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Spanish Missions in Texas

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Presentation on theme: "Spanish Missions in Texas"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spanish Missions in Texas

2 Summary So Far Europe Eyes the Americas The French Explore Texas
Columbus came to the New World looking for gold and a new trade route to Asia. Although he found neither, his four voyages inspired others to seek their fortunes in the Americas. Europe Eyes the Americas Spain’s claims on Texas lands prompted France to establish a colony of its own. Although La Salle’s Texas colony did not survive, France’s presence renewed Spain’s interest in settling Texas. The French Explore Texas Following Columbus’s lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission. Spanish Explorers Come to Texas

3 Race to Claim Texas - In the late 1600’s, Texas lay between Spanish Mexico & French Louisiana. - Both countries needed control of Texas in order to claim the area. VS

4 For France and Spain, two of the most powerful countries in Europe in the late 1600’s, the race was on for control of Texas. Texas lay between Spanish Mexico (Mexico was a colony of Spain) and French Louisiana, and neither country had yet colonized the area. Both countries knew that their claims to the region would continue to be challenged until the permanently occupied the land. From the late 1600s through most of the 1700s, Spain moved to secure its claim to Texas. Why Come Back to Texas? CAUSE EFFECT LaSalle unsuccessfully establishes a colony in Texas. His colony fails, but it marks Frances first presence in Texas. Frances colony renews Spain’s interest in establishing their presence in Texas again.

5 Why the need for Spanish Settlement?
- Spain needed to colonize Texas in order to hold onto the territory. - They needed missions to carry out the “God” part of the 3 G’s, spreading Christianity. - Presidios provided soldiers for protection. - Civil settlements provided colonists to inhabit the territory.

6 Most of the missions built in the 1600s were along the Rio Grande… until La Salle established Ft. St. Louis… then the Spanish started building farther east in order to claim more of this area (what would be Texas) for Spain


8 Event: Corpus Christi de la Ysleta (El Paso)
Time: 1682 Details: First mission built in Texas. It was only one of few missions that was built in West Texas. It was very successful, and more were promised by Spain.

9 Spain - In late 1600’s, Spain settled Mexico & New Mexico.
- La Salle had established Fort St. Louis for France -Found out about the French Ft. St. Louis in Texas. - June, 1686 – sent Alonso de Leon to find and destroy Ft. St. Louis

10 Alonso de Leon - April 22, 1689 - Found abandoned Ft. St. Louis in ruins - Explored East Texas - Met Caddo Indians, called them “Tejas” meaning “friendly.” - Took friendliness as eagerness to become Catholic

11 Father Damian Massanet
Was with de Leon requested help from Mexico City to convert the Caddo, or the Tejas as they called them, to Catholicism Convinced the viceroy of New Spain to colonize East Texas and convert the Caddoes to Catholicism Del Leon and Massanet were sent with several priest and about 100 soldiers to colonize East Texas Resulted in many missions in East Texas even though these missions failed

12 Event: Mission San Francisco de los Tejas
Time: 1690 By: Fr. Damian Massanet Details: This is the first mission to be built in East Texas. Marks the beginning of Spanish dominance in Texas and Mexico. Missions begin to pop up all over East Texas.

13 Replica of the mission shown above reflects the way Texans adapted to their environment by
Mission was made from natural resources

14 Event: San Antonio de Valero (Alamo)
Time: 1718 Details: This mission is founded in San Antonio Texas as a central point between Mexico and East Texas missions. It becomes famous for its part in the Texas revolution. A major battle is fought here where Texas is defeated by Mexican forces. It would later be known as the turning point in the war, and a major reason Texas rallies to become independent from Mexico.

15 The French Return - In 1699, France built a trading post at Biloxi, MS then one in Mobile, AL Purpose was for trading with Natives French didn’t want land - Spain saw this as competition for the land and renewed colonization efforts

16 French/Spanish Territory

17 Fr. Francisco Hidalgo - A priest at San Francisco de los Tejas
- Wrote letter to French Governor Cadillac of Louisiana requesting he send French priests to minister to the newly baptized natives in East Texas, using French to pressure Spanish. Hidalgo Contacted French catholic priests to provide religious services to the local native people when Spanish priests were not available Caused Spanish to be suspicious of French colonization Cooperated with French authorities in Louisiana to bring missions to east Texas - French saw this as invitation to visit Spanish territory

18 Louis de St. Denis - 1714, Frenchmen sent into Spanish territory with trade goods to investigate Fr. Hidalgo’s request. - Was arrested by Spanish - Released to lead an expedition into East Texas to establish a bunch of missions.

19 East Texas Missions - 1716 - 1st – Fr. Francisco Hidalgo reopened San Francisco de los Tejas - Opened 6 more missions to reclaim East Texas - A steady stream of supplies from Mexico was needed for success

20 San Antonio Founded - Needed a support post near the San Antonio River for supplies - ½ way between Mexico & East Texas missions - May 1, 1718, Mission San Antonio de Valero was built - Across river, Presidio San Antonio de Bexar & La Villa de Bexar were built

21 San Antonio Settlement
- Mission = San Antonio de Valero - Presidio = San Antonio de Bexar - Civil Settlement = La Villa de Bexar - Together, these would become the most important Spanish colony in Texas, then the important city it is today.

22 San Antonio de Valero “The Alamo”

23 “The Alamo”

24 Los Adaes - Spain’s easternmost establishment
- Built a mission, a presidio, and a small settlement - Became the capital of the newly created province of Texas

25 Los Adaes - Texas border today

26 New Colonists Arrive - Colonies needed settlers to grow & survive
1731 – East Texas missions are moved to San Antonio 55 immigrants (15 families) arrived at San Antonio de Bexar from the Canary Islands - Spanish gov’t gave them supplies

27 Spain Reexamines - Spain needs to save money
- Inspection is made of Spain’s northernmost frontier - Recommendations: 1. combine East TX missions 2. reduce troops at presidios - Spain reduces military forces in the region

28 Results - Missions are left open to Native attacks
– East Texas missions were moved to San Antonio - Spain and France agree on an “unofficial” border between Spanish TX & French LA - A stream named the Arroyo Hondo became the boundary

29 Presidio La Bahía Fort dates back to 1749
La Bahía’s job to protect Mission Espíritu Santo Site of many skirmishes during the Mexican and Texan revolutions Karankawa Indians not hospitable Moved to the Guadalupe River Goliad Moved to the Guadalupe River because there were conflicts with American tribes in the region Presidio means – military post or fortified settlement in an area under Spanish control Presidio Nuestra Senora de Loreto de La Bahia del Espiritu Santo; name means Our Lady of Loreto of the Bay of the Holy Spirit 342 Texas men were executed here by the Mexican army during the 1836 Texas revolution which led to the “Remember Goliad” cry later shouted at the Battle of San Jacinto Goliad got its name in 1829 when Mexicans rechristened it in honor of a revolutionary here – Hidalgo – by using “Goliad” as an anagram, without the H


31 Jose de Escandon Military commander and governor of present day Laredo
Led Spain’s expansion effort in South Texas Sent settlers to the land between the Rio Grande River and the Nueces River Moved La Bahia mission and presidio from the Guadalupe River to Goliad

32 Missions Are Built Antonio Margil de Jesus established the San Jose’ y San Miguel de Aguayo Mission.

33 San José

34 What about the Natives? - Most rejected mission life
- Tonkawas & Lipan Apaches used missions for protection against other tribes Comanches attacked Mission San Saba

35 Treatment of Natives - Spanish tried to change the Native’s way of life and take away their freedom. They were often unfriendly and mean to the Natives. They forced them to do their will and often took advantage of them. - The French were friendly, did not try to change them, only wanted to trade.

36 Problems Arise - 1763 – French & Indian War ends
- Spain got all of French LA west of the Mississippi River - Too much land to settle or defend - US settlers would soon begin invading

37 1810 Father Hidalgo gave a speech encouraging Mexicans, Texans, and others to fight for their independence

38 The First Spanish Missions Failed Because. . .
Their crops failed because of drought They did not get supplies Native Americans became hostile Diseases wiped out many Native Texans

39 Why was 1718 a significant year in Texas history?
a. Father Massanet established the Mission San Francisco de los Tejas San Antonio de Bexar was established and later became the city of San Antonio Texas’s Gulf Coast was first mapped by Alonso de Pineda, bringing in more explorers

40 What was a negative effect of the Spanish missions in Texas?
a. Native Americans starved because buffalo were wiped out by the missionaries Native Americans were moved to the coast to make room for the missionaries Native Americans died from diseases brought by Spanish missionaries

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