2In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue Theodore DeBry -- Columbus Leaving for America after 1590When the Spanish rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella, realized in part what fabulous wealth in the form of gold, silver and precious stones - sudden visible wealth existed, merely for the taking, in this new world, inadvertently discovered by Columbus, in search of a new route to India, they not only clamped down an iron curtain of censorship against the rest of the European powers, but also rigidly regulated, and controlled and exploited that wealth as far as was possible to the enrichment of their treasury. If nothing else, those two hereditary rulers of Spain were a practical couple when it came to a dollar, or rather a piece of eight.It was made unlawful to write about or give any account of voyages to the new world and what existed there. Hence all the earliest published accounts of travels to this new world came from Italy, France, the Germanic states, and countries other than Spain. The great Spanish writings were released later. But it is now abundantly obvious that the word spread like wildfire from tongue to tongue and lost nothing in the telling.Those seeking to exploit the wealth of the Americas were licensed and regulated after careful study and thought. And almost without exception the crown was to receive at least 20 per cent of all things of value recovered, the canny monarchs usually sending along their personal representatives to keep the books. Costs of an expedition were usually at the expense of the explorer.With the greatest, or one of the greatest hoards of wealth ever exposed to seizure and exploitation at one time, these efforts at concealment and official control were circumvented by a hoard of free enterprisers; pirates, licensed and unlicensed, and expeditions authorized, often sub rosa, by other monarchs and groups.
3Inception of the Scientific Method Hypothesis: It is possible to reach the Orient by sailing WestExperimentation: Voyages of DiscoveryAnalysis: There are two large land masses blocking access to the EastConclusion: Two new continents – North and South America
4The Age of Exploration presented enormous challenges and dilemmas to the world view of European civilization.Even Columbus wavered between this fervent hope that he had discovered the Garden of Eden and his desire to exploit the riches and peoples of the New World.In 1493, Christopher Columbus returned to Hispaniola (which means "Little Spain") to pick up the crew that he was forced to leave behind the year before. When he reached the settlement, Navidad however, all he and his men found were abandoned houses and the skeletal remains of the original crew. This time, Columbus had come to the Caribbean with a larger fleet and a contingent of Spanish soldiers, called "Conquistadors," who had been tempered by the brutal Reconquista in which the Spaniards drove the Ottomans from the Iberian Peninsula in the 's. These Conquistadors wanted to exterminate all of the natives of the island for retribution. But Columbus said no. He knew that he needed the natives if he was to extract any wealth from the region. Columbus therefore made an alliance with the local natives and together they built the settlement of Isabella along the northern coast of Hispaniola (present Dominican Republic). As such, Isabella was the first permanent European settlement in America. Columbus also brought Catholic missionaries with him. They converted at least some of the natives to Christianity to help Europeanize them. This is where the term "Hispanic" comes from. A mixture of white Spanish culture and brown American culture. Before long, a war broke out between some of the more belligerent natives and the conquistadors. Although some of the Indians were able to remain free, many were forced to submit to the Spanish. By 1600, most of the Caribbean region had gone through similar a pattern: Spanish conquistadors and missionaries moved in with superior technology, some Indians joined them, becoming Hispanic, and the Indians who resisted were either wiped out or forcibly converted. The bulk of Spanish America thus became Hispanic in nature, as opposed to pure European Spanish culture.Engraving by Theodore DeBry
6Hispanic Exploration and Conquest 1492 – 1542 Spain and Portugal In one generation Hispanics explored and colonized over half the earth & watersDuring the period of exploration, in one generation, approximately 300,000 Spaniards had emigrated to the New WorldThey established over 200 cities and towns throughout the Americas.In one generation Hispanics acquired more new territory than Rome conquered in five centuries .
7Spanish and Portugese Colonial Empires c. 16th c.
8Major Hispanic Explorations and Conquests : Columbus’s 4 voyages to New World1500: Pedro Cabral (Portugese) discovered Brazil: Amerigo Vespucci (Italian) after accompanying Spanish conquistadors decided that what they had discovered was not Asia, but new continents: Juan Ponce de Leon explored Cuba, Jamaican and Florida –Cuban conquest: 15081513: Vasco de Nuñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and named the Pacific oceanDetailed chronology of Spanish explorations and conquests
9Major Hispanic Explorations and Conquests : Ferdinand Magellan's crew & ship, completed voyage of circumnavigation.: Hernando Cortez’s conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico1531: Francisco Pizarro’s conquest of the Incas in Peru1540: Vasquéz de Coronado explores California, Kansas, Arizona, New México, Texas, Oklahoma.: Hernando de Soto explores SE United States and discovers Mississippi RiverDetailed chronology of Spanish explorations and conquests
10Spanish Conquistadors in Florida Ponce de León’s Explorations:Panfilo de Narvaez’s Explorations:Hernando de Soto’s Explorations across southern North America: ; discovered Mississippi RiverFray Luis Cancer’s failed missionary attempt: 1549Tristan de Luna created garrison at Pensacola:Pedro Menéndez de Avilés built a fort at St. Augustine and defeated the French at Fort Caroline: 1565
11Ponce de León, who had accompanied Columbus on his second voyage and had colonized Puerto Rico, lost the Governership of that island to Columbus's son. In recompense, the king granted him rights to Bimini, legendary site of the fabled Fountain of Youth. In his Elegias de varonesillustres de Indias (1589), Juan de Castellanos, a veteran of numerous Spanish expeditions in the Caribbean and northern South America, describes the quest: I return, then, to Juan Ponce strong in the gifts of Juno and Belona, in quest of greater undertakings and service to the royal crown. He never wished to live in ease, although his station permitted it; and being free of his office, he wished to seek out this tale.Ponce de León
12Castellanos relates the tale of the miraculous waters at some length and with some humor although he scoffs at the search for "such foolish nonsense." Indeed Ponce de León never found the Fountain of Youth, but he did bump into the Florida peninsula: To the north, then, they turned their course, accompanied by great difficulties, far indeed from the famed fountain and the prosperous dwellers in its land: but he discovered the peninsula which he named Florida because he sighted it on Easter Sunday. Having made this discovery, he returned and asked to be made its adelanto.
13It was on Easter Sunday (Pascua florida in Spanish), 1513, that Ponce de León not only named the peninsula, but by doing so, claimed it and incorporated it into the body of European knowledge..The act of naming, of christening the lands and peoples of the new world, was of central importance to the European presence there, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out: The founding action of Christian imperialism is a christening. Such a christening entails the cancellation of the native name the erasure of the alien, perhaps demonic, identity hence, a kind of making new; it is at once an exorcism, an appropriation, and a gift. Christening then is the culminating instance of the marvelous speech act: in the wonder of the proper name, the movement from ignorance to knowledge, the taking of possession, the conferral of identity are fused in a moment of pure linguistic formalism. (83)
14The Gulf StreamAn important discovery, unrecognized by Ponce de León, was the existence of a river in the ocean: the Gulf Stream.The pilot, Anton de Alaminos, understood the importance of the discovery.By riding the current, the ships could be carried to a point where the winds would carry them back to Spain.This became the route of the later treasure ships.
15Thomas Moran, Ponce de Leon in Florida -- 19th c
16De León's Return: Aborted Settlement The King of Spain knighted Ponce de León and made him governor of Florida.Ponce de León left Santa Domingo in 1521 with two ships carrying two hundred colonists and domestic animals. They landed near Charlotte Harbor.The Calusa attacked, and Ponce de León was wounded. The colonists got into their ships and left.Ponce de León reached Cuba where he died of his wounds.
17The indigenous peoples of Florida resisted and held off European settlements for the next fifty years despite numerous attempts by Spanish conquistadors.Subsequent expeditions met continuing resistance, by means of force and deceit, from the Indians -- a population of highly diverse tribes with different languages and customs. The absence of an far-flung established hierarchy of authority through which the Spaniards could exercise power, as they had with the Aztec and Incan empires, hindered their efforts, as did the continuing quests for gold which distracted them from the unglamorous work of settlement and colonization.
18The Conquest of Mexico During the year Ce Acatl ( One Reed) 1519
19Aztec EmpireThis is the Aztec Calendar, perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag.The original object is a 12', massive stone slab, carved in the middle of the 15th century. Many renditions of it exist and have existed through the years and throughout Mexico.Historically, the Aztec name for the huge basaltic monolith is Cuauhxicalli Eagle Bowl, but it is universally known as the Aztec Calendar or Sun Stone. It was during the reign of the 6th Aztec monarch in 1479 that this stone was carved and dedicated to the principal Aztec deity: the sun. The stone has both mythological and astronomical significance. It weighs almost 25 tons, has a diameter of just under 12 feet, and a thickness of 3 feet.On December 17th, 1760 the stone was discovered, buried in the "Zocalo" (the main square) of Mexico City. The viceroy of New Spain at the time was don Joaquin de Monserrat, Marquis of Cruillas. Afterwards it was embedded in the wall of the Western tower of the metropolitan Cathedral, where it remained until At that time it was transferred to the national Museum of Archaeology and History by order of the then President of the Republic, General Porfirio Diaz.
20AztecsAztecs came into the Valley of Mexico during the 12th and 13th century and rose to be the greatest power in the Americas by the time the Spaniards arrived in the 16th century.According to myth, Huitzilopochtli told Tenoch to lead his people to a place of refuge on a swampy island in Lake Texcoco. When they reached their destination, they were to look for an eagle perched on a cactus.At that location, they were to build their city and honor Huitzilopochtli with human sacrifices. The city they built was called Tenochtitlán, the city of Tenoch.The story of the Aztecs' rise to power is awe inspiring one, and is one of the most remarkable stories in world history. They were a relatively unknown group of people who came into the Valley of Mexico during the 12th and 13th century A.D., and rose to be the greatest power in the Americas by the time the Spaniards arrived, in the 16th century. Little is known of the earliest Aztecs, they did not keep a written record. Their history was passed on by word of mouth from one generation to the next. Legend has it that they came from an Island called Aztlan, meaning White Place - Place of Herons.In the Aztec codex Tira de la Peregrinacion, commonly called the Migration Scrolls. The scrolls have the Aztecs leaving Aztlan, which was described as an island in a lake with Chicomoztoc depicted as seven temples in the center of the island. The Aztecs felt they were the "chosen people" of Huitzilopochtli. The Aztecs believed Huitzilopochtli their war god was their protector, how had them search for their promised land. Sometime during the 12th & 13th century the Aztecs straggled into the Valley of Mexico, led by their chieftain Tenoch. They were a poor, ragged people who survived on vermin, snakes, and stolen food. They were hatred and rejected by all the surrounding inhabitants of the valley, for their barbarous and uncultured habits. They were driven from one location to another. Early in the 14th century, Huitzilopochtli told Tenoch to lead his people to a place of refuge on a swampy island in Lake Texcoco. When they reached their destination, they were to look for an eagle perched on a cactus, growing from a rock or cave surrounded by water. At that location, they were to build their city and honor Huitzilopochtli with human sacrifices. The city they built was called Tenochtitlán, the city of Tenoch.
21Aztec Foundation MythAccording to the myth of the foundation of Tenochtitlan, the god Huitzilopochtli told his people to settle at the spot where they found an eagle holding a serpent in its beak and perched on a stone. This image, taken from a 16th century Hispanic codex (Codex Durán) , shows this event, although probable historical data indicate that when the Mexicas arrived at Lake Texcoco, there were already settled cultures here. One of them was the Tepanecs of the domain of Azcapotzalco. As foreigners, the Mexicas were forced to live on an islet where they would come to found their city, and they were forced to pay tribute to this empire, until they won their independence around the year 1428 A.D. under the leadership of Itzcoatl. After this event, the Mexicas joined with the cities of Tlacopan and Texcoco to form the "Triple Alliance," with which the territorial expansion of the Mexicas gained force.
22April 21, 1519 (Good Friday), Cortés landed on an island off eastern Gulf Coast with 11 galleons, 550 soldiers and sailors, and 16 horsesStaked claim for God and King and founded a settlement Villa Rica de la Vera CruzSailed to Cozumel and rescued de Aguilar from the Mayas – valuable Mayan interpreterTook Malintzin/Marina as Nahuatl interpreter and mistressBurnt the remainder of his fleet and proceeded on to Tenochtitlán, making allies of tribes hostile to the Aztecs.Hernán Cortés
23La Malinche c c.1529Malinalli (Malintzin) was born to a noble family, but sold to a Tabascan chief by her mother to ensure her half-brother’s inheritanceBrought from her native Nahuatl-speaking home of Veracruz to the Yucatan, she learned the Maya language
24La MalincheGiven to the Spaniards by the Maya, she was baptized as Marina in 1519.She began to work for the Spanish as an interpreter between the Nahuatl and Maya and quickly learned Spanish.
25La MalincheShe became Cortés’s interpreter, confidante and mistress, called "la lengua de Cortés" (Cortés's tongue, or interpreter)Bore him a son, Martín, the first mestizo of historical note“After God we owe this conquest of New Spain to Doña Marina.” – CortésJosé Clemente OrozcoCortés and Malinche
26La MalincheMalina, the homonym of the Spanish name, Marina, became Malintzin (the Nahuatl suffix "-tzin" denotes respect). Cortés was known as Malintzin-é, because the indigenous peoples had trouble pronouncing the Spanish r, so Cortés and Malintzin were know by almost the same name.Then, attempting to pronounce this Nahuatl name, Spanish-speakers rendered the soft Nahuatl tzin-é sound as ch; the result was Malinche.Today Mexican Spanish-speakers use the word "malinchista" to mean "one who prefers foreign things," and for many Malinche is synonymous with "traitor."Others view Doña Marina, the mother of mestizo children as the Mother of the Mexican Nation
27MoctezumaEmperor of the Aztecs, Moctezuma was aware of Cortés’s approachHe sent Cortés a cordial message and gifts but warned against approaching TenochtitlanThe gold and finery whetted the Spaniards’ greedAlthough Moctezuma commanded a huge army, he feared to greet Cortés with a hostile force because of ancient legend17th C. portrait, artist unknown
28The Prophecy of Quetzalcoatl’s Return Ancient legend prophesied that Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent, the bearded, fair-skinned Toltec ruler-god would return in the year Ce Acatl to reclaim his kingdom.
29Omens of Return Lake Texcoco flooded Tenochtitlan The temple of Huitzlopochtli caught fireThe voice of woman wailing in the night disturbed the cityImmense comets shot through the skyA column of fire appeared every night for a year
30TenochtitlánThe last city the Spanish had seen was Seville, the largest in Spain, population: 60,000. London, Europe’s largest city, had a population of 100,000.Its site was fixed by the god Huitzilopochtli, who sent a sign in the form of a great eagle
32TenochtitlánPriests were everywhere. Like Spanish priests, they wore long dark robes. But the robes were stained with human blood, and their long hair was clotted with it, and while some of the blood was their own, most came from the human victims they slew daily.An essential part of the rituals conducted in the shrines crowning the shining pyramids was human sacrifice.
33Sacrifice of Prisoners To HuitzlipotchliCódice Magliabecchi.,siglo XVI
34The Beginning of the End Cortés met little resistence and on November 8, 1519 he crossed the causeway over Lake Texcoco to enter Tenochtitlán.Moctezuma personally went out to meet Cortés and his men. Doña Marina interpreted what Moctezuma said for Cortés:"Lord, you are weary. The journey has tired you, but now you have arrived on earth. You have come to your city of México."Then Cortés responded through Marina: "Tell Moctezuma that we are his friends and that there is nothing to fear. We have waited long to meet with him." (Florentine Codex)Within a week Cortés seized the emperor, put him in chains and held him hostage.
35Cortés left Tenochtitlan to deal with a Spanish rival. In his absence, the Spanish attacked the citizens during a religious festival.The Aztecs rebelled.Cortes tried to use Moctezuma to appeal for peace, but the people hurled stones and arrows at himThe Spaniards threw the body of Moctezuma into a canalDeath of Moctezuma
36La Noche TristeCuitláhuac, Moctezuma’s successor, besieiged the SpaniardsJune 30, 1520, the Spaniards tried to escape but were attacked by the Aztecs – hundreds diedCuitláhuac died of smallpox, succeeded by CuauhtemocCortés regrouped with Tlaxcalan allies
37Cuauhtemoc Last Aztec Emperor January, 1521, Cortés reentered valley of Mexico and demanded surrenderCuauhtemoc refusedCortés attacked with a newly built fleet and besieged TenochtitlanAfter a valiant resistance and an 80 day seige, the Aztecs, overcome by smallpox and famine, surrenderedThe Spaniards lay the Aztec Empire to waste, burned Tenochtilan, and levelled the temples.
40The Incan Empire in Peru The Incan Empire was held together by military force and linked by an extensive road system.In 1548 Huayna Capac became the Sapa (Supreme) IncaIn 1527 he received word that strange people with white skin and hair on their faces had arrived in floating wooden houses on the northern Peruvian coast.By the end of 1527, a smallpox epidemic arrived in Peru killing over 200,000 people including Huayna CapacThe Incan Empire in Peru
41Incan RoadsThe Incas had an incredible system of roads. One road ran almost the entire length of the South American Pacific coast! Since the Incas lived in the Andes Mountains, the roads took great engineering and architectural skill to build. On the coast, the roads were not surfaced and were marked only by tree trunks The Incas paved their highland roads with flat stones and built stone walls to prevent travelers from falling off cliffs.Referred to as an 'all-weather highway system', the over 14,000 miles of Inca roads were an astonishing and reliable precursor to the advent of the automobile. Communication and transport was efficient and speedy, linking the mountain peoples and lowland desert dwellers with Cuzco. Building materials and ceremonial processions traveled thousands of miles along the roads that still exist in remarkably good condition today. They were built to last and to withstand the extreme natural forces of wind, floods, ice, and drought. This central nervous system of Inca transport and communication rivaled that of Rome. A high road crossed the higher regions of the Cordillera from north to south and another lower north-south road crossed the coastal plains. Shorter crossroads linked the two main highways together in several places. The terrain, according to Ciezo de Leon, an early chronicler of Inca culture, was formidable. The road system ran through deep valleys and over mountains, through piles of snow, quagmires, living rock, along turbulent rivers; in some places it ran smooth and paved, carefully laid out; in others over sierras, cut through the rock, with walls skirting the rivers, and steps and rests through the snow; everywhere it was clean swept and kept free of rubbish, with lodgings, storehouses, temples to the sun, and posts along the way. The Incas did not discover the wheel, so all travel was done on foot. To help travelers on their way, rest houses were built every few kilometers. In these rest houses, they could spend a night, cook a meal and feed their llamas. Their bridges were the only way to cross rivers on foot. If only one of their hundreds of bridges was damaged, a major road could not fully function; every time one broke, the locals would repair it as quickly as possible.
42Incan CivilizationHeavily indebted to Chimu civilization and the Lords of Chan ChanMaster assimilationistsReciprocity: Mutual commitment between state and citizenMit’a: labor taxMaster road buildersGold artifacts
43Quipus: databanks in colored knotted cords The Incas can be characterized as methodical, highly organized, concerned with detail, and intensive data users. The Inca bureaucracy continuously monitored the areas under its control. They received many messages and sent many instructions daily. The messages included details of resources such as items that were needed or available in sotrehouses, taxes owed or collecte,d encsus information, the output of mines, or the composition of work forces. The messages were transmitted rapaidly using the extensive road system via a simple, but effective, system of runners... The message had to be clear, compact, and partable. Quipu- makers were responsible for encoding and decoding the information.A quipu is an assemblage of colored knotted cotton cords... The colors of the cords, the way the cords are connected together, the relative placement of the cords, the spaces between the cords, the types of knots on the individual cords, and the relative placement of the knots are all part of the logical-numerical recordingalso spelled QUIPO, an Incan accounting apparatus consisting of a long rope from which hung 48 secondary cords and various tertiary cords attached to the secondary ones. Knots were made in the cords to represent units, tens, and hundreds; and, in imperial accounting, the cords were differently coloured to designate the different concerns of government--such as tribute, lands, economic productivity, ceremonies, and matters relating to war and peace. The quipus were created and maintained as historical records and were kept not only by high officials at the capital of Cuzco--judges, commanders, and important heads of extended families--but also by regional commanders and village headmen.Quipus: databanks in colored knotted cords
44Civil WarAfter Huayna Capac died, his two sons Huascar and Atahualpa vied to become Sapa Inca.During the five-year civil war, hundreds of thousands of people were killed.The army of Atahualpa captured Huascar and executed him.Atahualpa declared himself the Sapa Inca and started to go south to Cuzco.Word continued to come to Atahualpa about the approach of strange, bearded white people who wanted to meet with him. . .
46Chronology of Conquest 1526–1529 – Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro make first contact with Inca Empire at Tumbes, the last Inca stronghold in the northern coast1528–1529 – Pizarro returns to Spain where he is granted by the Queen of Spain the license to conquer Peru1531–1532 – Pizarro's third voyage to Peru, Atahualpa captured by Spaniards1533 – Atahualpa is executed; Almagro arrives; Pizarro captures Cuzco and installs seventeen year old Manco Inca as new Inca emperor1535 – Pizarro founded the city of Lima; Almagro leaves for Chile1537 – Almagro seizes Cuzco from Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro. Manco flees to Vilcabamba, the new Inca capital1538 – Hernando Pizarro executes Diego de Almagro1541 – Francisco Pizarro is murdered by Diego de Almagro II and other supporters of Almagro1544 – Manco Inca is murdered by supporters of Diego de Almagro. The Inca do not stop their revolt.1572 – Viceroy of Peru, Francisco Toledo, declares war on Vilcabamba; Vilcabamba is sacked and Túpac Amaru, the last Inca emperor, is captured and executed in Cuzco. The Inca capital of Vilcabamba is abandoned.
47Death of Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca on 29 August 1533 (Luis Montero)
49Panfilo de Narvaez arrived near Tampa Bay in 1528 with about 400 men. The Uzita were initially friendly.When the Spanish found a small amount of gold, they tortured the Indians in their search for more gold, silver, and enslaved natives to serve as guides and burden bearers.Panfilo de Narvaez was the first after Ponce de Leon to come to Florida. He came in 1528, arriving near Tampa Bay with about 400 men. They met the unfriendly natives there, but they also found a small amount of gold. The Spaniards became very excited with this discovery. The indians told them that they could find the gold in the land of Apalachee which is today the Tallahassee area. They did not find any gold in the land of Apalachee so they decided to turn back. They built rafts and drifted along the coast of Florida. Most of the men were dead by now but a few were able to make it to the coast of Isla de Malhado. This island was possibly Galveston Island. After eight years only four men survived. One man was Nunez Cabeca de Vaca who reached Mexico. The survivors told stories of finding wealth in the interior of Florida. The stories encouraged many explorers; Marcos de Niza, Coronado, Cabrillo and Soto (Coler & Shofner, 1991).After many mishaps and misadventures, including a disastrous hurricane in which two ships and sixty men were lost, the surviving four ships were approaching Havana when a second storm drove them North. The coast of Florida came in sight April 12, Sailing north the pilot failed to find the mouth of Tampa Bay for which he aimed, and the ships anchored off what is now known as Johns Pass [? probably it did not exist at the time. Ed.] or perhaps Blind Pass, on April 14, The big ships apparently did not enter Boca Ciega Bay (Boca Ciega means Blind Mouth in Spanish), and of course the name of Blind Pass carries out the same idea in English. Johns Pass as we now know it probably did not exist at this time.The next day a landing was made at an Indian Village apparently with small boats. De Vaca reports there was a "long house" capable of housing more than three hundred persons. But the Indians had fled. Next day, April 16, 1528, de Narvaez landed officially and with great pomp and ceremony took possession of the land in the name of his King. This taking possession in the name of the King was an absurd appearing performance. The Commander would have his men on dress parade, round up a group of natives and read in Spanish a long legal document, carefully prepared long in advance in Spain, its purpose being to lay legal claim to the area for later diplomatic and military dealings with other nations and claimants.Panfilo de Narvaez
50De Narvaez led an expedition of 400 men, who came in five ships De Narvaez led an expedition of 400 men, who came in five ships. Unfortunately for him and his men, he was neither a good military commander nor a skilled explorer, and eventually he and all of his followers, save three, perished. But it must have been an awesome and spectacular sight to the Indian Chief Hirrahigua and his several hundred subjects when these strange creatures with beards on their faces (Indians had none,) steel armor on their bodies, and flashing steel swords in their hands, came ashore, with waving banners, horses, and all the panoply and glitter of an army of that date.A Council was then held on future moves. Pamfilo, true to his impetuous nature, was all for plunging ahead. Despite almost unanimous opposition from the other leaders, the Commander decided to march north.The four ships were told to coast north until another good harbour was found and await the overland marchers. They found no harbour, doubled back, found the entrance of Tampa Bay, searched the shores for the expedition, aided by a fifth ship which had tarried in Havana. Finding nothing they returned to New Spain (Cuba). The land expedition headed north on Sunday, May 1, 1528, after two weeks spent mostly on the Boca Ciega Bay shores, within the city limits of St. Petersburg. In two weeks the Withlacoochee was reached. By that time the men had been reduced to subsisting mainly on scrub palmetto buds and cabbage palmetto (Sable) hearts. Rafts were built to cross the river. Next the Suwannee; where the crossing was expedited by the loan of Indian dugout canoes from a group living on the riverC probably at or near present day Old Town on U. S. 19.After marching through the great forests of virgin cypress and pine beyond the Suwannee, the cavalcade reached either Lake Miccasukee, between Monticello and Tallahassee, or Lake Jackson or Bradford near Florida’s capital city. Here near starvation was relieved by a great quantity of corn found and seized in a small village of Hitchiti or Appalachee Indians, a branch of the great Muskhogean family spread between the Mississippi and Atlantic in the southern states, including much of North Florida.Unwilling or unable to reveal the location of any treasure, Chief Hirrahigua had been forced to watch as his Mother was torn to shreds before his eyes by fierce Spanish war dogs. Narvaez then ordered the nose of the chief to be cut off.
51Hunting for GoldThe Indians told them that they could find the gold in the land of the ApalacheeNarvaez divided his men, sending part of them by ships while he himself marched north by footThe four ships were told to coast north until another good harbor was found, finding nothing they returned to New Spain (Cuba).In June 1528 Narvaez reached the area of Apalachee nation on the Georgia--Florida border. All the villages in the area were deserted and the natives were hiding.The small army rested 25 days, by which time they seized corn had all been eaten; small forage parties ranging the area, found no more food to steal, were under constant harassment from arrows shot from concealment. Several men and horses were killed. The horses were eaten.By then completely broken in morale and many too sick to walk, the men marched to the Gulf at St. Marks. Promised food supplies were non-existent. The ships weren’t there. A third of the men were sick. They struggled on west to Appalachee Bay. Here it was decided to take to the sea in a desperate effort to reach Mexico.With only one ship’s carpenter the men made five pitifully makeshift open boats. The horses were killed, the meat used for food, the hides for the boat hulls over wooden ribs, the tails and manes and leather from small animals for rigging, the men’s blankets for sails.The forlorn crazy fleet set sail on September 22, 1528, there now being only 242 survivors. All boats were eventually lost or wrecked, de Narvaez being in the first one. The fifth reached a large island at Matagorda Bay near the Texas- Louisiana line when it was wrecked on November 6, Survivors of the third boat found those of the fifth, the total now being down to 80. Only 15 lived to escape from this island.
53The Apalachees waged guerilla-war against Narvaez: the march forward changed into a route The Spanish built rafts and drifted along the coast of Florida, landing near Galveston.After eight years only three men survived, arriving in Mexico City: Cabeza de Vaca, Oviedo, and Estevanico of AzamorMarooned
54Cabeza De Vaca: After a brief period of glory and renown, De Vaca returned to Spain and wrote a book which with vivid description and detail reports the entire de Narvaez-de Vaca adventure. But he fell out of favor and died in exile in AfricaEstevanico of Azamor: a black Muslim from Morocco, he mesmerized the Mexican natives. He led two great exploration expeditions into California, Arizona and New Mexico, but he finally overplayed his hand. On the second, he had become so arrogant in his treatment of the Indians, they lynched him.After a winter of near starvation and suffering from cold C the men were naked by now C only De Vaca, another Spaniard named Oviedo and the huge Morrocon Negro, Estivanico, or Estevan as he was frequently called, survived.Then a fantastic situation developed. Using hypnotism apparently and ritualistic hocus pocus, the three posed as healers of the sick and it worked. They became treated almost as gods, particularly Estevan. Tribes and groups fought to get them to stay with them. They were too successful. After weeks of dissimulation they would manage to escape, only to be captured by the next group and held; and the whole process would unfold again. At the end of eight years of this fantastic existence they reached Mexico City. After a brief period of glory and renown Vaca had had enough, returned to Spain and perpetual fame from the great adventure book he inspired, which so faithfully and with such vivid description and detail reports the entire de Narvaez-de Vaca adventure.But de Vaca lived out his life under an ill star. The Spanish Emperor received him well but vacillated. Three years before "rewarding" him with the governorship of La Plata and task of conquering the fierce Pariembos, the Paraguanian Indians, unconquered to this day, who inhabited the headwaters of the La Plata River. De Vaca had sought the governorship of Florida as successor to the perished Narvaez. The La Plata expedition failed. Impoverished, de Vaca was cast into prison, remained there six years, banished to Africa, died where, when and how, nobody knows. In earlier days the penalty of defeat for public servants was usually death; today a pension.As for the Negro Estavan, he capitalized well on his fame, as a fawned upon hero he led two great exploration expeditions into California, Arizona and New Mexico. But he finally overplayed his hand. On the second he had become so arrogant in his treatment of the Indians, at one large town the inhabitants mobbed him and lynched him.
55The Original Pocahontas? a ship eventually arrived at the original landing site from Havana, despatched by de Narvaez’s wife (she was his widow, but as yet did not know that,) to search for the expedition. Anchoring in front of the original point of departure on the land march the men aboard thought they saw a paper in a cleft stick on the shore.Surely a message from Pamfilo! Two priests were rowed ashore by an 18 year old youth, Juan Ortiz. As they stepped on the beach, Indians hidden in the dense growth, rushed out, slaughtered the two priests forthwith and took Juan before Hirrahigua as prisoner.Then began the episode that has spawned a half a dozen books and romantic tales and a dozen books and romantic tales of every shade of sentimentality and fantasy. Operas have been written, poems sung, fables spun C the great, tender romance between Juan and "Princess" Hirrahigua.The truth is Hirrahigua tortured the boy, enslaved him, assigned him to K.P. and the detail to guard dead bodies against the ravages of wolves at night and incursions of buzzards by day. The Indians exposed dead bodies on high platforms until only skin and bones remained before being buried. Eventually he escaped, took refuge with a nearby Chief, probably at Pinellas Point or Philippi Park; probably Philippi, where he was rescued in 1539, after 10 or more years captivity among the Indians.The prosaic known facts are that the hot blooded Latin and the girl became infatuated and involved. The Council voted to kill the boy. This was in strict accord with the moral code of these aboriginal people. If a pair transgressed, there were three possible punishments; torture, banishment or death.The girl’s entreaties and those of her mother and others persuaded the Cacique to cancel the death penalty but his treatment of the boy became so abusive and painful that the couple fled to a nearby tribe between whom and Hirrahigua’s group there was bad blood, and there they were allowed to remain.For almost three centuries many learned historians fully suspected that the very, very clever John Smith stole the story up Virginia way, sold Pocahontas on the idea, wrote a book, and went on to fame arc fortune. And they thought therefore that most of the rest of John’s tall tales were of whole cloth.But recent research has confirmed that facts check from other reliable sources, with the fabulous claims of the famous John Smith, which proves that maids and men and their ways differ but little be it in Florida or Virginia. John Smith just had a better gift for publicity and dramatics than did Juan OrtizThe frieze of the Rotunda of the United States Capitol
56Juan Ortiz and Princess Hirrihigua In 1528, Juan Ortiz, a member of the expedition sent from Cuba to find Panfilo De Narvaez, was captured by Chief Hirrihigua, who hated the white men because of the violence of Narvaez.Juan Ortiz was condemned to death but Princess Hirrihigua, eldest daughter of the chief, pleaded with her father and saved his life.Princess Hirrihigua saved Ortiz from death three times.In 1539, Hernando De Soto rescued Ortiz who became his guide and interpreter.The saga of Juan Ortiz, a young officer of the Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narvaez, began in when he and four other Spaniards became separated from the others and were captured by the Chief of the Uzita natives, Chief Hirrahigua In an earlier encounter with Narvaez, Chief Hirrahigua and his people had been tortured and enslaved by the Spaniards in their search for gold, silver, and for natives to serve as guides and burden bearers. Unwilling or unable to reveal the location of any treasure, Chief Hirrahigua had been forced to watch as his Mother was torn to shreds before his eyes by fierce war dogs that accompanied the Spaniards. Narvaez then ordered the nose of the chief to be cut off in order to get him to tell of hidden gold. Needless to say, Chief Hirrahigua, in his anger, sought revenge on Juan and the other captured Spaniards, sending them to run through a gauntlet that none of the first four survived. But when Juan’s turn came to run for his life, Chief Hirrihigua’s wife and two of his daughters spoke for Juan, pleading that he be spared because of his tender age. Although Juan was spared that day, the Chief’s animosity towards this Spaniard continued to grow. Many times he tortured Juan and attempted to carry out his death sentence. After more than a year of enslavement, Juan was placed upon a barbacoa (a smoking and drying rack for foods and hides) and was nearly cooked to death before being rescued by the women. When the Chief’s eldest daughter decided that she could no longer protect Juan from her father’s rage, she helped Juan to escape to the domain of her fiancee, the Chief of the Mocoso. Here, Juan spent the next 10 years under the personal protection of Chief Mocoso until he was rescued by Hernando de Soto in Juan traveled with de Soto’s army, acting as a guide and interpreter. He perished upon the trail from disease. Chief Hirrihigua’s daughter, facing the full force of her Father’s wrath for aiding Juan in his escape, was never allowed to marry her fiancee, Chief Mocoso. One hundred years later, an Englishman, John Smith read an account of the Juan Ortiz story and thus was born the tale of Pocohontas and John Smith.
57Hernando De SotoHernando De Soto had had been with Pizarro in Peru and wanted to find his own gold-country to conquer.In 1538 De Soto sailed from Spain with 600 experienced soldiers, weapons and livestock.Hernando de Soto and his fleet, with over six hundred people left Cuba and reached the Florida coast on May 25, It would be left to Soto to end the mystery surrounding Florida. There he found an indian prisoner, Juan Ortiz. The natives had no gold or silver, but they told stories of Indians living in the North that had an immense amount of gold and silver that they were looking for. Soto went in search of those indians only to discover that they had no precious metals. Soto took many natives hostage. He seized Indian chiefs and many Indian women. He demanded that many Indians be provided as bearers and the Indian women be provided as concubines for the Spaniards (1991). Soto decided to travel further north in search of the fabled riches. When he left his camp he took the Pensacola chief. He then traveled to the Indian village of Cofitachequi. There he was greeted by the chieftainess, who gave him a string of pearls. There the Spaniards found a vast amount of pearls, about two hundred pounds of them in the local burial sites. They left Cofitachequi and headed north, then toward west, and finally toward the south. Hernando de Soto died on May 21, 1542 (1991).
61De Soto died of fever in 1542 somewhere in Mississippi – he was buried in the river to hide his body from angry Indians.The remnants of his men finally managed to build boats and sail to Mexico.The frieze of the Rotunda of the United States Capitol
62Spanish Colonization of Florida Pedro Menéndez de Aviléz was sent to Florida to counteract threats posed by the French colony.Menéndez landed on the coast at St. Augustine in 1565.After establishing a base of operations, Menéndez sailed with five ships to Fort Caroline.When the Spanish sailed into the mouth of the St. Johns River, they found the French ships there and tried to board them.Unsuccessful at this attempt, they sailed southward back to St. Augustine, and began to build a fort.
63Aviles marched his soldiers overland to Fort Caroline, made a surprise attack, and massacred all the inhabitants save those who declared themselves Catholic, the muscians, and some of the women and children. French soldiers, who later surrendered to Aviles, were also massacred at Matanzas Inlet. This massacre put an end to France's attempts at colonization in Florida
64Ft. San Marcos in St. Augustine begun 1672 Aviles de Menendez, conqueror of the Huguenots and founder of St. Augustine, was committed to building a permanent settlement in Florida.When the Spanish authorities learned of Charlesfort, they immediately dispatched a warship to destroy the French fort, but when they arrived they found the fort abandoned. To protect their claims, the Spanish decided to organize settlements along the east coast of North America. A large Spanish armada was organized under the command of Pedro Menendez, but before it was ready to sail, a second French expedition established a new colony, Fort Caroline, on the St. John's River near present day Jacksonville, Fla. When Menendez arrived off the Florida coast, he found the French fort protected by a naval squadron under Ribaut's command. Realizing that the French were too strong to attack by sea, Menendez sailed down the coast and built a military base at St. Augustine, Fla.. From there, he marched overland to attack Fort Caroline while, simultaneously, Ribaut sailed his squadron to attack St. Augustine. Both movements were caught by a natural phenomena unfamiliar to Europeans, a hurricane. Despite the storm, or perhaps by using the storm as a cover, Menendez's men surprised and destroyed Fort Caroline, while Ribaut's squadron was wrecked on a barrier island near St. Augustine. Here Menendez captured and executed Ribaut and the other French survivors. With his enemies defeated, Menendez then sailed up the coast and established the city of Santa Elena on Parris Island in This city became the home of nearly Spaniards and served as the capital of Spanish Florida from 1568 to 1576, when Indian attacks forced a brief evacuation. The Spanish returned in and built a larger city that survived until 1587, when English raids forced the Spaniards to evacuate Santa Elena and move to St. Augustine.Ft. San Marcos in St. Augustine begun 1672
65The Spanish fort and town of St The Spanish fort and town of St. Augustine that became the first continuous European settlement in North America.