Presentation on theme: "Nations and Nationalities in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and after the Break Selma Muhič-Dizdarevič, MA Faculty of Humanities."— Presentation transcript:
Nations and Nationalities in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and after the Break Selma Muhič-Dizdarevič, MA Faculty of Humanities
History Democratic Federative Yugoslavia was reconstituted at the AVNOJ or the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia conference in Jajce (November, 29 – December,4, 1943) while negotiations with the royal government in exile continued. On November, 29, 1945 the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia was established (also by AVNOJ in Jajce). On January 31, 1945, the new constitution of FPR Yugoslavia established the six constituent republics. The first president was Ivan Ribar and prime minister Josip Broz Tito. In 1953, Tito was elected as president and later in 1963 named „President for life".
History Like the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that preceded it, the SFRY bordered Italy and Austria to the northwest, Hungary and Romania to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece and Albania to the south, and the Adriatic Sea to the west. Yugoslavia, unlike other Eastern and Central European communist countries, chose a course independent of the Soviet Union (Informbiro), and was not a member of the Warsaw pact nor NATO, but rather than that initiated a Non-Aligned Movement in 1956.
Internal Organization Six socialist republics and two autonomous regions Despite common origins, the economy of socialist Yugoslavia was much different from economies of the Soviet Union and other Eastern European socialist countries, especially after the Yugoslav-Soviet break-up of 1948. Rather then being owned by the state, companies were socially owned and managed with workers' self- management. The occupation and liberation struggle in World War II left Yugoslavia's infrastructure devastated.
Internal Organization With the exception of a recession in mid-1960s, the country's economy prospered formidably. Unemployment was low and the education level of the working force steadily increased. From seventies organized on the principle of workers´ self-management system. Due to Yugoslavia's neutrality and a leading role in the Non-aligned Movement, Yugoslav companies exported to both Western and Eastern markets. Yugoslav companies carried out construction of numerous major infrastructural and industrial projects in Africa, Europe and Asia.
The Second World War 27 March 1941 protests, which slowed down Nazi attack on USSR Occupied by Germans and Italians, each republic had both anti and pro-occupation forces. Internal genocides (Croats to Serbs, Serbs to Bosniaks, etc.) Partisans under Tito, uncompromisingly against occupation and “domestic traitors“ gradually become the leading force After the war, “Informbiro” affair
Democracy One-party rule Communist party was the only existing party. Pluralism of regional communist parties on republic levels. False democracy – communism with human face (most important freedom to travel)
National question SFRJ was a multinational and multiethnic society. Nations – recognized as full citizens. Nationalities – a highly developed level of minority rights. TV programs, schools, universities in all the languages. Part of mainstream curriculum always included references to minorities. The main slogan: brotherhood and unity
National question Compared to the states created after the last Balkan wars, level of minority rights was very high. Attempts at organizing politically on national basis were prohibited and stigmatized, but carriers of the ideas were not being destroyed by the system. The nations and nationalities were free to organize on cultural basis. No signs that the conflict would be so brutal.
National question Slovenia – homogenous + guestworkers from other republics Croatia – Serbian minority Bosnia – three basic nations (Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs) Serbia – various minorities, Albanians, Hungarians Macedonia – Albanian minority Montenegro – Bosniak and Albanians
Wars Tito dies in 1980, Milosevic comes to power in 1987, conflict in Slovenia in 1990, war in Croatia 1991, in Bosnia 1992, in Kosovo 1999. Some of the causes: total lack of democratic experience, with use of procedure; hunger for ideology, after the break of communism; communist elite bridging the power gap; approach of international community; Shrap decrease in minority rights in all the new states, only in Bosnia 150,000 people dead, millions displaced…
Post-war situation in ex-Yu Slovenia Homogenous, in the EU, guestworkers became missing persons, without documents, without rights Transit and destination country for asylum- seekers
Croatia Croats from Bosnia and Herzegovina as refugees in Croatia, now citizens, in conflict with local Serbs Serbs, as the most visible minority, reduced in number after the war with Serbia and local Serbs. Territorially concentrated, politically organized (affirmative action). De facto isolated and unpopular. Amnesty after the war ended in 1994 Serbs threatened as witnesses of war crimes Problems with Serbian property
Bosnia and Herzegovina The war ended with Dayton Agreement, ethnically based political organization Three constitutive nations, others ignored Each tenth adult Bosniak male was killed Under a partial protectorate of international community Ethnic principle blocks integration, the conflict from the war has not been resolved A lot of Serbs from Croatia, who expelled Bosniaks and Croats Privileged position of Serbs from Serbia
Serbia After the wars Serbia led for ethnically cleansed territory, Serbia ended up as a country with a highest percentage of minorities and lost charge of Kosovo. Serbian state is still organized on the basis of a dominant nation, together will elements of Christian Orthodox clericalism. Minorities virtually invisible, heavy influx of Bosnian and Croatian Serbs, who used to be privileged and constructed a pillar of Milosevic`s power. Kosovo: Albanians heavily oppressed mainly by Serbs, after the NATO intervention, they oppress others.
Serbia Vojvodina: some 20 nations, mainly Serbs and Hungarians, fight for autonomy, some degree of multiethnic tolerance Sandzak: area between Serbia and Montenegro, mostly populated by Bosniaks, potential conflict Serbs: still don`t “believe” crimes were committed by their state and on their behalf. ICTY is largely regarded by both Serbs and Croats as biased. The state of BiH sues the state of Serbia for invasion and seeks reparation.
Montenegro Constituted from Montenegrins, Serbs, Bosniaks, Albanians. Partially independent from Serbia, referendum expected. The most multicultural environment, partly because the common opposition to Serbian claims in Montenegro.
Macedonia Main opposition between Macedonians and Albanians, threat of a civil war. Still not completely recognized by the international community – that creates problems, too. A high percentage of Roma.
Conclusion Sharp decline of minority rights in post- communist post-war situation. Majorities profited from it, but only partially. The rising question: European integration and relation to minorities.