalitarian dictatorship to resist communism and run the country, based on: Ultra-nationalism Glorification of war (the ultimate expression of power) Alliances with big business Rejection of democracy (weak)

13 Fascism (cont’d) Fascism defined: A political regime, usually totalitarian ideologically based on: centralized government, government control of business, repression of criticism or opposition, a leader cult exalting the state and/or religion above individual rights

14 Totalitarianism Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin, despite their various forms of government, were all totalitarian dictators. They had almost unquestioned authority They led a single party that was in charge of ALL of the government They aggressively eliminated all opposition groups. And…

15 Totalitarianism (cont’d) They created a police state whose aim was to terrorize and control the people. Hitler’s SS and Gestapo (secret police) Stalin’s NKVDMussolini’s OVRA

16 Totalitarianism (cont’d) Totalitarianism defined: Dictatorship: a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) complete and unrestricted power in government A system of government where the people have virtually no authority and the state wields absolute control

17 Militarism In Japan in the 1930’s, the military replaced civilian politicians in the government. Japan invaded Manchuria, Ethiopia and China in order to gain natural resources from The new government officials ran the country under the theory of militarism : believing that the military should dominate the political and social life of the nation, and that the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation

18 Militarism (cont’d) Militarism defined: military is the foundation of a society's security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect a political orientation to maintain a strong military force AND to be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests

19 Nationalism Revisited What do socialism, communism, fascism, totalitarianism and militarism have to do with nationalism?

20 Classwork Complete the Graphic Organizer Be sure to give definitions AND examples Complete the question(s) on the back DUE by the end of class When you finish: Pick up an article on the Holocaust Read it Pull out important vocabulary. In your notes, write the words and define them. DUE TOMORROW.


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