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Genetic Regulatory Mechanisms. Control of Gene Expression Transcriptional control Clustering of genes with related function Coordinate control of genes.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Regulatory Mechanisms. Control of Gene Expression Transcriptional control Clustering of genes with related function Coordinate control of genes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic Regulatory Mechanisms

2 Control of Gene Expression Transcriptional control Clustering of genes with related function Coordinate control of genes with related function Polycistronic mRNA

3 Inducible Genes - Operon Model Definition: Genes whose expression is turned on by the presence of some substance –Lactose induces expression of the lac genes –An antibiotic induces the expression of a resistance gene Catabolic pathways

4 Lactose Operon Structural genes –lac z, lac y, & lac a –Promoter –Polycistronic mRNA Regulatory gene –Repressor Operator Operon Inducer - lactose i Operon Regulatory Gene p oz y a DNA m-RNA  -Galactosidase Permease Transacetylase Protein

5 Lactose Operon Inducer -- lactose –Absence Active repressor No expression i p o z y a No lac mRNA Absence of lactose Active i p o z y a  -Galactosidase PermeaseTransacetylase Presence of lactose Inactive –Presence Inactivation of repressor Expression Negative control

6 Catabolite Repression (Glucose Effect) Definition: Control of an operon by glucose + glucose - glucose Time (hr) Units of  - galactosidase + lactose Glucose added Catabolic operons

7 Mechanism of Catabolite Repression c-AMP CAP (CRP) protein CAP-cAMP complex –Promoter activation Positive control Absence of glucose i po z y a Active  -Galactosidase PermeaseTransacetylase CAP Inactive ATP Adenyl cyclase c-AMP Maximum expression

8 Mechanism of Catabolite Repression Glucose  :cAMP  CAP (CRP) protein No CAP-cAMP complex –No Promoter activation Presence of glucose i p o z y a Inactive ATP Adenyl cyclase CAP X  -Galactosidase PermeaseTransacetylase Low level expression

9 Repressible Genes - Operon Model Definition: Genes whose expression is turned off by the presence of some substance (co-repressor) –Tryptophan represses the trp genes Biosynthetic pathways –Co-repressor is typically the end product of the pathway

10 Tryptophan Operon Structural genes –trp E, trpD, trpC trpB & trpA –Common promoter Regulatory Gene –Apo-Repressor Inactive Operator Leader Operon Co-repressor –Tryptophan R Operon Regulatory Gene POEDC 5 Proteins B A L Inactive repressor (apo-repressor)

11 Tryptophan Operon Co-repressor -- tryptophan –Absence of tryptophan Gene expression R POEDC 5 Proteins B A L Inactive repressor (apo-repressor) Absence of Tryptophan R POEDC No trp mRNA B A L Presence of Tryptophan Inactive repressor (apo-repressor) Trp (co-repressor) –Presence of tryptophan Activates repressor No gene expression Negative control

12 Attenuation Definition: Premature termination of transcription PO E L DNA RNA ATG TGA 2 trp codons Leader region –Leader transcript –Translation start –Translation stop –Tryptophan codons

13 UUUUUUU Attenuation Mutually exclusive mRNA secondary structure –region 1 : region 2 –region 2 : region 3 –region 3 : region 4 Coupled transcription and translation

14 Attenuation UUUUUUU ATG TGA 2 trp codons High tryptophanyl-t-RNA Attenuation ATG TGA 2 trp codons UUUUUUU Low tryptophanyl-t-RNA No Attenuation

15 Regulation of Enzyme Activity Feed back inhibition Epigenetic modification –Post translational modifications Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation Adenylation/deadenylation


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