"Political Religion in Agrarian Roman Palestine" in K.C. Hanson & Douglas Oakman, Palestine in the Time of Jesus, 148
K.C. Hanson & Douglas Oakman, Palestine in the Time of Jesus, 108
From Stegemann & Stegemann, The Jesus Movement, 72.
How fortunate are the destitute, the Empire of Heaven belongs to them. Father, may Your name be kept holy. Let Your Empire come. Give us today today's bread, and cancel our debts as we cancel the debts of those indebted to us. And do not put us to the test. On being asked when the Empire of God is coming, he answered them and said: The Empire of God is not coming visibly, one will not say, "Look over here or over there!" Just look—the Empire of God is already among you. Woe to you interpreters of the Law, for you bind burdens and load on the backs of people but you yourselves do not want to lift your finger to move them. Woe to you interpreters of the Law, for you closed the Empire of God to the people. You did not go in nor let in those trying to get in. Woe to you, for you built tombs for the prophets but your forefathers killed them. With what am I to compare the Empire of God. It is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three measures of flour until it was fully fermented. Be on your way, I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves. Blessed are the eyes that see what you see. For I tell you: Many prophets and kings wanted to see what you see, but never saw it, and to hear what you hear, but never heard it.
To the art historians: I know this is fifth century, but you know how limited the options for the earlier periods.
1 Corinthians 1:26 For consider your call, brothers, not many of you were wise according to worldly standards, not many were powerful, not many were of noble-birth… Subtext: but a few of you were….
ERASTUS PRO AEDILITATE SUA PECUNIA STRAVIT Paved at his own expense by Erastus in exchange for his aedilship
The Structure of Paul's Argument in Diatribe, following Johnson Introductory Materials Prescript 1:1-7 Prooimion 1:8-15 Thesis: 1:16-17 For I am not ashamed of the good news, because it is a power which God has to save all who are faithful, the Jew first and afterwards also the Greek. For it [the good news] makes known God's merciful justice as a consequence of [Jesus'] faithfulness which leads to faithfulness. (Stowers, A Rereading of Romans, 199) Demonstration by Antithesis 1:18-3:20 Thesis restatement 3:21-31 Demonstration by example 4:1-25 Demonstration by experience 5:1-11 Synkresis: coordinate comparison 5:12-21 Objections to the thesis 6:1-11:36 Deliberative appeal: 12:1-15:13
Rule of thumb when reading Paul. When a question or objection is being raised, or if he seems to be tacking back and forth between positions, ask yourself, "Could this be a speech-in-character dialogue?"" Who's speaking here?" Is it Paul? Is it an imaginary opponent? Is it an imaginary representative of the encoded audience, an interested Gentile getting schooled by Paul?
PISTIS CHRISTOU Objective Genitive= Faith in Christ Subjective Genitive = Faith/Faithfulness of Christ
But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. OR But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law; although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, the righteousness of God through the faithfulness of Jesus Christ for all who are faithful.
THESIS: For I am not ashamed of the good news, because it is a power which God has to save all who are faithful, the Jew first and afterwards also the Greek. For it [the good news] makes known God's merciful justice as a consequence of [Jesus'] faithfulness which leads to faithfulness. Stowers, A Rereading of Romans, 199
Antithetical to the gift are indicators of divine partiality. The sign of judgment in the weakened mind and moral incapacity of the gentile; The unique election and superiority of the circumcised sons of Abraham. 1:18-32 The decline of the gentiles narrative 2:1-11 A stereotypical haughty judge 3:17 -24 A stereotypical Jewish teacher of gentiles 3:1-20 A dialogue on the advantages enjoyed by the Jew Thesis restatement 3:21-31
"Christian House," Baptistery: Overall View Dura Europos. "Christian House" early 3 rd century Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.