Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 The Digestive System:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 The Digestive System:"— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 The Digestive System: Part C

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pancreas Location Mostly retroperitoneal, deep to the greater curvature of the stomach Head is encircled by the duodenum; tail abuts the spleen

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pancreas Endocrine function Pancreatic islets secrete insulin and glucagon Exocrine function Acini (clusters of secretory cells) secrete pancreatic juice Zymogen granules of secretory cells contain digestive enzymes

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.26a Small duct Acinar cells Basement membrane Zymogen granules Rough endoplasmic reticulum (a)

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pancreatic Juice Watery alkaline solution (pH 8) neutralizes chyme Electrolytes (primarily HCO 3 – ) Enzymes Amylase, lipases, nucleases are secreted in active form but require ions or bile for optimal activity Proteases secreted in inactive form

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pancreatic Juice Protease activation in duodenum Trypsinogen is activated to trypsin by brush border enzyme enteropeptidase Procarboxypeptidase and chymotrypsinogen are activated by trypsin

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Stomach Pancreas Epithelial cells Trypsinogen (inactive) Chymotrypsinogen (inactive) Procarboxypeptidase (inactive) Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Membrane-bound enteropeptidase

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Regulation of Bile Secretion Bile secretion is stimulated by Bile salts in enterohepatic circulation Secretin from intestinal cells exposed to HCl and fatty chyme

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Regulation of Bile Secretion Gallbladder contraction is stimulated by Cholecystokinin (CCK) from intestinal cells exposed to proteins and fat in chyme Vagal stimulation (minor stimulus) CKK also causes the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion CCK induces the secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice by acini Secretin causes secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice by duct cells Vagal stimulation also causes release of pancreatic juice (minor stimulus)

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO 3 – -rich pancreatic juice. Bile salts and, to a lesser extent, secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly. CCK (via bloodstream) causes gallbladder to contract and hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax; bile enters duodenum. During cephalic and gastric phases, vagal nerve stimulation causes weak contractions of gallbladder. Slide

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 1 Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. 1

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 2 Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. 1 2

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 3 Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO 3 – -rich pancreatic juice

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 4 Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO 3 – -rich pancreatic juice. Bile salts and, to a lesser extent, secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 5 Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO 3 – -rich pancreatic juice. Bile salts and, to a lesser extent, secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly. CCK (via bloodstream) causes gallbladder to contract and hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax; bile enters duodenum

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 6 Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO 3 – -rich pancreatic juice. Bile salts and, to a lesser extent, secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly. CCK (via bloodstream) causes gallbladder to contract and hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax; bile enters duodenum. During cephalic and gastric phases, vagal nerve stimulation causes weak contractions of gallbladder

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Digestion in the Small Intestine Chyme from stomach contains Partially digested carbohydrates and proteins Undigested fats

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Requirements for Digestion and Absorption in the Small Intestine Slow delivery of hypertonic chyme Delivery of bile, enzymes, and bicarbonate from the liver and pancreas Mixing

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Motility of the Small Intestine Segmentation Initiated by intrinsic pacemaker cells Mixes and moves contents slowly and steadily toward the ileocecal valve Intensity is altered by long and short reflexes Wanes in the late intestinal (fasting) phase

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.3b (b) Microvilli Absorptive cell

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Motility of the Small Intestine Peristalsis Initiated by motilin in the late intestinal phase Each wave starts distal to the previous (the migrating motility complex) Meal remnants, bacteria, and debris are moved to the large intestine

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.3a From mouth (a) Peristalsis: Adjacent segments of alimentary tract organs alternately contract and relax, which moves food along the tract distally.

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Motility of the Small Intestine Local enteric neurons coordinate intestinal motility Cholinergic sensory neurons may activate the myenteric plexus Causes contraction of the circular muscle proximally and of longitudinal muscle distally Forces chyme along the tract

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Motility of the Small Intestine Ileocecal sphincter relaxes and admits chyme into the large intestine when Gastroileal reflex enhances the force of segmentation in the ileum Gastrin increases the motility of the ileum Ileocecal valve flaps close when chyme exerts backward pressure

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Large Intestine Unique features Teniae coli Three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in the muscularis Haustra Pocketlike sacs caused by the tone of the teniae coli Epiploic appendages Fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Large Intestine Regions Cecum (pouch with attached vermiform appendix) Colon Rectum Anal canal

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.29a Left colic (splenic) flexure Transverse mesocolon Epiploic appendages Descending colon Teniae coli Sigmoid colon Cut edge of mesentery External anal sphincter Rectum Anal canal (a) Right colic (hepatic) flexure Transverse colon Superior mesenteric artery Haustrum Ascending colon IIeum IIeocecal valve Vermiform appendix Cecum

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Colon Ascending colon and descending colon are retroperitoneal Transverse colon and sigmoid colon are anchored via mesocolons (mesenteries)

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.30c Transverse colon Greater omentum Descending colon Jejunum Mesentery Transverse mesocolon Sigmoid mesocolon Sigmoid colon Ileum (c)

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.30d (d) Pancreas Liver Lesser omentum Stomach Duodenum Transverse mesocolon Greater omentum Mesentery Jejunum Visceral peritoneum Urinary bladder Transverse colon Ileum Parietal peritoneum Rectum

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rectum and Anus Rectum Three rectal valves stop feces from being passed with gas Anal canal The last segment of the large intestine Sphincters Internal anal sphincter—smooth muscle External anal sphincter—skeletal muscle

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.29b (b) Rectal valve Rectum Anal canal Levator ani muscle Anus Anal sinuses Anal columns Internal anal sphincter External anal sphincter Hemorrhoidal veins Pectinate line

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Large Intestine: Microscopic Anatomy Mucosa of simple columnar epithelium except in the anal canal (stratified squamous) Abundant deep crypts with goblet cells Superficial venous plexuses of the anal canal form hemorrhoids if inflamed

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bacterial Flora Enter from the small intestine or anus Colonize the colon Ferment indigestible carbohydrates Release irritating acids and gases Synthesize B complex vitamins and vitamin K

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of the Large Intestine Vitamins, water, and electrolytes are reclaimed Major function is propulsion of feces toward the anus Colon is not essential for life

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Motility of the Large Intestine Haustral contractions Slow segmenting movements Haustra sequentially contract in response to distension

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Motility of the Large Intestine Gastrocolic reflex Initiated by presence of food in the stomach Activates three to four slow powerful peristaltic waves per day in the colon (mass movements)

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Defecation Mass movements force feces into rectum Distension initiates spinal defecation reflex Parasympathetic signals Stimulate contraction of the sigmoid colon and rectum Relax the internal anal sphincter Conscious control allows relaxation of external anal sphincter

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Impulses from cerebral cortex (conscious control) Voluntary motor nerve to external anal sphincter External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle) Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle) Sensory nerve fibers Involuntary motor nerve (parasympathetic division) Stretch receptors in wall Rectum Sigmoid colon Distension, or stretch, of the rectal walls due to movement of feces into the rectum stimulates stretch receptors there. The receptors transmit signals along afferent fibers to spinal cord neurons. A spinal reflex is initiated in which parasympathetic motor (efferent) fibers stimulate contraction of the rectal walls and relaxation of the internal anal sphincter. If it is convenient to defecate, voluntary motor neurons are inhibited, allowing the external anal sphincter to relax so that feces may pass.

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Digestion Catabolic Enzymatic Hydrolysis

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates Digestive enzymes Salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, and brush border enzymes (dextrinase, glucoamylase, lactase, maltase, and sucrase)

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates Absorption Secondary active transport (cotransport) with Na + Facilitated diffusion of some monosaccharides Enter the capillary beds in the villi Transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure (1 of 4) Carbohydrate digestion Glucose and galactose are absorbed via cotransport with sodium ions. Fructose passes via facilitated diffusion. All monosaccharides leave the epithelial cells via facilitated diffusion, enter the capillary blood in the villi, and are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Starch and disaccharides Oligosaccharides and disaccharides LactoseMaltoseSucrose Glucose Fructose Salivary amylase Mouth Pancreatic amylase Brush border enzymes in small intestine (dextrinase, gluco- amylase, lactase, maltase, and sucrase) Small intestine Small intestine Foodstuff Galactose Path of absorption Enzyme(s) and source Site of action

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Digestion and Absorption of Proteins Enzymes: pepsin in the stomach Pancreatic proteases Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase Brush border enzymes Aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, and dipeptidases Absorption of amino acids is coupled to active transport of Na +

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Absorptive epithelial cell Apical membrane (microvilli) Amino acid carrier Capillary Lumen of intestine Pancreatic proteases Amino acids of protein fragments Brush border enzymes Na + 1 Proteins and protein fragments are digested to amino acids by pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxy- peptidase), and by brush border enzymes (carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, and dipeptidase) of mucosal cells. 2 The amino acids are then absorbed by active transport into the absorptive cells, and move to their opposite side (transcytosis). 3 The amino acids leave the villus epithelial cell by facilitated diffusion and enter the capillary via intercellular clefts. Active transport Passive transport

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure (2 of 4) Protein digestion Amino acids are absorbed by cotransport with sodium ions. Some dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed via cotransport with H + and hydrolyzed to amino acids within the cells. + Amino acids leave the epithelial cells by facilitated diffusion, enter the capillary blood in the villi, and are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Small intestine Small intestine Stomach Foodstuff Protein Large polypeptides Pepsin (stomach glands) in presence of HCl Small polypeptides, small peptides Pancreatic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase) Amino acids (some dipeptides and tripeptides) Brush border enzymes (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, and dipeptidase) Path of absorption Enzyme(s) and source Site of action

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Digestion and Absorption of Lipids Pre-treatment—emulsification by bile salts Enzymes—pancreatic lipase Absorption of glycerol and short chain fatty acids Absorbed into the capillary blood in villi Transported via the hepatic portal vein

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Digestion and Absorption of Lipids Absorption of monoglycerides and fatty acids Cluster with bile salts and lecithin to form micelles Released by micelles to diffuse into epithelial cells Combine with proteins to form chylomicrons Enter lacteals and are transported to systemic circulation

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Epithelial cells of small intestine Fat droplets coated with bile salts Fat globule Lacteal Bile salts Micelles made up of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts 1 Large fat globules are emulsified (physically broken up into smaller fat droplets) by bile salts in the duodenum. 2 Digestion of fat by the pancreatic enzyme lipase yields free fatty acids and monoglycerides. These then associate with bile salts to form micelles which “ferry” them to the intestinal mucosa. 3 Fatty acids and monoglycerides leave micelles and diffuse into epithelial cells. There they are recombined and packaged with other lipoid substances and proteins to form chylomicrons. 4 Chylomicrons are extruded from the epithelial cells by exocytosis. The chylomicrons enter lacteals. They are carried away from the intestine by lymph.

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure (3 of 4) Fat digestion Small intestine Small intestine Foodstuff Unemulsified fats Emulsification by the detergent action of bile salts ducted in from the liver Pancreatic lipases Monoglycerides and fatty acids Glycerol and fatty acids Path of absorption Enzyme(s) and source Site of action Fatty acids and monoglycerides enter the intestinal cells via diffusion. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are recombined to form triglycerides and then combined with other lipids and proteins within the cells, and the resulting chylomicrons are extruded by exocytosis. The chylomicrons enter the lacteals of the villi and are transported to the systemic circulation via the lymph in the thoracic duct. Some short-chain fatty acids are absorbed, move into the capillary blood in the villi by diffusion, and are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Digestion and Absorption of Nucleic Acids Enzymes Pancreatic ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease Absorption Active transport Transported to liver via hepatic portal vein

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure (4 of 4) Nucleic acid digestion Units enter intestinal cells by active transport via membrane carriers. Units are absorbed into capillary blood in the villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Small intestine Small intestine Foodstuff Nucleic acids Pancreatic ribo- nuclease and deoxyribonuclease Brush border enzymes (nucleosidases and phosphatases) Pentose sugars, N-containing bases, phosphate ions Path of absorption Enzyme(s) and source Site of action

54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin Absorption In small intestine Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are carried by micelles and then diffuse into absorptive cells Water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C and B vitamins) are absorbed by diffusion or by passive or active transporters. Vitamin B 12 binds with intrinsic factor, and is absorbed by endocytosis

55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin Absorption In large intestine Vitamin K and B vitamins from bacterial metabolism are absorbed

56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Electrolyte Absorption Mostly along the length of small intestine Iron and calcium are absorbed in duodenum Na + is coupled with absorption of glucose and amino acids Ionic iron is stored in mucosal cells with ferritin K + diffuses in response to osmotic gradients Ca 2+ absorption is regulated by vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH)

57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Water Absorption 95% is absorbed in the small intestine by osmosis Net osmosis occurs whenever a concentration gradient is established by active transport of solutes Water uptake is coupled with solute uptake

58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Malabsorption of Nutrients Causes Anything that interferes with delivery of bile or pancreatic juice Damaged intestinal mucosa (e.g., bacterial infection)

59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Malabsorption of Nutrients Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease) Gluten damages the intestinal villi and brush border Treated by eliminating gluten from the diet (all grains but rice and corn)

60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects In the third week Endoderm has folded and foregut and hindgut have formed Midgut is open and continuous with the yolk sac Mouth and anal openings are nearly formed In the eighth week Accessory organs are budding from endoderm

61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Stomodeum Foregut Site of liver development Midgut Spinal cord Hindgut Proctodeum Endoderm Brain Oral membrane Heart Yolk sac Cloacal membrane Body stalk (a) Lung bud Liver Gall- bladder Cystic duct Ventral pancreatic bud Dorsal pancreatic bud Duodenum Stomach (b) Bile duct

62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects Fetal nutrition is via the placenta, but the GI tract is stimulated to mature by amniotic fluid swallowed in utero The newborn’s rooting reflex helps the infant find the nipple; the sucking reflex aids in swallowing

63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects During old age GI tract activity declines, absorption is less efficient, and peristalsis is slowed Diverticulosis, fecal incontinence, and cancer of the GI tract

64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cancer Stomach and colon cancers rarely have early signs or symptoms Metastasized colon cancers frequently cause secondary liver cancer Prevention Regular dental and medical examination


Download ppt "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 The Digestive System:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google