The Cold War 1945-1990 US vs Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Define Cold War The strategic and political struggle that developed after WWII between the United States and its Western European allies and the Soviet Union and Eastern European allies Democracy vs. Communism
Discussion Communism vs. Democracy Socialism vs. Capitalism
Cold War Characterisitcs A political, strategic and ideological struggle between the US and the USSR that spread throughout the world:Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. It was a struggle that contained everything short of war….? Each side denied the others right to exist. Each side used propaganda against the other.
Causes of the Cold War Different political systems -US is based on democracy, capitalism and freedom -USSR is based on dictatorship, communism and control Both thought their system was better and distrusted the others intentions Stalin despised capitalism
Causes of Cold War Stalin breaking his promise to allow free elections at the Yalta Conference American fear of a communist attack(Red Scare) and USSR’s fear of a US attack USSR’s fear of the atomic bomb USSR’s actions in their German zone USSR’s goal to spread communism around the world This feeling of suspicion lead to mutual distrust and this did a great deal to deepen the Cold War
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for US Wanted to promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa Stop the spread of communism
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for the USSR Wanted to create greater security for itself -lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin’s purges -feared a strong Germany Establish defensible borders Encourage friendly governments on it’s borders Spread communism around the world
Before the end of the World War II, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met at Yalta to plan what should happen when the war ended. They agreed on many points: 1.The establishment of the United Nations. 2.Germany to be divided into four zones. 3.Free elections allowed in the states of eastern Europe. 4.Russia promised to join the war against Japan. 5.Although they could not agree about what should happen to Poland, relations between the leaders were good, and the Conference was a success.
Winston Churchill “Iron Curtain” Speech “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. Athens alone -- Greece with its immortal glories -- is free to decide its future at an election under British, American and French observation. The Russian-dominated Polish Government has been encouraged to make enormous and wrongful inroads upon Germany, and mass expulsions of millions of Germans on a scale grievous and undreamed-of are now taking place. The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control. Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy.”
Truman Doctrine In 1947 the British were helping the Greek government fight against communist guerrillas. They appealed to America for aid, and the response was the Truman Doctrine. America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies, and by 1949 had defeated the communists. The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful western country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.
Marshall Plan In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war. There were two motives for this: –Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry. –A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was probably the main motive.
In 1948, the three western controlled zones of Germany (US, France, UK) were united, and grew in prosperity due to Marshal Aid. The west wanted the east to rejoin, but Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. In June 1948, Stalin decided to try to gain control of West Berlin which was deep inside the eastern sector. He cut road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission. The west responded by airlifting in the necessary supplies to allow west Berlin to survive. In May 1949, Russia admitted defeat and lifted the blockade.
On Aug. 3, 1948, Whittaker Chambers, a senior editor from Time magazine and self-admitted ex-communist, appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) identifying Alger Hiss and several other federal officials of having been members of a Communist cell whose purpose had been to infiltrate the U.S. government. A special subcommittee of HUAC, headed by Richard Nixon, convened on Aug. 7, 1948 to re-examine Chambers. Under intense questioning, Chambers offered many intimate details of Hiss' personal affairs in the '30s and claimed that they had been close friends.
Despite the confidence in which Chambers made his charges, he provided no concrete evidence to support them. On May 31, 1949, the trial of Alger Hiss began. On the witness stand, Chambers confessed to many sins: immorality, lying and attempted betrayal of his country, but never did he admit that his allegations were false. Hiss vigorously maintained innocence. On July 7, 1949, the trial ended with a deadlocked jury: 8-4 in favor of conviction. The second trial began on Nov. 17, 1949, and ended two months later on Jan. 21, 1950, with a new jury finding Hiss guilty on both counts. Hiss' conviction was later upheld by the Court of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court. Hiss served five years in prison. In 1992, a former Soviet intelligence officer said that Hiss was not a Soviet spy, but rather a victim of Cold War hysteria.
NATO In 1949 the western nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to co-ordinate their defense against Russia. It consisted of: -America, Canada, Britain, France, Holland, Belgium Luxembourg, Portugal, Denmark, Norway and Italy Still exists today
McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) was a Republican Senator from Appleton, Wisconsin, who did the most to whip up anti-communism during the 1950s. On February 9, 1950, he gave a speech where he claimed to have a list of 205 Communists in the State Department. No one in the press actually saw the names on the list, but McCarthy's announcement made the national news. McCarthy continued to repeat his groundless charges and the number of Communists on his list fluctuated from speech to speech.
During this time one state required pro wrestlers to take a loyalty oath before stepping into the ring. In Indiana, a group of anti-communists indicted Robin Hood (and its vaguely socialistic message that the book's hero had a right to rob from the rich and give to the poor) forced librarians to pull the book from the shelves. Baseball's Cincinnati Reds renamed themselves the "Redlegs."
Supporters of McCarthy 1.Republicans 2.Catholics 3.Conservative Protestants 4.Blue-collar workers 5.Joseph and Robert Kennedy
McCarthy’s Downfall In the spring of 1954, however, the tables turned when McCarthy charged that the United States Army had promoted a dentist accused of being a Communist. For the first time, television broadcast allowed the general public to see the Senator as a blustering bully and his investigations as little more than a misguided scam. In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure him for his conduct and to strip him of his privileges. McCarthy died three years later from alcoholism. The term "McCarthyism" lives on to describe anti- Communist fervor, reckless accusations, and guilt by association.
Thirteen Days Be able to describe what happened in the crisis. Be able to describe the different choices that Kennedy had to choose from in dealing with this threat. Be able to explain the compromise that was reached to end the crisis. Be able to explain how this crisis was an example of brinkmanship.
Kent St. Massacre May, 1970 The first serious disorder started on Friday evening, near the Kent State campus. At approximately 11:00 P. M., students attempted to barricade a street on which several bars and other commercial businesses were located. In addition, a bonfire was started in the middle of the street, and students began to harass passing motorists and pedestrians. Initially, city police did not intervene. However, as complaints mounted, officials decided to close the bars, hoping that students would retreat to the campus. Instead, angry students left the bars and began to congregate in the streets. Soon, antiwar chants were raised, and some students hurled rocks and bottles at the police as well as at fellow students. Some in the crowd of about twelve hundred people broke store and office windows. The police chased the crowd toward the campus and, at about 2:00 A.M., finally dispersed it with tear gas. Sixty arrests were made, and the damage to businesses in downtown Kent was estimated to be in excess of thirty thousand dollars.
All day Saturday, the Kent State campus was relatively calm. At about 8:00 P.M., a crowd began to congregate on the Commons, and within an hour, more than one thousand students were present. People began to throw rocks at the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) facility, which was located adjacent to the Commons. After several windows were broken out, a fire was started inside the facility. At 9:00 P.M., the fire department arrived. Their arrival was greeted by thrown rocks and numerous attempts to puncture fire hoses. The fire trucks retreated under this attack, and at 9:30 P.M., campus police dispersed the crowd with tear gas. Shortly thereafter, the Ohio National Guard arrived on the Commons under orders to protect the ROTC facility. At this point, however, they could do little more than watch the facility continue to burn. Once the crowd had been dispersed from the Commons, there were no further incidents on Saturday night.
On Monday morning, students returned to classes, and it seemed as if Kent State University might return to normal. At about 11:45 A.M., a crowd that eventually grew to three thousand students began to gather on the Commons. Although no organized protest or demonstration was attempted, some two hundred students began to taunt guard members who were positioned around the remnants of the ROTC facility. The students were informed they were in violation of Sunday's order prohibiting demonstrations. Tear gas was used to disperse the crowd. Memoirs of: Ernest G. Rigney, Jr. Professor Department of Sociology and Anthropology College of Charleston
One group of students descended a shallow hill that led to a nearby football practice field. They were followed by about seventy armed National Guardsmen wearing gas masks. The National Guardsmen essentially marched themselves onto a field that was enclosed on three sides--they could not go forward or to either side. Students began to throw rocks and chunks of dirt at the troops, who responded by firing tear gas canisters. Soon students were throwing the canisters back at the guard members. After tossing tear gas canisters back and forth for several minutes, the National Guard regrouped, knelt, and leveled their weapons at the students. Students responded with taunts and the chant, "Shoot, shoot, shoot." Abruptly, the troops marched off the field and back up the shallow hill. When they reached the hill's crest, at about 12:24 P.M., about two dozen members of the guard turned around and began firing. The firing lasted for thirteen seconds, and when it was over, four students--Jeffrey Miller, Allison Krause, William Schroeder, and Sandra Scheuer--were dead or dying, and nine others were wounded.
Once the firing stopped, some students began to cluster around the dying and wounded. Others began to regroup and move toward the National Guardsmen. The troops who had fired were immediately ordered from the area, and the remaining troops prepared to advance against the students a second time. For a brief moment, it appeared as if another clash was about to occur. Several faculty members moved between students and the National Guard. The faculty members pleaded with students to remain calm or leave the area; and, simultaneously, they pleaded with guard officers not to advance their troops against the remaining students. There was an uneasy standoff until ambulances started to arrive. After the dead and injured were removed, stunned and disbelieving students slowly vacated the area. Shortly thereafter, Kent State University was closed by order of President White for the remainder of the semester, and a new wave of protests and demonstrations swept college and university campuses throughout the United States.
Article I The Parties undertake not to start construction of additional fixed land- based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) launchers after July 1, 1972. Article II The Parties undertake not to convert land-based launchers for light ICBMs, or for ICBMs of older types deployed prior to 1964, into land- based launchers for heavy ICBMs of types deployed after that time. Article III The Parties undertake to limit submarine- launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers and modern ballistic missile submarines to the numbers operational and under construction on the date of signature of this Interim Agreement, and in addition to launchers and submarines constructed under procedures established by the Parties as replacements for an equal number of ICBM launchers of older types deployed prior to 1964 or for launchers on older submarines. Article IV Subject to the provisions of this Interim Agreement, modernization and replacement of strategic offensive ballistic missiles and launchers covered by this Interim Agreement may be undertaken.
Article V 1. For the purpose of providing assurance of compliance with the provisions of this Interim Agreement, each Party shall use national technical means of verification at its disposal in a manner consistent with generally recognized principles of international law. 2. Each Party undertakes not to interfere with the national technical means of verification of the other Party operating in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article. 3. Each Party undertakes not to use deliberate concealment measures which impede verification by national technical means of compliance with the provisions of this Interim Agreement. This obligation shall not require changes in current construction, assembly, conversion, or overhaul practices. Article VI To promote the objectives and implementation of the provisions of this Interim Agreement, the Parties shall use the Standing Consultative Commission established under Article XIII of theTreaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems in accordance with the provisions of that Article. Article VII The Parties undertake to continue active negotiations for limitations on strategic offensive arms.The obligations provided for in this Interim Agreement shall not prejudice the scope or terms ofthe limitations on strategic offensive arms which may be worked out in the course of further negotiations.
Article VIII 1. This Interim Agreement shall enter into force upon exchange of written notices of acceptance by each Party, which exchange shall take place simultaneously with the exchange of instruments of ratification of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti- Ballistic Missile Systems. 2. This Interim Agreement shall remain in force for a period of five years unless replaced earlier by an agreement on more complete measures limiting strategic offensive arms. It is the objective of the Parties to conduct active follow-on negotiations with the aim of concluding such an agreement as soon as possible. 3. Each Party shall, in exercising its national sovereignty, have the right to withdraw from this Interim Agreement if it decides that extraordinary events related to the subject matter of this Interim Agreement have jeopardized its supreme interests. It shall give notice of its decision to the other Party six months prior to withdrawal from this Interim Agreement. Such notice shall include a statement of the extraordinary events the notifying Party regards as having jeopardized its supreme interests. DONE at Moscow on May 26, 1972, in two copies, each in the English and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic. FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: RICHARD NIXON President of the United States of America FOR THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS: L.I. BREZHNEV General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU
Discussion Why did the US win the Cold War? Why did the USSR lose the Cold War?
1.We had close ties with our Allies and the USSR didn’t. 2.China started siding with us after 1972. 3.The Soviet economy was in shambles whereas the US’s was flourishing. 1.Huge deficit 2.High inflation 3.Corruption 4.Social problems 5.Shortage of basic needs(food, housing)
4. The strong anti-communist presidency of Reagan. 5. Gorbachev’s willingness for change and reform. 1. glasnost and perestroika 2. admitted Soviet mistakes 3. took blame for the Cold War 4. communist system had failed 6. Arms Reduction Talks 1. SALT, INF, Reagan-Gorbachev meetings
7. Soviet Mistakes 1. invasion of Afghanistan 2. ignoring social concerns 3. spent everything on military