2Religious Interaction Interaction of different religions leads to cultural blending or conflict due to common values and beliefs or differences.— What were the causes and effects of the development of major world religions such as Islam and Sikhism?— How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Asia and North Africa interact?— How did Muslim and Hindu societies in South Asia interact?— What are the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism?
3Development of IslamIslam – historical origins, central ideas, and the spread of the religionMuhammad – born in 570(?) and is considered the founder of Islam; he is considered the lastprophet of GodMuslims – those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last ProphetMecca – The Holy City of the Islamic faithAllah – monotheistic deity; also recognized as the God of Abraham (Yahweh)Hijrah – pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required (health permitting) to take within their lifetime
5Development of IslamKoran (Qur’an) – book or writings of the prophet MuhammadJihad (Holy Struggle) – the expansion of the Islamic state and controlArabian focus – Middle Eastern/North AfricaLocation, Spain, Southeast AsiaTrade and spread of religion – Silk roads,European exploration
6Development of Sikhism Founded in 15th century PunjabBased on teachings of Guru Nanak DevSikh teaching emphasizes the principle of equality of all humans and rejects discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, and gender.MonotheisticSpiritual union with God results in salvationDiwali – Celebration commemorating the release of Guru Hargobind’s release from the Gwalior Fort in 1619Khalsa – all Sikhs who have been baptizedThe Five K’s that all Sikhs must wear as articles of faith
8Muslim and Christian Interaction People conquered by Muslims chose to accept Islam because they were attracted by the appeal of this religion’s message as well as not having to pay a poll tax.Qur’an forbade forced conversions so Muslims allowed conquered people to retain their own religions.
9Muslim and Christian Interaction Christians and Jews served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states.Muslims set up an extensive trade network between Europe, Asia and North Africa.Cultural blending leads to achievements in art and science in Muslim-controlled cities in Asia, Europe, and North Africa
10Muslim and Christian Interaction AsiaCrusades lead to conflicts between Christians and MuslimsMuslims conquer Constantinople in 1453 and establish the Ottoman Empire
11Muslim and Christian Interaction North AfricaFatimid dynasty set up in North AfricaMuslims control the Maghrib (North Africa) along the Mediterranean coast by 670Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, convert to Islam in the 600s.
12INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA Muslim tribes from Central Asia invade northwestern India in the 600sTurkish warlords invade India in 1000 and establish the Delhi Sultanate, where Hindus were treated as conquered people
13INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA Mughal ruler Akbar establishes a golden age in IndiaReligious freedom for Hindus and non-MuslimsTaxation on Hindu pilgrims and on non-Muslims abolishedMingling of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu cultures that lead to new developments in art and literature and the Urdu language in army campsShah Jahan – construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wifeAurangazeb – expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the Indian subcontinent
15INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA Harsh policies against Hindus including bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positionsMilitant Hindus known as Marathas establish a breakaway state in southern IndiaSikhs break away and establish a separate state in Punjab
17Trade and Cultural diffusion Trade encourages cultural diffusion and interdependency between societies.— What were the causes and effects of the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia ( )?— What were the major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China and what was their impact on Eastern Asia?— How did the slave trade develop?— How did the Silk Road and the African gold-salt trade facilitate the spread of ideas and trade?— How did geography influence the development of civilizations such as in the Middle East?
18Trade and Cultural Diffusion — Can you locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to this era and turning point in world history, such as, the Sahara, Ghana, Mali, Arabian Peninsula, Mecca, Baghdad, Cairo, Spain, Iberian Peninsula, Mongol Empire, Istanbul, Anatolia (Asia Minor), Moscow, Korea, Japan, Angkor Wat, Beijing, China, Silk Road, African Gold-Salt Route, Indian Ocean?— What was the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history? (Include trade in the Indian Ocean)— How did new ideas in mathematics, science, and technology begin and then spread throughout the world? (Include ideas from the Tang to Ming dynasties.)
19Impact of Mongol Invasions Mongol invasions 13th century: spread across Eurasia to create one of the world’s largest empiresBrutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities“Pax Mongolia” that supported trade along the Silk RoadKublai Khan (Yuan dynasty) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place
21Impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia (600-1450)? RussiaFall of Kiev (1240)Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paidIsolation from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventionsMoscow emerges as a major cityIvan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols
22Impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia (600-1450)? Northern China conquered by Ogadi (GenghisKhan’s son) in 1234Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southernChina in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty( )China united for the first time in 300 yearsMongol control over Asia opens China to foreigncontacts and trade (Marco Polo)
23Impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia (600-1450)? Islamic WorldHulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) capturesBaghdad and has over 10,000 people killedEnd of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture ofthe Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (AsiaMinor/Modern day Turkey)
25The major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.)Song China ( )Political developmentsEmperor Taizong extends China’s boundaries north to Manchuria, south to Vietnam, and east to the Aral SeaEmpress Wu Zhao extends Chinese influence to the Korean PeninsulaRestoration of bureaucracy to manage the empireScholar-officials take competitive civil service exams to work in government officesPolitical developmentsRule limited to Southern China after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria
26The major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.)Song China ( )Economic developmentsForeign trade on the Silk Roads growsArrival of tea from Southeast AsiaNew inventions: porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder all increase trade and spread to Japan and KoreaEconomic developmentsIntroduction of a fast-growing rice from Vietnam that lead to faster growing populationMovable type spreads to Japan and KoreaPaper money contributes to a large-scale economyAdvances in sailing technology such as the magnetic compass lead to the growth of ocean trade
27The major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.)Song China ( )Cultural developmentsSpread of Buddhism through trade networks to Japan, Korea, and VietnamGreater social mobility and movement to citiesDecline in the status of women including the beginning of binding the feet of upper class girlsCultural developmentsNew height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black inkChina’s population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million people
28DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE First major development occurs in 7th century when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport them to Southwest AsiaMuslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims on the Islamic belief that they could be bought and sold as slaves
29DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE 4.5 million Africans transported as slaves to Southwest Asia between 650 and 1000 ADSlaves in African and Muslim societies had legal rights and opportunity for social mobility
31HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE Silk Road – long distance trade route from China to Rome;products from the east such as spices and silk transported westRoman ideas taken to their eastern provinces;Indian traders act as middlemen and grow wealthy;promotion of cultural diffusion between regions that come into contact with each other
33HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE Arab and Berber traders took salt from the Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold;African traders also crossed the Sahara to trade gold for salt in North Africa;cloth and weapons from Mediterranean ports taken to West Africa;powerful rulers in Ghana and Mali regulated the gold trade in West Africa
35Trade in the Indian Ocean: Arab traders spread Islam to East AfricaArab slave trade along East African coast; later influences the European slave tradePiracy (both historic and contemporary)European voyages of exploration bring spices from the East Indies and contribute to the Commercial Revolution in Europe
37New ideas in mathematics, science, and technology by the Tang and Ming dynasties PorcelainMovable typeGunpowderMechanical clockPaper moneyMagnetic compassSpurred by contact with Europe, i.e., telescopeTrigonometryHydraulic powered devices for irrigation and agricultureSnorkeling gear for pearl divers
38Religious Impacts Key Understandings Religion impacts societies politically, economically and socially.— What were the causes and effects of the development of Islamic caliphates and their impact on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia and Africa?— What was the political, economic, and social impact of Islam on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia, and Africa?— How did Islam influence law and government in the Muslim world?
39Causes and effects of the development of Islamic caliphates and their impact on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia and AfricaDevelopment of Islamic caliphatesAbbasid caliphate: BaghdadFatimid caliphate: CairoUmayyad caliphate: DamascusShi’a movement begins as a reaction to Umayyad ruleExpansion of Islam into North Africa and SpainGolden age in mathematics and science, including chemistry, empirical scientific method, and medical care
41Mongol Invasions Key Understandings Internal and external forces cause political, economic, and social changes in a society.— What were the changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world?— What shared factors contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty?
42Impacts of Mongol Invasions 13th Century: Spread across Eurasia to create one of the World’s largest empiresBrutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities“Pax Mongolia” supported trade along the Silk RoadKublai Khan (Yuan dynasty) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place
43Changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world? Fall of Kiev (1240)Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paidIsolation from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventionsMoscow emerges as a major cityIvan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols
44Changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world? Northern China conquered by Ogadi (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty ( )China united for the first time in 300 yearsMongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)
45Changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world? Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killedEnd of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern day Turkey)Poor administration of captured regions leads to dissolution of Mongol empire and rise of the Ottoman Turks
47Shared factors that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty. Corrupt governments in both empiresInfighting among political elitesEmpires too large an area to manageInvasions from hostile nomadic tribesSocial inequality among the classes with tax burdens on lower classesInequitable distribution of landsDecline in morals and valuesPublic health and urban decayUnemployment and inflation