Presentation on theme: "The Long Peace Late 19 th Century Society. OUTLINE Second Industrial Revolution Changes in Socialist Theory Working-Class Politicization Unionization."— Presentation transcript:
The Long Peace Late 19 th Century Society
OUTLINE Second Industrial Revolution Changes in Socialist Theory Working-Class Politicization Unionization in Europe Working-Class Political Parties IDENTIFICATIONS Second Industrial Revolution Marxism Reformism Evolutionary Socialism German Social Democratic Party Late 19th Century Social Order
Triumph of the Middle Classes The late 19th century marked the triumph of the middle classes in Europe, particularly Western Europe No matter the nature of the political regime, the middle classes enjoyed considerable political, social, & economic power by the end of the 19th century The middle classes no longer were a revolutionary class
Defining the Middle Class Middle Class (American English) refers to the middle income group Bürgertum (German) referred to citizens of a town (Burg) Bourgeoisie (French) referred to those who owned the means of production (factories). Marxist definition –Great variations among the middle classes –Lower middle classes (Petite bourgeoisie) –The middle classes’ political, social & cultural power derived from their economic might –The rise of the middle classes can be measured especially by the changing consumer culture at the end of the 19th century –Middle classes became the arbiters of taste –Birth of Department Stores
A street of old Paris Second French Empire ( ) Nationalism and authoritarian rule Industrialization Alterations to the urban landscape Defeat by Germany (1870)
The Razing of old Paris (1860s)
Paris after Baron Hausmann’s Reforms
Paris Sewers, ca. 1880
Honoré Daumier, The Empire is at Peace (1870) France at Mid-Century cont. Revolution ( ) Announcement of the Third Republic (1870) Siege of Paris Paris Commune
French Elections of 1870 PartyDelegates Orleanist214 Legitimist186 Republican150 Independent80 Bonapartist15
The Paris Commune (1871) France at Mid-Century cont. Revolution ( ) Announcement of the Third Republic (1870) Siege of Paris Paris Commune
Second Industrial Revolution Key Changes: –Industrial output soared in Western Europe –Industrialization spread to eastern & southern Europe –Germany overtook Britain as Europe’s leading economic power –New Industries: Oil, steel, chemicals, & optics –Significant technological advances –Abundance of new product appeared on the market. –Endemic economic crises in the last 3 decades of the 19 th century –Industrialization spurred on over-seas conquest, or imperialism Russia –1880s & 1890s – Russian government launched a massive industrialization drive. –Industrialization in Russia happened very quickly, but it was very uneven. –With the erection of large factories, workers were concentrated in urban centers, creating a new working class. Eiffel Tower (1889) stood as a monument to Europe technological innovation.
Changes in Socialist Theory Socialism was not a fixed term. Utopian Socialism Marxism –Definition: Theory that strives for a classless communist society through working- class revolution. In the years following the publication of the Communist Manifesto, socialists were hardly united behind Marx & Engels' program. Late 19 th & early 20 th century, most socialists focused on practical matters – rather than on theory or revolution. Reformism, Revisionism, Evolutionary Socialism –Wanted to achieve a classless socialist society. –Adopted a more gradual approach –Less radical – Distanced themselves from revolutionary means –Objectives: Eight-hour work day, greater democracy, universal suffrage, higher wages, improvements in working conditions, municipal utility reform, universal public education –Strategy: Use the legislature to achieve goals. –Historic roots of social democracy
Charles Darwin ( ) Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) 1. More individuals of every species born than could survive 2. Within each species as well as between species there was a constant struggle for survival 3. There were differences or variations among members of the same species which made some better fitted to the environment and therefore better able to survive. 4. All this resulted in the survival of the fittest. Descent of Man (1871) –Application to human development
Through science, Race becomes a natural category to differentiate types and ranks- -placing the white Anglo-Saxon male at the pinnacle of intellectual moral and physical development. Use of New Sciences and Empiricism to justify these categorizations Anthropology: the study of human beings Eugenics: study of human improvement through genetic means (first coined 1883) Phrenology: study of the physical features of the skull as an indication of mental faculties and character traits First developed late 18th and early 19th century by Franz-Joseph Gall Applications for justifying control of “undesirables” Criminals, Prostitutes, Mentally-Ill, Natives, Other… Scientific Racism: The Practice of Eugenics and Phrenology
Second wave of Industrialization Great Depression ( ) Growth of Trade Unions Popular Democracy and Mass Politics Universal Manhood Suffrage: France: 1871 Germany: 1871 Britain: 1884 Socialism as a Political Platform : German Socialist Workers’ Party (to become SPD) : Socialist International or Second International : German Socialist Democratic Party (SPD) meets in Erfurt: “Erfurt Program” 4.Revolutionary vs. Evolutionary Socialism Eduard Bernstein( ) and Evolutionary Socialism (1899) Transformation of Socialism
Second wave of Industrialization Great Depression ( ) Growth of Trade Unions Popular Democracy and Mass Politics Universal Manhood Suffrage: FRANCE & GERMANY: 1871 BRITAIN: 1884 Socialism as a Political Platform 1875: German Socialist Workers’ Party (to become SPD) 1889: Socialist International or Second International 1891: German Socialist Democratic Party (SPD) Revolutionary vs. Evolutionary Socialism Eduard Bernstein, Evolutionary Socialism (1899) Germany: SPD: 35% of vote in 1912 and largest single party by 1912 France: French socialists make up 20% of the Chamber of Deputies by 1912 Eduard Bernstein
ForAgainst Liberals11773 Conservatives Labour25 0 Irish Nationalists335 Total Women's Suffrage Bill (28th March, 1912) British Parliament The Challenge of Political Feminism 1869: John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor: “On the Subjection of Women” 1882: Married Women’s Property Act (Britain) 1894: Union of German Women’s Organization 1901: National Council of French Women 1903: British Women’s Social & Political Union Founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters 1907: Norway extends national vote to women 1910: Radicalization of British feminism Not until after WW I that women in Western societies begin to gain the vote
Emily Davison at 1913 Derby Day in King’s Park For Emmeline Pankhurst, militancy was "the argument of the broken pane." “We have brought the government of England to this position, that it has to face this alternative; either women are to be killed or women are to have the vote.”
French Anti-Catholic Journal The Catholic Conflict with Liberals and Nationalists Pius IX and the First Vatican Council (1870) The revival of popular Catholicism The German Kulturkampf (cultural struggle) ( ) The growth of the German Catholic Center Party Rerum Novarum (1891) Papal encyclical of Leo XIII addresses workers rights
Pope Pius IX ( ) 1848: Captured by Italian Revolutionaries 1854: Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 1864: Syllabus of Errors The Catholic Church in the late 19th century
The Choice of the Church in the late 19 th century Pope Pius IX ( ) 1848: Captured by Italian Revolutionaries 1854: Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 1864: Syllabus of Errors : First Vatican Council 1871: Doctrine of Papal Infallibility Encouragement of Personal Piety and Mysticism –Lourdes in France in 1858 –Marpingen in the mid-1870s The Catholic Church in the late 19th century
Pope Pius IX ( ) 1848: Captured by Italian Revolutionaries 1854: Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 1864: Syllabus of Errors : First Vatican Council 1871: Doctrine of Papal Infallibility Rejection of Modernity and the ensuing kulturkampf Social Responsibility 1891: Pope Leo XIII ( ): Rerum Novarum The Catholic Church in the late 19th century
Immaculata Chapel on the outskirts of Marpingen (near Luxembourg) Appearances of the Virgin Mary at Marpingen in the mid-1870s Encouragement of Personal Piety and Mysticism
The New Mangerial Class of the Second Industrial Revolution
Female white collar jobs Typists and phone workers Late 19 th century middle class society and culture White collar workers The professions Leisure and sports Department stores and consumer culture Free and compulsory schooling
A Women‘s Bicycle Race, ca Late 19 th century middle class society and culture White collar workers The professions Leisure and sports Department stores and consumer culture Free and compulsory schooling
Le Bon Marché: A Department Store in Paris ca. 1880
Le Bon Marché Paris, France
Éduoard Manet, A Bar at the Foilies-Bergère (1882)
George Seurat, A Sunday on La Grande-Jatte (1884)
Cartoon ridiculing Charles Darwin (1860) Challenges to Rationalism and Liberalism Catholic reactions Darwinism Freud and Psychoanalysis Friedrich Nietzsche Modern Art
Sigmund Freud ( ) Challenges to Rationalism and Liberalism Catholic reactions Darwinism Freud and Psychoanalysis Friedrich Nietzsche Modern Art
Friedrich Nietzsche ( ) Challenges to Rationalism and Liberalism Catholic reactions Darwinism Freud and Psychoanalysis Friedrich Nietzsche Modern Art: Expressionism and Cubism
Socialism and Anti-Socialism in Germany Anti-Socialist Laws ( )+ Socialist worker culture Bismarck’s social legislation: 1884, Eduard Bernstein: Evolutionary Socialism Growth of the public sphere and right wing extra- parliamentary pressure groups (1890-) New conservatism: Against the status quo.
British Cartoon of Anti- Socialist Laws (1878)
Dreyfus Affair ( ) 1894 – A French army captain, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, was convicted of treason for having sold military secrets to Germany. Once it was revealed that the army had forged the evidence, a new trial was held, but again Dreyfus was again found guilty.
Dreyfus Affair Splits France The controversy over whether Dreyfus was guilty or innocent divided all social classes. The reputation of the army was seen as more important than justice for one man.
Dreyfus Affair Splits France Liberals took up Dreyfus case, eg. Èmile Zola The Dreyfus Affair proved that a new kind of nationalism – a racist nationalism – had been born in the birthplace of the Enlightenment It was only in 1906 that Dreyfus was exonerated by a presidential pardon.