Presentation on theme: "Biotransformation Xenobiotic metabolism"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biotransformation Xenobiotic metabolism “Essentials of Toxicology”
2 BiotransformationBiotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, xenobiotics or drugs in the body. It is also needed to render nonpolar compounds polar so that they are not reabsorbed in renal tubules and are excreted.Biotransformation may results into-Active Inactive formActive Active or toxic formInactive Active formUnexcretable Excretable form
3 Biotransformation Results of biotransformation more potent active TOXICless potentactiveactiveDrugor Poisonbiotransformed Drug or PoisoninactiveinactiveIn general -nonsynthetic precede synthetic reactionsnonsynthetic reactions can produce active metabolitessynthetic reactions produce inactive metabolites
5 Biotransformation Why is Biotransformation necessary? • Most drugs are excreted by the kidneys• For renal excretion drugs should:– have small molecular mass– be polar in nature– should be fully ionized at body pH• Most drugs are complex and do not have these properties and thus have to be broken down to simpler products.
6 Biotransformation Pharmacologically active organic molecules tend to- Ctd…Pharmacologically active organic molecules tend to-Be highly lipophilic & remain unionized or partially ionized at physiologic PH.• Thus readily pass across biological barriers –membranes• Strongly bound to plasma proteinsSuch substances are not readily filtered at the glomerulus.Their lipophilicity also facilitates to be reabsorbed through lipophilic renal tubular membranes.• This property also stops them from getting eliminated• They have to be converted to simpler hydrophilic compounds so that they are eliminated and their action is terminated.
7 BiotransformationCtd…• Biotransformation can also result in bioactivation, which involves the production of reactive metabolites that aremore toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic than their parent compound(s).• Drugs may converted to-– less toxic materials– more toxic materials– materials with different type of effect or toxicityBeside these, biotransformation is called a biochemical defense mechanism as it handles different xenobiotics, drugs, toxicants, body wastes (hemoglobin) or other unwanted substances to those we get exposed.
8 Biotransformation Where do biotransformations occur? Liver is the principal organ of drug metabolism although every tissue has some ability to metabolize drugs.Other tissues that display considerable activity include the GIT, the lungs, the skin, and the kidneys.Following oral administration, many drugs (e.g. isoproterenol,morphine) absorbed intact from the small intestine and transported first via the portal system to the liver, where they undergo extensive metabolism ( first-pass metabolism).Some orally administered drugs (e.g.clonazepam, chlorpromazine) are extensively metabolized in the intestine than in the liver.
9 Biotransformation Ctd… Thus intestinal metabolism may contribute to the overall first-pass effect.First pass effects may so greatly limit the bioavailability of orally administered drugs.The lower gut harbors intestinal microorganisms that are capable of many biotransformation reactions.Although drug biotransformation in vivo can occur by spontaneous, noncatalyzed chemical reactions, the vast majority are catalyzed by specific cellular enzymes.At the cellular level, these enzymes may be located in the –i) Endoplasmic reticulum ii) mitochondria iii) cytosol iii) lysosomes iv) even the nuclear envelope or v) plasma membrane.
10 BiotransformationWater soluble xenobiotics are easier to eliminate in urine, feces but not exhalation as t1/2 is low.Lipophilic barbiturates such as thiopental & phenobarbital would have half-lives greater than 100 years if they were not converted to water-soluble compounds.Multiple enzymes (families)Constitutively expressedInducibleBroad specificityPolymorphicStereo-isomer specificity
12 Converting lipophilic to water soluble compounds (non-polar)XenobioticPhase I - ActivationReactive intermediatePhase II - ConjugationConjugateWater soluble(polar)Excretion
13 Phase I introduction of functional group hydrophilicity increases slightlymay inactivate or activate original compoundmajor player is CYP or mixed function oxygenase (MFO) system in conjunction with NAD(P)Hlocation of reactions is smooth endoplasmic reticulum
14 Phase II conjugation with endogenous molecules (GSH, glycine, cystein, glucuronic acid)hydrophilicity increases substantiallyneutralization of active metabolic intermediatesfacilitation of eliminationlocation of reactions is cytoplasm
15 Phase I reactions epoxide Oxidation Reduction Hydrolysis C O Hydroxylation (addition of -OH group)N- and O- Dealkylation (removal of -CH side chains)Deamination (removal of -NH side chains)Epoxidation (formation of epoxides)Oxygen addition (sulfoxidation, N-oxidation)Hydrogen removalReductionHydrogen addition (unsaturated bonds to saturated)Donor molecules include GSH, FAD, NAD(P)HOxygen removalHydrolysisSplitting of C-N-C (amide) and C-O-C (ester) bondsepoxideOC CCO
16 Biotransformation Activation of xenobiotics is a key element (e.g. benzene, vinyl chloride)Reactive intermediates include epoxides and free radical species (unpaired electrons) that are short-lived and hence highly reactiveProtection is provided byendogenous antioxidant substances, e.g. GSHvitamins C and Eantioxidant enzymesAntioxidant molecules are oxidized in the process but have the capacity to regenerate the reduced form from the oxidized - NAD(P)H is a key player
17 Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Mixed Function Oxidases (MFO) Located in many tissues but highly in liver ERHuman: 16 gene familiesCYP 1,2,3 perform drug metabolism>48 genes sequencedKey forms: CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4Highly inducibleAlcohol CYP2E1Barbiturates CYP2B
18 Proportion of drugs metabolized by different CYPs CYPs are the major enzymes involved in drug metabolism, accounting for ~75% of the total metabolism.Most drugs undergo deactivation by CYPs, either directly or by facilitated excretion from the body. Also, many substances are bioactivated by CYPs to form their active compounds.Proportion of drugs metabolized by different CYPs