Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 1607-1754 Review. Similarities and Difference in Settlement by Spain, England and France Settlement Patterns Motivations Relations with the Native."— Presentation transcript:
Spain sought to establish tight control over the process of colonization and to convert and/or exploit the native populations Intermarriage and cross-race relationships were more accepted than in the English colonies – Social hierarchy still existed (but was based on racial gradations)- Casta system The Spanish colonizing efforts saw some accommodation with American Indian culture
England The English sought to establish colonies based on agriculture Relatively large numbers of men and women migrated to the colonies to establish settlements – Led to relatively hostile relationships with American Indians
New England Founded primarily by Puritans seeking to establish a community of like-minded believers Developed close-knit, relatively homogeneous society Economy was a mixture of agriculture and commerce
Middle Colonies Demographically, religiously, and ethnically diverse Export economy based on cereal crops
Southern Colonies Chesapeake and North Carolina – Production of tobacco using white indentured servants and, increasing, African slaves Deep South and British West Indies – Rice in the Carolinas – Sugar in Barbados
Native Americans Contact with Europeans increased the flow of trade goods and diseases into and out of native communities – The result was cultural and demographic changes
King Philip’s War 1675-1676 Initially settlers trades with the Indians As they more settlers arrived and they became more self-sufficient, they pushed further west Metacom (King Philip)- son of Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag Bloodiest war between Indians and settlers in New England The defeat of King Philip and the Indians opened the way for further colonial settlement
By the late 17th century, social and religious tensions developed in New England as the Salem witch hysteria dramatically illustrates. Puritan belief remained, but religious zeal was weakening – Half-Way Covenant- unconverted children of members could be baptized but not admitted to full communion Weakened distinction between elect and others
Salem Witch Trials One cause was the unsettled changing social and religious conditions evolving in Massachusetts.
Salem Witch Trials 1692- Twenty accused witches were killed Most of the accused came from families associated with Salem’s growing market economy; the accusers from subsistence farming families Widening social stratification was one cause Other causes?
Social Developments Increasing social stratification Increasing social tensions – Causes?
Attempts at British Control Late 17 th century – Mercantalist economic aims (to build economic strength, a nation must export more than it imports) – Navigation Acts (first in 1651) -Attempt by England to control colonial trade -Many were ignored or disobeyed (smuggling)
The Dominion of New England – 1686 Connecticut and Rhode Island were merged with Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth – New York and New Jersey were then added – Control given to Edmund Andros After the Glorious Revolution in England, Andros is overthrown
The uprisings of 1688-1689 restored colonial self-government and began a period of salutary political neglect – How will this contribute the American Revolution?
Slavery Reasons for expansion of Atlantic slave trade – Abundance of land (need for labor to work it) – Shortage of indentured servants – Lack of ability to enslave native peoples – Growing demand for colonial goods
British system evolved into a race-based form of chattel slavery – Led to racial stereotyping and the development of strict racial categories This system undermined African gender and kinship relationships in the colonies Africans developed both overt and covert means to resist the dehumanizing aspects of slavery – Rebellion, sabotage, escape, – Development of a new African-American culture
Developments in Europe and their impact on the colonies Conflicts in Europe spread to North America – Beaver Wars (1600s)- Iroquois League, supported by the English and Dutch, fought the Huron and Algonquin tribes who were backed by the French – Fought over control of the fur trade
The Glorious Revolution 1688 – William and Mary (Protestants) replace Catholic King James – England becomes a constitutional monarchy – Sparks rebellions by Protestant colonists in Massachusetts, Maryland, and NY Puritan leaders seize Governor Andros and send him back to England Protestant uprising against Catholic proprietors in Maryland Jacob Leisler rebellion in NY
18 th Century As regional distinctiveness among the British colonies diminished over time, they developed generally similar patterns of culture, laws, institutions, and governance within the context of the British system
Anglicization in the British Colonies Factors – Growth of autonomous political communities based on English models – Development of commercial ties – Emergence of a trans-Atlantic print culture – Protestant evangelism – Religious toleration – Spread of European Enlightenment ideas
The “Atlantic World” Growth of an Atlantic economy throughout the 18 th century Development of a shared labor market Wide exchange of New World and European goods