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Optical Activity Enantiomers are different compounds:

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Presentation on theme: "Optical Activity Enantiomers are different compounds:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Optical Activity Enantiomers are different compounds:
Same boiling point, melting point, density Same refractive index Rotate plane polarized light in opposite directions (polarimetry) Different interaction with other chiral molecules Enzymes Taste buds, scent

2 Optical Activity Polarimetry is a laboratory technique that measures the interaction between a compound and plane polarized light. Since enantiomers interact with plane polarized light differently, polarimetry can be used to distinquish between enantiomers.

3 Optical Activity “Regular” (unpolarized) light vibrates in all directions. Plane-polarized light: light composed of waves that vibrate in only a single plane obtained by passing unpolarized light through a polarizing filter

4 Optical Activity When plane polarized light passes through a solution containing a single chiral compound, the chiral compound causes the plane of vibration to rotate. Polarimeter

5 Optical Activity Chiral compounds are optically active:
capable of rotating the plane of polarized light Enantiomers rotate the plane of polarized light by exactly the same amount but in opposite directions. (R)-2-butanol (S)-2-butanol +13.5o rotation -13.5o rotation

6 Optical Activity Compounds that rotate the plane of polarized light to the right (clockwise) are called dextrorotatory. d (+) IUPAC convention Compounds that rotate the plane of polarized light to the left (counterclockwise) are called levorotatory. l (-) IUPAC convention

7 Optical Activity +13.5o rotation -13.5o rotation (+)-2-butanol (-)-2-butanol (S)-(+)-2-butanol (R)-(-)-2-butanol The direction and magnitude of rotation must be determined experimentally. There is NO CORRELATION between (R) and (S) configuration and the direction of rotation.

8 Optical Activity (S)-(-)-thyroxine biologically active (R)-(+)-thyroxine inactive Unlike (R)-(-)-2-butanol, (R)-thyroxine rotates light to the right.

9 Optical Activity The angular rotation observed in a polarimeter depends on: the optical activity of the compound the concentration of the sample the path length of the sample cell A compound’s specific rotation [a] can be used as a characteristic physical property of a compound: the rotation observed using a 10-cm sample cell and a concentration of 1 g/mL.

10 Optical Activity where a = specific rotation c = concentration in g/mL
l = path length in dm a (observed) = rotation observed for a specific sample

11 Optical Activity Example: A solution of 2.0 g of (+)-glyceraldehyde in 10.0 mL of water was placed in a 100. mm polarimeter tube. Using the sodium D line, a rotation of 1.74o was observed at 25oC. Calculate the specific rotation of (+)-glyceraldehyde.

12 Optical Activity Given: a (obs) = 1.74o Find: [a]

13 Optical Activity +13.5o rotation -13.5o rotation (S)-(+)-2-butanol (R)-(-)-2-butanol A mixture containing equal amounts of (+)-2-butanol and (-)-2-butanol gives an observed rotation of zero degrees Just like an achiral molecule

14 Optical Activity A solution containing equal amounts of two enantiomers is called a racemic mixture. Racemate (+) pair (dl) pair Racemic mixtures are optically inactive. Racemic mixtures are designated using the prefix (+): (+)-2-butanol

15 Optical Activity Racemic mixtures are often formed during chemical reactions when the reactants and catalysts used are achiral.

16 Optical Activity Some mixtures are neither optically pure (all one enantiomer) nor racemic (equal mixture of both enantiomers). Optical purity: Ratio of the rotation of a mixture to the rotation of a pure enantiomer o.p. = observed rotation x 100% rotation of pure enantiomer

17 Optical Activity Example: (-)-2-butanol has a specific rotation of o while the specific rotation of (+)-2-butanol is +13.5o. A mixture containing (+) and (-)-2-butanol has an observed rotation of – 8.55o. Does the mixture contain more (+) or more (-)-2-butanol? Calculate the optical purity of the mixture.

18 Optical Activity Another method to express (or determine) the relative amounts of enantiomers present in a mixture is enantiomeric excess. Numerically identical to optical purity e.e. = o.p. = excess of one over the other x 100% entire mixture

19 Optical Activity Example: Calculate the e.e of a mixture containing 25% (+)-2-butanol and 75% (-)-2-butanol.

20 Optical Activity Example: Calculate the relative proportions of (+)-2-butanol and (-)-2-butanol required to give an observed rotation of +0.45o if the specific rotation of (+)-2-butanol is 13.5o.

21 Optical Activity Any (or all) of a set of diastereomers may be optically active (if it has a non-superimposable mirror image) Pairs of optically active diastereomers rotate light by different amounts. (+)-glucose + 52.5o (+)-galactose + 83.9o

22 Separation of Stereoisomers & Structural Isomers
Structural isomers and diastereomers have different physical properties: BP, MP, density, refractive index, solubility Can be separated through conventional means (distillation, recrystallization, chromatography) MP = 158oC MP = 256oC

23 Resolution of Enantiomers
Since enantiomers have identical physical properties, they cannot be separated by conventional methods. Distillation and recrystallization fail. The process of separating enantiomers is called resolution. Two methods: chemical resolution chromatographic resolution

24 Resolution of Enantiomers
Chemical resolution of enantiomers: temporarily convert both enantiomers into diastereomers react with an enantiomerically pure (natural) product separate the diastereomers based on differences in physical properties convert each diastereomer back into the original enantiomer

25 Resolution of Enantiomers

26 Resolution of Enantiomers
Chromatographic resolution of enantiomers: Prepare column containing stationary phase coated with a chiral compound Enantiomers form diastereomeric complexes with the chiral stationary phase Separate the diastereomeric complexes based on differences in affinity for stationary phase strongly complexed: elutes slowly weakly complexed: elutes more quickly

27 Chiral Compounds w/o Asymmetric Atoms
Although most chiral compounds have at least one asymmetric atom, there are some chiral compounds that have zero asymmetric atoms: conformation enantiomers allenes

28 Chiral Compounds w/o Asymmetric Atoms
Conformational enantiomers: compounds that are so bulky or so highly strained that they cannot easily confert from one chiral conformation to the mirror-image conformation “locked” into one conformation

29 Chiral Compounds w/o Asymmetric Atoms
Allenes: compounds containing a C=C=C unit central carbon is sp hybridized linear

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