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Key Verse for Acts “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria,

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Presentation on theme: "Key Verse for Acts “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Key Verse for Acts “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.” (Acts 1:8 NRSV)

2 The Plot of Acts Plot: The plan of events or main story in a narrative or drama. Plot: The plan of events or main story in a narrative or drama. The plot of Acts: The plot of Acts: The growth or spread of God’s kingdom, as told through the adventures of the apostles, mainly Peter and Paul. The growth or spread of God’s kingdom, as told through the adventures of the apostles, mainly Peter and Paul.

3 The Church and Israel Three Theological Options 1) 1) The church is the “new” Israel, that is, the church takes Israel’s place. (Galatians 6:16) 2) 2) The church is a parenthetic entity, between the old Israel and the new Israel. (Dispensationalism: after Revelation 5, no church) 3) 3) The church is a continuation of God’s work in Israel (Romans 9-11)

4 The Church and Israel Acts 1:12-26 Similarities 12 tribes, 12 apostles respect for OT scripture (Acts 1:16, 20) mission to Jews and the Gentiles

5 The Church and Israel Acts 1:12-26 Differences Messiah has come, Jesus Go to the nations, rather than the nations come to Jerusalem. Ethnic Israel, faith based church

6 The Redemptive-Historical Significance of Pentecost

7 Why Pentecost is a unique event Oftentimes, people view Acts 2 and the story of Pentecost as a paradigm for Christian experience Oftentimes, people view Acts 2 and the story of Pentecost as a paradigm for Christian experience The thinking goes as such: The thinking goes as such: First, God gives salvation First, God gives salvation Second, He gives the experience of the Spirit as an added bonus Second, He gives the experience of the Spirit as an added bonus

8 Why Pentecost is a unique event However, many of these theologies misunderstand Luke’s theology as a whole However, many of these theologies misunderstand Luke’s theology as a whole In order to understand Pentecost, we need a few definitions In order to understand Pentecost, we need a few definitions

9 Definitions ordo salutis (order of salvation): events in the continuing application of Christ’s work to individual lives throughout history ordo salutis (order of salvation): events in the continuing application of Christ’s work to individual lives throughout history Saving faith Saving faith Justification Justification Sanctification Sanctification

10 Definitions historia salutis (history of salvation): events that are part of Christ’s once-for-all accomplishment of his work of earning our salvation historia salutis (history of salvation): events that are part of Christ’s once-for-all accomplishment of his work of earning our salvation Christ’s incarnation Christ’s incarnation Christ’s death Christ’s death Christ’s resurrection Christ’s resurrection

11 Why Pentecost is a unique event Pentecost belongs to the history of salvation, and not the order of salvation Pentecost belongs to the history of salvation, and not the order of salvation Why? Why?

12 Why Pentecost is a unique event Note Jesus’ words in Acts 1:5 Note Jesus’ words in Acts 1:5 “For John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now." Notice what Luke is doing…. Notice what Luke is doing…. He links Acts 1:5 with the ministry of John the Baptist He links Acts 1:5 with the ministry of John the Baptist

13 Why Pentecost is a unique event What did Luke have John the Baptist say in Luke 3:16? What did Luke have John the Baptist say in Luke 3:16? “John answered them all, saying, "I baptize you with water, but he who is mightier than I is coming, the strap of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire”

14 Why Pentecost is a unique event So what is going on here? So what is going on here? Luke links John’s ministry/baptism to Pentecost as sign to reality, prophecy to fulfillment Luke links John’s ministry/baptism to Pentecost as sign to reality, prophecy to fulfillment John’s prophecy is his response to the basic messianic question in the crowd’s mind as to whether he is the Christ (Luke 3:16) John’s prophecy is his response to the basic messianic question in the crowd’s mind as to whether he is the Christ (Luke 3:16)

15 Why Pentecost is a unique event And what does his response mean? And what does his response mean? Spirit and fire baptism is to be nothing less than the culmination of the Messiah’s ministry Spirit and fire baptism is to be nothing less than the culmination of the Messiah’s ministry It will serve to stamp that ministry as a whole, just as, in comparison, water baptism was an index for John’s entire ministry (Luke 20:4; Acts 10:37) It will serve to stamp that ministry as a whole, just as, in comparison, water baptism was an index for John’s entire ministry (Luke 20:4; Acts 10:37)

16 - - Luke 20:1-4 One day, as Jesus was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes with the elders came up 2 and said to him, "Tell us by what authority you do these things, or who it is that gave you this authority." 3 He answered them, "I also will ask you a question. Now tell me, 4 Was the baptism of John from heaven or from man?“

17 Why Pentecost is a unique event So what is Luke suggesting? So what is Luke suggesting? Pentecost is at the heart of Christ’s finished work Pentecost is at the heart of Christ’s finished work It is at the core of the salvation brought by the coming of the kingdom of God (Luke 7:18-28) It is at the core of the salvation brought by the coming of the kingdom of God (Luke 7:18-28) In other words, Pentecost is an eschatological event In other words, Pentecost is an eschatological event

18 Why Pentecost is an eschatological event Take a look at Luke 3:17 Take a look at Luke 3:17 “His winnowing fork is in his hand, to clear his threshing floor and to gather the wheat into his barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.“ Too often this verse is not spoken of in a discussion of Pentecost. What does it mean?

19 Why Pentecost is an eschatological event Messianic baptism is pictured under the metaphor of the threshing floor/harvest, a favorite biblical image (Isa 21:10; 41:15- 16; Jer 51:33; Matt 13:30, 39) Messianic baptism is pictured under the metaphor of the threshing floor/harvest, a favorite biblical image (Isa 21:10; 41:15- 16; Jer 51:33; Matt 13:30, 39)

20 The Threshing Floor in the OT - - Isaiah 21:10 O my threshed and winnowed one, what I have heard from the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, I announce to you - - Isaiah 41:15-16 Behold, I make of you a threshing sledge, new, sharp, and having teeth; you shall thresh the mountains and crush them, and you shall make the hills like chaff; 16 you shall winnow them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the tempest shall scatter them. And you shall rejoice in the LORD; in the Holy One of Israel you shall glory

21 The Threshing Floor in the OT - - Jeremiah 51:33 For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: The daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor at the time when it is trodden; yet a little while and the time of her harvest will come. - - Matthew 13:30 Let both grow together until the harvest, and at harvest time I will tell the reapers, Gather the weeds first and bind them in bundles to be burned, but gather the wheat into my barn…39 The harvest is the close of the age, and the reapers are angels.

22 Pentecost as Eschatological Event Grammatically speaking, the subject of Luke 3:17 is found in v. 16b Grammatically speaking, the subject of Luke 3:17 is found in v. 16b Luke 3:16 He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire The spirit-and-fire baptizer is the eschatological harvester-judge The spirit-and-fire baptizer is the eschatological harvester-judge

23 Why Pentecost is an eschatological event Pentecost, then, is essentially a matter of judgment Pentecost, then, is essentially a matter of judgment Thus the only proper way to see Pentecost is as a part and within the context of eschatological judgment Thus the only proper way to see Pentecost is as a part and within the context of eschatological judgment

24 What are we saying? Simply this: All that Christ came to suffer and die for, short of his return, reaches its climax in his baptizing with the Holy Spirit and fire. Simply this: All that Christ came to suffer and die for, short of his return, reaches its climax in his baptizing with the Holy Spirit and fire. Without that baptism Christ’s once-for-all work of salvation is unfinished Without that baptism Christ’s once-for-all work of salvation is unfinished

25 Peter’s Pentecost sermon confirms this… Acts 2:32-33 Acts 2:32-33 “This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he (Jesus) has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing.”

26 Peter’s Pentecost sermon confirms this… Note how Peter closely conjoins, in sequence: resurrection-ascension- reception of the Spirit-outpouring of the Spirit Note how Peter closely conjoins, in sequence: resurrection-ascension- reception of the Spirit-outpouring of the Spirit This last element, Pentecost, is climactic and FINAL This last element, Pentecost, is climactic and FINAL It is not some addendum; there is nothing “second” about it It is not some addendum; there is nothing “second” about it

27 Peter’s Pentecost sermon confirms this… Resurrection-ascension-Pentecost, though distinct in time, constitute a unified complex of events… Resurrection-ascension-Pentecost, though distinct in time, constitute a unified complex of events… A once-for-all, salvation-historical unity; A once-for-all, salvation-historical unity; They are INSEPARABLE They are INSEPARABLE

28 Other NT Perspectives on Pentecost… John 14: And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, to be with you forever, 17 even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you. 18 "I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you. For the Spirit to come will be for Christ to come For the Spirit to come will be for Christ to come

29 Other NT Perspectives on Pentecost… Matthew 28:20 Matthew 28:20 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age." These well-known words from the Great Commission are not, at least primarily, an affirmation of divine omnipresence but a promise of Pentecost and its enduring consequences These well-known words from the Great Commission are not, at least primarily, an affirmation of divine omnipresence but a promise of Pentecost and its enduring consequences

30 Other NT Perspectives on Pentecost… 1 Cor 12:13 1 Cor 12:13 “For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body- Jews or Greeks, slaves or free- and all were made to drink of one Spirit” Here Paul shows how the epochal, once- for-all event of Pentecost subsequently becomes effective in the life of the individual believer

31 Other NT Perspectives on Pentecost… Two points are plain here: Two points are plain here: “All” in Christ’s body have been baptized…not just some “All” in Christ’s body have been baptized…not just some That experience takes place at the point of coming “into” fellowship of Christ’s body (that is, at conversion), not subsequently That experience takes place at the point of coming “into” fellowship of Christ’s body (that is, at conversion), not subsequently

32 But what about subsequent experiences in Acts? If Pentecost is a once-for-all event, then what about other passages in Acts where we see the Spirit continually moving and acting? If Pentecost is a once-for-all event, then what about other passages in Acts where we see the Spirit continually moving and acting? Such texts as Acts 8:14ff; 10:44-48/11:15- 18; 19:1-7 all come to mind Such texts as Acts 8:14ff; 10:44-48/11:15- 18; 19:1-7 all come to mind

33 Acts 8:14ff Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John, 15 who came down and prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit, 16 for he had not yet fallen on any of them, but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 17 Then they laid their hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit

34 Acts 10: While Peter was still saying these things, the Holy Spirit fell on all who heard the word. 45 And the believers from among the circumcised who had come with Peter were amazed, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was poured out even on the Gentiles. 46 For they were hearing them speaking in tongues and extolling God. Then Peter declared, 47 "Can anyone withhold water for baptizing these people, who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?" 48 And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to remain for some days.

35 Acts 11:15-18 Note Peter’s comments on what happened Note Peter’s comments on what happened - 15 As I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell on them just as on us at the beginning. 16 And I remembered the word of the Lord, how he said, 'John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.' 17 If then God gave the same gift to them as he gave to us when we believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I that I could stand in God's way?" 18 When they heard these things they fell silent. And they glorified God, saying, "Then to the Gentiles also God has granted repentance that leads to life."

36 Acts 19: And it happened that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed through the inland country and came to Ephesus. There he found some disciples. 2 And he said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?" And they said, "No, we have not even heard that there is a Holy Spirit." 3 And he said, "Into what then were you baptized?" They said, "Into John's baptism." 4 And Paul said, "John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, that is, Jesus." 5 On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 6 And when Paul had laid his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking in tongues and prophesying. 7 There were about twelve men in all.

37 Acts and the Holy Spirit To answer this we must not ignore the redemptive-historical framework of Acts To answer this we must not ignore the redemptive-historical framework of Acts Acts intends to document a completed history, a unique epoch in the history of redemption Acts intends to document a completed history, a unique epoch in the history of redemption The once-for-all “apostolic” spread of the gospel “to the ends of the earth” The once-for-all “apostolic” spread of the gospel “to the ends of the earth”

38 Acts and the Holy Spirit Thus we must realize that these experiences actually attest the realization of the expanding apostolic program first announced in Acts 1:8 Thus we must realize that these experiences actually attest the realization of the expanding apostolic program first announced in Acts 1:8 Notice where we see these subsequent experiences unfolding Notice where we see these subsequent experiences unfolding “God-fearing Jews” (2:5); “Samaria” (8:14); “the Gentiles” (10:45) “God-fearing Jews” (2:5); “Samaria” (8:14); “the Gentiles” (10:45)

39 Acts and the Holy Spirit Acts 2 and the subsequent miraculous events that Luke narrates are not intended to establish a pattern of “repetitions” of Pentecost which continue indefinitely in church history Acts 2 and the subsequent miraculous events that Luke narrates are not intended to establish a pattern of “repetitions” of Pentecost which continue indefinitely in church history

40 Conclusion Emphasizing the once-for-all, redemptive- historical, Christological significance of Pentecost may leave the impression of being “eager to move away from giving any experiential significance to Spirit-baptism.” Emphasizing the once-for-all, redemptive- historical, Christological significance of Pentecost may leave the impression of being “eager to move away from giving any experiential significance to Spirit-baptism.” However, we must remember that the Spirit which came at Pentecost is the author of rich and profound experiential realities in believers; he is the source of all Christian experience. However, we must remember that the Spirit which came at Pentecost is the author of rich and profound experiential realities in believers; he is the source of all Christian experience.


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