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Middle Ages in Africa and Asia Review. Religious Interaction Interaction of different religions leads to cultural blending or conflict due to common values.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages in Africa and Asia Review. Religious Interaction Interaction of different religions leads to cultural blending or conflict due to common values."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages in Africa and Asia Review

2 Religious Interaction Interaction of different religions leads to cultural blending or conflict due to common values and beliefs or differences. — What were the causes and effects of the development of major world religions such as Islam and Sikhism? — How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Asia and North Africa interact? — How did Muslim and Hindu societies in South Asia interact? — What are the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism?

3 Development of Islam Islam – historical origins, central ideas, and the spread of the religion Muhammad – born in 570(?) and is considered the founder of Islam; he is considered the last prophet of God Muslims – those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last Prophet Mecca – The Holy City of the Islamic faith Allah – monotheistic deity; also recognized as the God of Abraham (Yahweh) Hijrah – pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required (health permitting) to take within their lifetime

4 Development of Islam

5 Koran (Qur’an) – book or writings of the prophet Muhammad Jihad (Holy Struggle) – the expansion of the Islamic state and control Arabian focus – Middle Eastern/North Africa Location, Spain, Southeast Asia Trade and spread of religion – Silk roads, European exploration

6 Development of Sikhism Sikhism: Founded in 15th century Punjab Based on teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Sikh teaching emphasizes the principle of equality of all humans and rejects discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, and gender. Monotheistic Spiritual union with God results in salvation Diwali – Celebration commemorating the release of Guru Hargobind’s release from the Gwalior Fort in 1619 Khalsa – all Sikhs who have been baptized The Five K’s that all Sikhs must wear as articles of faith

7 Development of Sikhism

8 Muslim and Christian Interaction People conquered by Muslims chose to accept Islam because they were attracted by the appeal of this religion’s message as well as not having to pay a poll tax. Qur’an forbade forced conversions so Muslims allowed conquered people to retain their own religions.

9 Muslim and Christian Interaction Christians and Jews served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states. Muslims set up an extensive trade network between Europe, Asia and North Africa. Cultural blending leads to achievements in art and science in Muslim-controlled cities in Asia, Europe, and North Africa

10 Muslim and Christian Interaction Asia Crusades lead to conflicts between Christians and Muslims Muslims conquer Constantinople in 1453 and establish the Ottoman Empire

11 Muslim and Christian Interaction North Africa Fatimid dynasty set up in North Africa Muslims control the Maghrib (North Africa) along the Mediterranean coast by 670 Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, convert to Islam in the 600s.

12 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA Muslim tribes from Central Asia invade northwestern India in the 600s Turkish warlords invade India in 1000 and establish the Delhi Sultanate, where Hindus were treated as conquered people

13 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA Mughal ruler Akbar establishes a golden age in India Religious freedom for Hindus and non-Muslims Taxation on Hindu pilgrims and on non-Muslims abolished Mingling of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu cultures that lead to new developments in art and literature and the Urdu language in army camps Shah Jahan – construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife Aurangazeb – expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the Indian subcontinent

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15 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA Harsh policies against Hindus including bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positions Militant Hindus known as Marathas establish a breakaway state in southern India Sikhs break away and establish a separate state in Punjab

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17 Trade and Cultural diffusion Trade encourages cultural diffusion and interdependency between societies. — What were the causes and effects of the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia ( )? — What were the major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China and what was their impact on Eastern Asia? — How did the slave trade develop? — How did the Silk Road and the African gold-salt trade facilitate the spread of ideas and trade? — How did geography influence the development of civilizations such as in the Middle East?

18 Trade and Cultural Diffusion — Can you locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to this era and turning point in world history, such as, the Sahara, Ghana, Mali, Arabian Peninsula, Mecca, Baghdad, Cairo, Spain, Iberian Peninsula, Mongol Empire, Istanbul, Anatolia (Asia Minor), Moscow, Korea, Japan, Angkor Wat, Beijing, China, Silk Road, African Gold-Salt Route, Indian Ocean? — What was the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history? (Include trade in the Indian Ocean) — How did new ideas in mathematics, science, and technology begin and then spread throughout the world? (Include ideas from the Tang to Ming dynasties.)

19 Impact of Mongol Invasions Mongol invasions 13th century: spread across Eurasia to create one of the world’s largest empires Brutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities “Pax Mongolia” that supported trade along the Silk Road Kublai Khan (Yuan dynasty) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place

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21 Impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia ( )? Russia Fall of Kiev (1240) Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid Isolation from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions Moscow emerges as a major city Ivan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols

22 Impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia ( )? China Northern China conquered by Ogadi (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234 Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty ( ) China united for the first time in 300 years Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)

23 Impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia ( )? Islamic World Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killed End of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern day Turkey)

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25 The major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.) Political developments Emperor Taizong extends China’s boundaries north to Manchuria, south to Vietnam, and east to the Aral Sea Empress Wu Zhao extends Chinese influence to the Korean Peninsula Restoration of bureaucracy to manage the empire Scholar-officials take competitive civil service exams to work in government offices Song China ( ) Political developments Rule limited to Southern China after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria

26 The major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.) Economic developments Foreign trade on the Silk Roads grows Arrival of tea from Southeast Asia New inventions: porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder all increase trade and spread to Japan and Korea Song China ( ) Economic developments Introduction of a fast- growing rice from Vietnam that lead to faster growing population Movable type spreads to Japan and Korea Paper money contributes to a large-scale economy Advances in sailing technology such as the magnetic compass lead to the growth of ocean trade

27 The major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.) Cultural developments Spread of Buddhism through trade networks to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Greater social mobility and movement to cities Decline in the status of women including the beginning of binding the feet of upper class girls Song China ( ) Cultural developments New height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black ink China’s population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million people

28 DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE First major development occurs in 7th century when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport them to Southwest Asia Muslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims on the Islamic belief that they could be bought and sold as slaves

29 DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE 4.5 million Africans transported as slaves to Southwest Asia between 650 and 1000 AD Slaves in African and Muslim societies had legal rights and opportunity for social mobility

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31 HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE Silk Road – long distance trade route from China to Rome; products from the east such as spices and silk transported west Roman ideas taken to their eastern provinces; Indian traders act as middlemen and grow wealthy; promotion of cultural diffusion between regions that come into contact with each other

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33 HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE African Gold-Salt Trade Arab and Berber traders took salt from the Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold; African traders also crossed the Sahara to trade gold for salt in North Africa; cloth and weapons from Mediterranean ports taken to West Africa; powerful rulers in Ghana and Mali regulated the gold trade in West Africa

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35 Trade in the Indian Ocean: Arab traders spread Islam to East Africa Arab slave trade along East African coast; later influences the European slave trade Piracy (both historic and contemporary) European voyages of exploration bring spices from the East Indies and contribute to the Commercial Revolution in Europe

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37 New ideas in mathematics, science, and technology by the Tang and Ming dynasties Tang Porcelain Movable type Gunpowder Mechanical clock Paper money Magnetic compass Ming Spurred by contact with Europe, i.e., telescope Trigonometry Hydraulic powered devices for irrigation and agriculture Snorkeling gear for pearl divers

38 Religious Impacts Key Understandings Religion impacts societies politically, economically and socially. — What were the causes and effects of the development of Islamic caliphates and their impact on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia and Africa? — What was the political, economic, and social impact of Islam on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia, and Africa? — How did Islam influence law and government in the Muslim world?

39 Causes and effects of the development of Islamic caliphates and their impact on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia and Africa Development of Islamic caliphates Abbasid caliphate: Baghdad Fatimid caliphate: Cairo Umayyad caliphate: Damascus Shi’a movement begins as a reaction to Umayyad rule Expansion of Islam into North Africa and Spain Golden age in mathematics and science, including chemistry, empirical scientific method, and medical care

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41 Mongol Invasions Key Understandings Internal and external forces cause political, economic, and social changes in a society. — What were the changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world? — What shared factors contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty?

42 Impacts of Mongol Invasions 13 th Century: Spread across Eurasia to create one of the World’s largest empires Brutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities “Pax Mongolia” supported trade along the Silk Road Kublai Khan (Yuan dynasty) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place

43 Changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world? Russia Fall of Kiev (1240) Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid Isolation from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions Moscow emerges as a major city Ivan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols

44 Changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world? China Northern China conquered by Ogadi (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234 Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty ( ) China united for the first time in 300 years Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)

45 Changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world? Islamic World Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killed End of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern day Turkey) Poor administration of captured regions leads to dissolution of Mongol empire and rise of the Ottoman Turks

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47 Shared factors that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty. Corrupt governments in both empires Infighting among political elites Empires too large an area to manage Invasions from hostile nomadic tribes Social inequality among the classes with tax burdens on lower classes Inequitable distribution of lands Decline in morals and values Public health and urban decay Unemployment and inflation


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