Figure 11.1B_1 Operon turned off (lactose is absent): OPERON Regulatory gene Promoter Operator Lactose-utilization genes RNA polymerase cannot attach to the promoter Active repressor Protein mRNA DNA
Figure 11.1B_2 Protein mRNA DNA Operon turned on (lactose inactivates the repressor): RNA polymerase is bound to the promoter Lactose Inactive repressor Translation Enzymes for lactose utilization
Figure 11.2B Cell division and random X chromosome inactivation Early Embryo Adult X chromo- somes Allele for orange fur Allele for black fur Two cell populations Active X Inactive X Active X Inactive X Black fur Orange fur
Figure 11.13_1 The nucleus is removed from an egg cell. Donor cell A somatic cell from an adult donor is added. Nucleus from the donor cell Blastocyst The cell grows in culture to produce an early embryo (blastocyst).
Figure 11.13_2 Reproductive cloning Blastocyst The blastocyst is implanted in a surrogate mother. A clone of the donor is born. Therapeutic cloning Embryonic stem cells are removed from the blastocyst and grown in culture. The stem cells are induced to form specialized cells.