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Figure 5.1 Membrane Molecular Structure Outside of cell Extracellular matrix Inside of cell Phospholipid Cytoskeleton.

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Presentation on theme: "Figure 5.1 Membrane Molecular Structure Outside of cell Extracellular matrix Inside of cell Phospholipid Cytoskeleton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Figure 5.1 Membrane Molecular Structure Outside of cell Extracellular matrix Inside of cell Phospholipid Cytoskeleton

2 In-Text Art, Ch. 5, p. 64 “Head” “Tails”

3 In-Text Art, Ch. 5, p. 65 Outside of cell (aqueous) Inside of cell (aqueous) Hydrophobic interior of bilayer

4 In-Text Art, Ch. 5, p. 66 Cells

5 Figure 5.2 Rapid Diffusion of Membrane Proteins (Part 1) Proteins embedded in a membrane can diffuse freely within the membrane. Membrane proteins Mouse cell Human cell

6 Figure 5.2 Rapid Diffusion of Membrane Proteins (Part 2) Proteins embedded in a membrane can diffuse freely within the membrane. Membrane proteins Mouse cellHuman cell Heterokaryon Membrane proteins can diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane.

7 Figure 5.2 Rapid Diffusion of Membrane Proteins (Part 3) The experiment was repeated at various temperatures with the following results: Plot these data on a graph of Percentage Mixed vs. Temperature. Explain these data, relating the results to the concepts of diffusion and membrane fluidity. Temperature (  C) Cells with mixed proteins (%)

8 Figure 5.3 Osmosis Can Modify the Shapes of Cells (Part 1) Hypertonic on the outside (concentrated solutes outside) Isotonic (equivalent solute concentration) Hypotonic on the outside (dilute solutes outside) Inside of cell Outside of cell

9 Figure 5.3 Osmosis Can Modify the Shapes of Cells (Part 2) Hypertonic on the outside (concentrated solutes outside) Isotonic (equivalent solute concentration) Hypotonic on the outside (dilute solutes outside) Animal cell (red blood cells)

10 Figure 5.3 Osmosis Can Modify the Shapes of Cells (Part 3) Hypertonic on the outside (concentrated solutes outside) Isotonic (equivalent solute concentration) Hypotonic on the outside (dilute solutes outside) Plant cell (leaf epithelial cells)

11 Figure 5.4 A Ligand-Gated Channel Protein Opens in Response to a Stimulus Outside of cell Inside of cell Stimulus molecule (ligand) Binding site Hydrophilic pore Hydrophobic interior of bilayer Channel protein Closed channel

12 Figure 5.5 Aquaporins Increase Membrane Permeability to Water (Part 1) Aquaporin increases membrane permeability to water. Aquaporin mRNA Aquaporin channel Protein synthesis

13 Figure 5.5 Aquaporins Increase Membrane Permeability to Water (Part 2) Aquaporin increases membrane permeability to water. Aquaporin mRNA Aquaporin channel Protein synthesis 3.5 minutes in hypotonic solution Aquaporin increases the rate of water diffusion across the cell membrane.

14 Figure 5.5 Aquaporins Increase Membrane Permeability to Water (Part 3) Oocytes were injected with aquaporin mRNA (red circles) or a solution without mRNA (blue circles). Water permeability was tested by incubating the oocytes in hypotonic solution and measuring cell volume. After time X in the upper curve, intact oocytes were not visible: A. Why did the cells increase in volume? B. What happened at time X? C. Calculate the relative rates (volume increase per minute) of swelling in the control and experimental curves. What does this show about the effectiveness of mRNA injection? With mRNA Without mRNA X Time (min) Relative volume

15 Figure 5.6 A Carrier Protein Facilitates Diffusion (Part 1) Outside of cell Low glucose concentration High glucose concentration Inside of cell Glucose carrier protein Glucose

16 Figure 5.6 A Carrier Protein Facilitates Diffusion (Part 2) Glucose concentration outside the cell Rate of diffusion into the cell

17 Figure 5.7 Primary Active Transport: The Sodium–Potassium Pump Outside of cell Inside of cell High Na + concentration, low K + concentration High K + concentration, low Na + concentration Na + Na + – K + pump K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ ATP ADP PiPi PiPi PiPi PiPi

18 Figure 5.8 Endocytosis and Exocytosis (Part 1) (A) Endocytosis Inside of cell Plasma membrane Outside of cell Endocytotic vesicle

19 Figure 5.8 Endocytosis and Exocytosis (Part 2) (B) Exocytosis Secretory vesicle

20 Figure 5.9 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis (Part 1) Outside of cell Specific substance binding to receptor proteins Cytoplasm Clathrin molecules Coated pit Coated vesicle

21 Figure 5.9 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis (Part 2) Outside of cell Specific substance binding to receptor proteins Cytoplasm Coated pit Clathrin molecules Coated vesicle

22 Figure 5.10 Chemical Signaling Concepts Secreting cell Target cell Circulatory vessel (e.g., a blood vessel) Target cell Receptor

23 Figure 5.11 Signal Transduction Concepts Receptor Inactive signal transduction molecule Activated signal transduction molecule Short-term responses: enzyme activation, cell movement Long-term responses: altered DNA transcription Signal molecule

24 Figure 5.12 A Signal Binds to Its Receptor Ligand Outside of cell Cell membrane Inside of cell

25 In-Text Art, Ch. 5, p. 76 Signal molecule Receptor R + L RL

26 Figure 5.13 A Protein Kinase Receptor Signal (insulin) Outside of cell Inside of cell Protein kinase domain (inactive) Phosphate groups Target Cellular responses Receptor ATP ADP

27 Figure 5.14 A G Protein–Linked Receptor (Part 1) Outside of cell Signal (hormone) G protein- linked receptor Inside of cell Inactive G protein Inactive effector protein GDP

28 Figure 5.14 A G Protein–Linked Receptor (Part 2) Outside of cell Inside of cell Activated G protein GTP

29 Figure 5.14 A G Protein–Linked Receptor (Part 3) Outside of cell Inside of cell Activated effector protein Amplification Product Reactant GDP

30 Figure 5.15 The Discovery of a Second Messenger (Part 1) A second messenger mediates between receptor activation at the plasma membrane and enzyme activation in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm contains inactive glycogen phos- phorylase Membranes contain epinephrine receptors Liver

31 Figure 5.15 The Discovery of a Second Messenger (Part 2) A second messenger mediates between receptor activation at the plasma membrane and enzyme activation in the cytoplasm. A soluble second messenger, produced by hormone-activated membranes, is present in the solution and activates enzymes in the cytoplasm. Active glycogen phosphorylase is present in the cytoplasm. The activity of previously inactive liver glycogen phosphorylase was measured with and without epinephrine incubation, with these results: A.What do these data show? B.Propose an experiment to show that the factor that activates the enzyme is stable on heating and give predicted data. C.Propose an experiment to show that cAMP can replace the particulate fraction and hormone treatment and give predicted data. Homogenate Homogenate + epinephrine Cytoplasm fraction Cytoplasm + epinephrine Cytoplasm + membranes Cytoplasm + membranes + epinephrine Enzyme activity (units) Condition

32 Figure 5.16 The Formation of Cyclic AMP (Part 1) cAMP + PP i ATP Adenylyl cyclase

33 Figure 5.16 The Formation of Cyclic AMP (Part 2) Adenine Phosphate groups ATP

34 Figure 5.16 The Formation of Cyclic AMP (Part 3) Cyclic AMP (cAMP)

35 Figure 5.17 A Cascade of Reactions Leads to Altered Enzyme Activity (Part 1) Epinephrine receptor Activated G protein subunit Activated adenylyl cyclase Plasma membrane Active protein kinase A Inactive phosphorylase kinase Active phosphorylase kinase Active glycogen synthase Inactive glycogen synthase GTP ATP cAMP Epinephrine Outside of cell Inactive protein kinase A

36 Figure 5.17 A Cascade of Reactions Leads to Altered Enzyme Activity (Part 2) 100 1,000 10,000 Active glycogen phosphorylase Active phosphorylase kinase Inactive glycogen phosphorylase Glycogen Glucose 1-phosphate Glucose Blood glucose Outside of cell Inside of cell

37 Figure 5.18 Signal Transduction Regulatory Mechanisms (Part 1) Protein kinase Active enzyme Inactive enzyme Protein phosphatase ATP PiPi P

38 Figure 5.18 Signal Transduction Regulatory Mechanisms (Part 2) Receptor binding Active G protein Inactive G protein GTPase GDP GTP

39 Figure 5.18 Signal Transduction Regulatory Mechanisms (Part 3) Phosphodiesterase Adenylyl cyclase cAMP AMP ATP

40 Figure 5.19 Caffeine and the Cell Membrane (Part 1) Outside of cell Plasma membrane Inside of cell

41 Figure 5.19 Caffeine and the Cell Membrane (Part 2) Caffeine Adenosine


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