Presentation on theme: "Judaism, Early Christianity, and Islam The Spirit of Monotheism."— Presentation transcript:
Judaism, Early Christianity, and Islam The Spirit of Monotheism
The Judaic Tradition Judaism preceded the Christian faith Great influence on Western civilization Monotheistic religion Old Testament--man’s relationship with God
History and the Israelites Patriarchs David (c.1000-961 B.C.) Solomon (961-922 B.C.)Temple of Jerusalem Babylonian exile (587-450 B.C.) Aramaic, the Devil Return to Palestine, Temple rebuilt Herod d. 4 B.C. Diaspora, persecution
The Hebrew Bible Yaweh Bible transmitted orally until 1,000 B.C Torah-- instruction Prophets--duty to God Writings-- psalms, wisdom
Book of Job Apocalypse-- coming of the messiah: overthrow foreign rulers, restore glories of King David.
The Rise of Christianity By 400, Christianity religion of Roman Empire Forgiveness of sins, everlasting life after death: Sermon on the Mount Peter given the keys; first pope
Jesus of Nazareth Love one another, forsake material goods Teacher: parables From his death came the beginning of the new religious faith
The Growth of Christianity Paul (d. 64?) Roman army sacked Jerusalem destroyed Second Temple.(70) Gospels written after 70 Christianity separate from Judaism in 2nd century. Eucharist: Christ’s last supper
Early Christianity Baptism: a new beginning Constantine: baptism before death New Testament written in Greek Paul’s letters followed by four gospels Early Christians worshipped in catacombs Catacomb wall paintings depicted religious scenes
Christianity in the Late Roman Empire Christianity’s equality before God was attractive to slaves and the poor Art--blend of Christian figures and classical style: Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. Symbols--ikons: sacred images
Constantine and Christianity Constantine’s dream “In this sign you will conquer.” Spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire By the 5th century, the Christian church was the most powerful institution in the world.
Christian Philosophy Pagan philosophies: Manicheanism and Neoplatonism Hypatia: killed by Christian zealots Library at Alexandria burned Eventually classical beliefs were synthesized into the Church’s beliefs. Patristic tradition: Four Fathers of Church
Augustine of Hippo Christian soul always at war with itself. Original sin Rome’s sacking in 410 was blamed on Christian’s not doing civic duties Augustine asked Christians to obey the state
The Christian Empires:Rome and Byzantium Grand new capital of Roman Empire: Constantinople in Turkey Rome, sacked by barbarians went into decline and turmoil Difference in the Christian Greek Church: Byzantine Orthodox and the Latin: Catholic.
St. Peter’s and the Pope St. Peter’s was built over the saint’s tomb outside Rome Basilica-style structure for early churches Narthex, aisles, nave, transept and apse Rome moved to Ravenna; 476, last Roman emperor abdicated to the Goths Pope supreme authority of the Roman Church
Justinian and the Byzantine World Byzantine Empire stable: Church under the rule of the emperor Emperor Justinian, 6th century, reformed Roman law, fostered culture; co-ruled with wife Theodora Commissioned the Hagia Sophia: Largest church in Christendom
Hagia Sophia Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus: built it in 6 years—rebuilt after fire destroyed it. Domed basilica: rectangular hall with a dome in the center. Pendentive construction. Dome: 180 feet in height Intricate decoration, mosaics, windows, gold.
Ravenna: Showcase of the Christian Arts Mosaic representations of Bible stories Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo: Procession of Virgin Martyrs Christ depicted as royalty--to please royal patrons Decline of naturalism-- spiritual, symbolic representation
San Vitale of Ravenna San Vitale: truly Byzantine; central plan Second story gallery for female worshippers Mosaics of Justinian and Theodora Royal power and Church power
Christianity and the Arts Struggle of early church against music and theater Music, associated with paganism, banned from Christian worship Vocal music: Chants: Gregorian chants (plainchant or plainsong) Monophonic until the 12th century Boethius
The Christians and Theater Actors could not be baptized Virtually disappeared from society until the 10th century Iconoclasm: Icons removed from Byzantine churches and destroyed Struggles between the Christian faith and creative arts
The Rise of Islam Founded by the prophet Muhammad (570- 632) Began in the Arabian peninsula and spread as far west as Spain and as far east as Pakistan by the 8 th century. The Qur’an contains the revelations to Muhammad from Allah.
Five Pillars of Islam Bearing witness to Allah as the one true God Prayer performed five times daily facing Mecca Giving alms to the poor and Islamic state Fasting performed during the holy month of Ramadan Pilgrimage (or hajj) to the Qa’aba in Mecca
Islamic Arts and Science Mosques Typical decorations – arabesques Medicine practiced, surgery Mathematics – number system based on zero, algebra Centers preserved classical learning