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Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal System. 08-14-02Coeus Engineering2 Team Organization Jessica BadgerJessica Badger –Project Coordinator –Aerogels April.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal System. 08-14-02Coeus Engineering2 Team Organization Jessica BadgerJessica Badger –Project Coordinator –Aerogels April."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal System

2 08-14-02Coeus Engineering2 Team Organization Jessica BadgerJessica Badger –Project Coordinator –Aerogels April SnowdenApril Snowden –Researcher –Carbon nanotubes Dennis ArnoldDennis Arnold –Team Leader –Aerogels Julia ThompsonJulia Thompson –Researcher –Honeycomb structures Advisor: Dr. John Graf, NASA ECLSSAdvisor: Dr. John Graf, NASA ECLSS

3 08-14-02Coeus Engineering3 Overview Space Launch Initiative ProgramSpace Launch Initiative Program Current RCRS Design (Recap)Current RCRS Design (Recap) Carbon Dioxide/Moisture Removal System (CMRS) Design RequirementsCarbon Dioxide/Moisture Removal System (CMRS) Design Requirements Materials ResearchedMaterials Researched –Honeycomb structures –Carbon nanotubes –Aerogels Project SpecializationProject Specialization –Pressure drop Analysis through aerogel Summary/ConclusionsSummary/Conclusions

4 08-14-02Coeus Engineering4 Space Launch Initiative Program Focuses on the future of exploration and development of spaceFocuses on the future of exploration and development of space Creation of 2 nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)Creation of 2 nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) –Lower payload cost to less than $1,000 per pound –Incorporate latest technology for CO 2 removal

5 08-14-02Coeus Engineering5 Current RCRS Design 12 layered CO 2 adsorbent “beds”12 layered CO 2 adsorbent “beds” –6 layers per bed Alternating active and inactive layersAlternating active and inactive layers –Active layers remove CO 2 –Inactive layers exposed to vacuum to release CO 2 Dimensions: 3 ft x 1 ft x 1.5 ftDimensions: 3 ft x 1 ft x 1.5 ft Removes ≈ 0.62 lbs CO 2 /hourRemoves ≈ 0.62 lbs CO 2 /hour –7 member crew –Requires 26 lbs of solid amine chemical –Requires flow rates of 20 - 40 cfm

6 08-14-02Coeus Engineering6 Airflow Diagram of RCRS Layer 4 bead-filled foam chambers per layer4 bead-filled foam chambers per layer Retaining screensRetaining screens –Prevent beads from entering main air stream –8 screens per layer –Inlet and outlet –Create large pressure drop due to blockage at outlets

7 08-14-02Coeus Engineering7 Specific RCRS Components Ion-Resin BeadsIon-Resin Beads –Copolymer of polystyrene and divinylbenzene –≈.3mm diameter –Extremely porous –Coated surface area: 250-350 m 2 /cm 3 Aluminum Puffed Duocell Foam Aluminum Puffed Duocell Foam – Houses ion-resin beds – Structural rigidity – Heat transfer properties

8 08-14-02Coeus Engineering8 Solid-Amine Chemicals CO 2 and H 2 O “loosely” bond to solid-aminesCO 2 and H 2 O “loosely” bond to solid-amines Can be “coated” onto certain materialsCan be “coated” onto certain materials Air + solid-amine reaction produces heatAir + solid-amine reaction produces heat Common alkanolamine CO 2 adsorbents:Common alkanolamine CO 2 adsorbents: –monoethanolamine (MEA) –diethanolamine (DEA) –methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)

9 08-14-02Coeus Engineering9 Julia Thompson CMRS Requirments Honeycomb Structures

10 08-14-02Coeus Engineering10 CMRS Design Requirements Maximize solid-amine surface areaMaximize solid-amine surface area Maximize structural rigidityMaximize structural rigidity Maximize heat transfer from active to inactive bedsMaximize heat transfer from active to inactive beds Minimize pressure drop through each bedMinimize pressure drop through each bed

11 08-14-02Coeus Engineering11 Materials Researched Surface Area & Pressure Drop Carbon Nanotubes & Aerogels Structural Rigidity & Heat Transfer Aluminum Honeycomb

12 08-14-02Coeus Engineering12 Overview of Honeycombs

13 08-14-02Coeus Engineering13 Use of Honeycomb in CMRS Applied in directional air/fluid flow control and/or energy absorptionApplied in directional air/fluid flow control and/or energy absorption Available in various Aluminum alloysAvailable in various Aluminum alloys –2024-T81P Varied cell sizesVaried cell sizes –1/4” PerforatedPerforated –Allows three-dimensional air flow –Improves heat removal

14 08-14-02Coeus Engineering14 Use of Honeycomb in CMRS Grade C: Alloy 2024-T81PGrade C: Alloy 2024-T81P –Perforated –Hardened –Chemically treated for erosion protection 3 lbs/ft 33 lbs/ft 3 Total weight of honeycomb in system = 5 lbsTotal weight of honeycomb in system = 5 lbs 30 in 2 surface area per cubic inch30 in 2 surface area per cubic inch –more surface area = more heat removed

15 08-14-02Coeus Engineering15 Use of Honeycomb in CMRS

16 08-14-02Coeus Engineering16 Honeycomb vs. Duocell Foam

17 08-14-02Coeus Engineering17 April Snowden Carbon Nanotubes Aerogels

18 08-14-02Coeus Engineering18 Carbon Nanotube Attributes DiameterDiameter –Size of nanometers –1/50,000 th of a human hair LengthLength –Several micrometers –Largest is ~ 2 mm Each nanotube is a single moleculeEach nanotube is a single molecule –Hexagonal network of covalently bonded carbon atoms

19 08-14-02Coeus Engineering19 Carbon Nanotube Mechanical Properties Extremely strongExtremely strong –10-100 times stronger than steel per unit weight High elastic moduliHigh elastic moduli –About 1 TPa FlexibleFlexible –Can be flattened, twisted, or bent around sharp bends without breaking Great performance under compressionGreat performance under compression High thermal conductivityHigh thermal conductivity

20 08-14-02Coeus Engineering20 Carbon Nanotube Possible Uses Transistors & diodesTransistors & diodes Field emitters for flat- panel displaysField emitters for flat- panel displays Cellular-phone signal amplifiersCellular-phone signal amplifiers Ion storage for batteriesIon storage for batteries Materials strengthenerMaterials strengthener –Polymer composites –Low-viscosity composite

21 08-14-02Coeus Engineering21 Potential Use for CMRS Coat nanotubes with solid amineCoat nanotubes with solid amine –Maximize surface area Eliminate mesh retaining screenEliminate mesh retaining screen –Carbon nanotubes fixed to housing structure –No need for beads –Minimize pressure drop Nanotube structureNanotube structure –Replace aluminum Duocell foam with aluminum/carbon nanotube composite

22 08-14-02Coeus Engineering22 Aerogel Attributes Critically evaporated gelCritically evaporated gel Lightest solid knownLightest solid known Almost transparentAlmost transparentsolid

23 08-14-02Coeus Engineering23 Aerogels as Support Structures Young’s modulus: 10 6 – 10 7 N/m 2Young’s modulus: 10 6 – 10 7 N/m 2 Tensile strength:16 KpaTensile strength:16 Kpa Density: ≥ 0.003 g/m 3Density: ≥ 0.003 g/m 3 Support 1500 timesSupport 1500 times their own weight

24 08-14-02Coeus Engineering24 Aerogels as High Surface Area Materials Up to 99% airUp to 99% air Pore sizePore size –Range from 3 nm to 50 nm 3 nm to 50 nm –Average about 20 nm –Allows O 2 and N 2 molecules to flow through Effective surface area: 300 – 400 m 2 /cm 3Effective surface area: 300 – 400 m 2 /cm 3 Possible UsePossible Use –Replace ion resin beads

25 08-14-02Coeus Engineering25 Ion-Resin Beads / Carbon Nanotubes / Aerogels Properties Ion Resin Beads Carbon Nanotubes Aerogels Surface Area 250-350 m 2 /cm 3 300-800 m 2 /cm 3 300-400 m 2 /cm 3 Young's Modulus N/A 1 TPa 10 6 -10 7 Pa Tensile Strength N/A 30 GPa (max) 16 kPa

26 08-14-02Coeus Engineering26 Dennis Arnold New Design Plan Analysis of New Design

27 08-14-02Coeus Engineering27 Project Specialization Focused on use of aerogels in CMRSFocused on use of aerogels in CMRS –Time constraints –Amount of readily available information –Nanotubes are in early development stages –NASA currently researching nanotubes

28 08-14-02Coeus Engineering28 Aerogels Replacing Beads Issue of pressure drop through chambers full of aerogelIssue of pressure drop through chambers full of aerogel Discussed issue with Dr. Noel ClemensDiscussed issue with Dr. Noel Clemens –Aerogels would result in lack of sufficient airflow –Decided NOT to replace the beads with aerogel Decided to keep the beads, replace screenDecided to keep the beads, replace screen Concluded to research replacing the mesh screen with a thin slice of aerogelConcluded to research replacing the mesh screen with a thin slice of aerogel

29 08-14-02Coeus Engineering29 Aerogels Replacing Mesh Screen Air flow is choked by the beads at the outlet retaining screenAir flow is choked by the beads at the outlet retaining screen

30 08-14-02Coeus Engineering30 Aerogels Replacing Mesh Screen Theoretically, air flows around the beads and through the aerogel slice without blockageTheoretically, air flows around the beads and through the aerogel slice without blockage

31 08-14-02Coeus Engineering31 Aerogel Pressure Drop Analysis Start with Darcy’s Law:Start with Darcy’s Law: Q = volumetric flow rate K = permeability A = area perpendicular to flow L = length of flow across medium ∆P = Change in pressure across medium

32 08-14-02Coeus Engineering32 Pressure Drop Analysis (Cont) Rearranged into slope-intercept form:Rearranged into slope-intercept form: Which resemblesWhich resembles m = slope b = y-intercept

33 08-14-02Coeus Engineering33 Pressure Drop Analysis (Cont) EstimatedEstimated slope from figure Slope = 1/KSlope = 1/K

34 08-14-02Coeus Engineering34 Pressure Drop Analysis (Cont) Solving Darcy’s law for ∆P:Solving Darcy’s law for ∆P: Q = 20 cfm L = 0.15 x 2 1/2 in. A = 3 ft. x 1.25 in. x Cosine 45 ⃘ K = 1.8 x 10 6 g/cm 3 – s 2 ∆P = 3.7 in H 2 O

35 08-14-02Coeus Engineering35 Pressure Drop Analysis (Cont)

36 08-14-02Coeus Engineering36 Jessica Badger SummaryConclusions

37 08-14-02Coeus Engineering37 Summary Heat Transfer and Structural RigidityHeat Transfer and Structural Rigidity –Replace aluminum puffed foam with perforated honeycomb (2024 - T81P) –Cell size = 0.25” –Provides 3-D airflow through bed –Adds strength and rigidity due to high strength-to-weight ratios –Allows the beads to be more densely packed into the structure –Heat removed via radiation –Rate at which heat is removed is comparable for both perforated honeycomb and puffed foam

38 08-14-02Coeus Engineering38 Summary (cont) Surface Area & Pressure DropSurface Area & Pressure Drop –Studied carbon nanotubes and aerogels for ways to replace ion resin beads –Considered filling each perforated honeycomb cell with solid-amine coated aerogel –Air would not be able to flow through –Needed a new design strategy –Decided to use thin slice of aerogel to replace outlet retaining screens –Pressure drop for single slice of aerogel was comparable to entire RCRS bed –Needed more recent aerogel permeability data

39 08-14-02Coeus Engineering39 Conclusions Replace aluminum puffed foam with perforated honeycombReplace aluminum puffed foam with perforated honeycomb Further investigate aerogel properties and possible useFurther investigate aerogel properties and possible use Research previous option of carbon nanotubes for solid-amine housingResearch previous option of carbon nanotubes for solid-amine housing

40 08-14-02Coeus Engineering40 Special Thanks!! Dr. John GrafDr. John Graf Dr. Ronald O. StearmanDr. Ronald O. Stearman Dr. Noel ClemensDr. Noel Clemens Dr. Arlon Hunt & Dr. Ulrich SchubertDr. Arlon Hunt & Dr. Ulrich Schubert Marcus KrugerMarcus Kruger

41 08-14-02Coeus Engineering41 Questions? Preguntas?Preguntas? Questionne?Questionne? Bопрос?Bопрос? Kwestie?Kwestie? Ninau?Ninau? Swali?Swali? Spørsmål?Spørsmål? Förhöra?Förhöra? Please visit our website at www.ae.utexas.edu/~juliat


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