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1 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Avoiding Instability during Graceful Shutdown of OSPF Aman Shaikh, UCSC Joint work with Rohit Dube, Xebeo Communications.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Avoiding Instability during Graceful Shutdown of OSPF Aman Shaikh, UCSC Joint work with Rohit Dube, Xebeo Communications."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Avoiding Instability during Graceful Shutdown of OSPF Aman Shaikh, UCSC Joint work with Rohit Dube, Xebeo Communications Inc. Anujan Varma, UCSC INFOCOM – June 2002

2 2 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Software Upgrade is a Pain Upgrade of routing software on routers is a fact of life –Extensions to routing protocols, new functionality, version upgrades, bug fixes –Critical need for seamless upgrades Current practice –During upgrade, network operators withdraw “router- under-upgrade” from forwarding service Route flaps, traffic disruption, instability –Operators have to carefully schedule upgrades Schedule them during night when load is moderate Stagger upgrades of different routers –A painful job 

3 3 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 We Can do Better Router can continue forwarding even while its routing process is inactive, at least for a while –Current routers have separate routing and forwarding paths Routing in software (CPU), forwarding in hardware (switching) Routing protocols need to be extended since they always try to route around inactive router Our proposal: IBB (I’ll Be Back) Extension to OSPF Other proposals –OSPF: Hitless restart proposal by Jonh Moy Internet draft: draft-ietf-ospf-hitless-restart-02.txt –BGP: Graceful restart proposal by Sangli et al. Internet draft: draft-ietf-idr-restart-05.txt

4 4 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Router Model Route Processor (CPU) Forwarding Info. Base (FIB) Interface card Forwarding Switching Fabric Data packet Topology view Shortest Path Tree (SPT) OSPF Process LSA Forwarding

5 5 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 IBB Proposal in a Nutshell OSPF process on router R needs to be shutdown Before shutdown, R informs other routers that it is going to be inactive for a while R specifies a time period (IBB Timeout) by which it expects to become operational again Other routers continue using R for forwarding during IBB Timeout period If R comes back within IBB Timeout period, no routing instability or flaps Else other routers start forwarding packets around R

6 6 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 R cannot update its forwarding table to reflect the change –Can lead to loop or black holes What if Topology Changes B A R (a)Topology when R went down B A R (b) Topology changes while R is inactive

7 7 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Handling Changes: Options Don’t do anything Stop using R: Moy’s proposal –Inadvertent changes during upgrade are likely Flapping due to a bad interface somewhere –But all changes are not bad Do not always lead to loops or black holes Stop using R only when loop or black hole gets formed –And only for those destinations for which there is a problem –Need algorithms which is what the bulk of the paper is about Our approach

8 8 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Roadmap of Algorithm Single area, single inactive router case –Loop formation –Black hole formation Single area, multiple inactive routers case Multiple areas

9 9 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Single Area, Single Inactive Router Problem Formulation –Inactive Router = R –All routers other than R have the same image of the topology graph –R’s image is that of a past - the time at which it went down –Source = S, Destination = D –Next hop(R, D) = Y –Actual path a packet takes from S to D = P(S->D)

10 10 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Loop Detection P(S->D) has a loop iff S and Y have R on their paths to D in their SPTs (Shortest Path Trees) D R 3 26 Topology when R went down S 1 Y 20 D R S 1 Y Topology changes while R is inactive 20 Y R D 2 6 S and Y have R on their paths to D in their SPT S 1 S R D 1 6 Y 2 If there is a loop, neighbor can always detect it

11 11 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Loop Prevention Every router needs to calculate a path to D such that R does not appear on it D R S 1 Y Changed topology while R is inactive 20 S D S and Y calculate paths to D w/o R on it Y D 10

12 12 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Loop Avoidance Procedure R sends forwarding table to neighbors before shutdown - Thus, Y knows that next hop(R, D) is Y Detection: during SPF (Shortest Path First) calculation neighbors detect loops - Y checks if R exists on the path to D or not Upon detection, neighbors send avoid messages to other routers in the domain - avoid(R, D) = avoid using R for reaching D Prevention: upon receiving the avoid(R, D) message, other routers calculate a new path to D such that R does not appear on it

13 13 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Multiple Inactive Routers Set of inactive routers: R 1, R 2, …, R n Loop avoidance procedure applies for each inactive router –Detection Router detects loops for all its inactive neighbors –Prevention A router can get avoid(R i, D) messages for j inactive routers (j <= n) The router avoids these j forbidden routers on its path to D Problem: Set of forbidden routers can be different for different destinations –O(n) shortest path calculations n = number of vertices

14 14 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Simplification Router avoids all inactive routers if it has some forbidden routers on its path to D –Calculate two SPTs: 1.SPT with all inactive routers on it 2.SPT w/o any inactive router on it –If the path to D does not contain any forbidden routers on it, pick next hop for D from the first SPT –Else, pick next hop for D from the second SPT

15 15 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Performance Maximum effect on the SPF calculation –Quantify overhead –Impact of Topology size Number of inactive routers Prototype Implementation –IBB extension incorporated into GateD 4.0.7

16 16 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Testbed Setup SUT LAN TopTracker TT Physical Topology LSAs Routers under upgrade SUT TopTracker TT 1 20 R’ 1 R’ 2 R’ m R1R1 R2R2 RmRm M1M1 Complete graph With n nodes Emulated topology SUT’s view of the Topology

17 17 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Experiment Sequence GateD on SUTIBB-GateD on SUTTime (mins) T = 0Bring m rtrs downBring m rtrs down in IBB mode T = 4 Send avoid(R i, M j ) messages to SUT (1<=i<=m, 1<=j<=n) T = 8Bring m inactive rtrs up Case A m inactive rtrs Case B m inactive rtrs, avoid them Overhead = mean SPF time in Case B mean SPF time in Case A

18 18 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Result Sources of overhead: –Second SPF calculation –Graph in case B is larger than in case A Gets larger as m increases

19 19 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Conclusions IBB proposal: extend OSPF so that a router can be used for forwarding even while its OSPF process is inactive Main contribution: an algorithm that gracefully handles topological changes –Stops using the inactive router for a destination when using the router can lead to loops or black holes –Overhead of the algorithm is modest Shows good scaling behavior in terms of topology size and number of inactive routers

20 20 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Future Directions Incremental deployment –Can the algorithm be modified so that only a subset of routers need to support it? Measuring other aspects of overhead –Messaging Reducing the overhead –SPF calculation: incremental algorithm for second pass –Better data structures in prototype Other protocols …

21 21 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 Backup

22 22 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 OSPF Background Link-state routing protocol –all routers in the domain come to a consistent view of the topology by exchange of Link State Advertisements (LSAs) set of LSAs (self-originated + received) at a router = topology SPF Calculation –each router calculates a single source shortest path tree Forwarding Information Base (FIB) –each router uses the tree to build its FIB, which governs packet forwarding

23 23 Aman Shaikh: June 02 UCSC INFOCOM 2002 OSPF Overview : Example A B D C E F I G H J OSPF Domain (single area) A B D C E F I G H J SPT at G 1


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