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Christianity Unit 6. Introduction Worlds largest! Worlds largest! Approximately 1 in 3 people consider themselves Christian. Approximately 1 in 3 people.

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Presentation on theme: "Christianity Unit 6. Introduction Worlds largest! Worlds largest! Approximately 1 in 3 people consider themselves Christian. Approximately 1 in 3 people."— Presentation transcript:

1 Christianity Unit 6

2 Introduction Worlds largest! Worlds largest! Approximately 1 in 3 people consider themselves Christian. Approximately 1 in 3 people consider themselves Christian. Believe that Jesus is the son of God and saviour of the world. Believe that Jesus is the son of God and saviour of the world. The majority of Canadians are Christian. The majority of Canadians are Christian.

3 At the end of this unit you should know…… Origin of Christian beliefs regarding creation, death, God and the afterlife. Origin of Christian beliefs regarding creation, death, God and the afterlife. Influences in the development of Christianity Influences in the development of Christianity Important figures in the growth of Christianity Important figures in the growth of Christianity The development of Christian institutions The development of Christian institutions The origin and significance of Christian practices, rituals and symbols The origin and significance of Christian practices, rituals and symbols Evaluate the importance of such concepts as revelation, resurrection and salvation Evaluate the importance of such concepts as revelation, resurrection and salvation Origin, characteristics and significant passages of the New Testament Origin, characteristics and significant passages of the New Testament

4 Origins Christianity originated in present day Israel, approximately 2000 years ago. Christianity originated in present day Israel, approximately 2000 years ago. Sprang from Judaism and the promise of a Messiah or saviour. Sprang from Judaism and the promise of a Messiah or saviour. Christians believe the Messiah was Jesus Christ, who they also believe was the son of God. Christians believe the Messiah was Jesus Christ, who they also believe was the son of God. What we know of Jesus came mainly from Christian followers, as well as Roman and Jewish historians. What we know of Jesus came mainly from Christian followers, as well as Roman and Jewish historians. The source of the most detailed information on the life of Jesus is the New Testament of the Bible, specifically the first four books. These are known as the Gospels, or “good news” and were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The source of the most detailed information on the life of Jesus is the New Testament of the Bible, specifically the first four books. These are known as the Gospels, or “good news” and were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.

5 Early Life of Jesus The Roman empire had expanded into the region of present day Israel, then known as Palestine. The Roman empire had expanded into the region of present day Israel, then known as Palestine. Scholars believe Jesus was born around 4 BCE, in the town of Bethlehem. Scholars believe Jesus was born around 4 BCE, in the town of Bethlehem. According to Christian scriptures, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb of a virgin named Mary, who was engaged to Joseph. According to Christian scriptures, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb of a virgin named Mary, who was engaged to Joseph. He was born in the town of Bethlehem because Rome had ordered a census and people were required to return to the town of their birth to be recorded. He was born in the town of Bethlehem because Rome had ordered a census and people were required to return to the town of their birth to be recorded. Because of this, the town was crowded and they could not find a place to stay, taking shelter in a stable. Because of this, the town was crowded and they could not find a place to stay, taking shelter in a stable. Here, Mary gave birth to Jesus, which was then announced by angels to local shepherds, who spread the news of Jesus’ birth. Here, Mary gave birth to Jesus, which was then announced by angels to local shepherds, who spread the news of Jesus’ birth.

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9 According to Matthew’s gospel, three wise men from the east followed a star that led them to the sire where Jesus was born. They had gifts of gold, incense and myrrh. According to Matthew’s gospel, three wise men from the east followed a star that led them to the sire where Jesus was born. They had gifts of gold, incense and myrrh. Jesus, Mary and Joseph then fled to Egypt to escape the decree by King Herold that all new born male children were to be killed. Jesus, Mary and Joseph then fled to Egypt to escape the decree by King Herold that all new born male children were to be killed. After that they settled in Nazareth ( Jesus is often referred to as the Nazarene) a town in Galilee, located in northern Israel. After that they settled in Nazareth ( Jesus is often referred to as the Nazarene) a town in Galilee, located in northern Israel. Little is known about his early life and the story continues when Jesus began his three year mission. Little is known about his early life and the story continues when Jesus began his three year mission.

10 John the Baptist was to prepare the way for Jesus. He immersed his followers in the river Jordan, a ritual baptism that washed away their sins. John the Baptist was to prepare the way for Jesus. He immersed his followers in the river Jordan, a ritual baptism that washed away their sins. When Jesus came to the river, John realized who he was and said you should be baptizing me. After John baptized Jesus, the Holy Spirit (in the form of a dove), the life- giving presence of God, came to Jesus and said: When Jesus came to the river, John realized who he was and said you should be baptizing me. After John baptized Jesus, the Holy Spirit (in the form of a dove), the life- giving presence of God, came to Jesus and said: "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased". The dove and the voice of God were a sign to John that Jesus was the Messiah who had been promised. "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased". The dove and the voice of God were a sign to John that Jesus was the Messiah who had been promised.

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12 Jesus’ Ministry Jesus was about 30 years old when he started to preach in the synagogues. His message challenged accepted views and he was not popular with the Jewish authority. Jesus was about 30 years old when he started to preach in the synagogues. His message challenged accepted views and he was not popular with the Jewish authority. He gathered around him a group of disciples or spiritual apprentices, 12 men who traveled with him. He gathered around him a group of disciples or spiritual apprentices, 12 men who traveled with him. He spoke to crowds, small and large, and preached the golden rule. He forgave even the most sinful and despised members of society. He spoke to crowds, small and large, and preached the golden rule. He forgave even the most sinful and despised members of society. The Gospels describe spectacular works, called miracles, Jesus did during his ministry. (Canaan wedding, the loaves and the fishes, Lazarus) The Gospels describe spectacular works, called miracles, Jesus did during his ministry. (Canaan wedding, the loaves and the fishes, Lazarus) He also was known for telling stories, called parables, moral stories drawn from situations in life. He used them to emphasize values and teach lessons. He also was known for telling stories, called parables, moral stories drawn from situations in life. He used them to emphasize values and teach lessons.

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14 The Arrest of Jesus During his ministry, Jesus made enemies. During his ministry, Jesus made enemies. The Pharisees, a Jewish sect who followed strict rules of dietary and ritual purity, found his teachings heretical. The Pharisees, a Jewish sect who followed strict rules of dietary and ritual purity, found his teachings heretical. The Jewish Sanhedrin, the governing council under Roman rule, feared the Romans might accuse them of not maintaining order. The Jewish Sanhedrin, the governing council under Roman rule, feared the Romans might accuse them of not maintaining order. Jesus was seen as the son of God, considered blasphemous by religious authorities. Jesus was seen as the son of God, considered blasphemous by religious authorities. To celebrate passover, Jesus and his disciples met to share the passover meal, commonly known as the Last Supper. After the meal, Judas, one of the apostles, singled out Jesus for the authorities by giving him a kiss. To celebrate passover, Jesus and his disciples met to share the passover meal, commonly known as the Last Supper. After the meal, Judas, one of the apostles, singled out Jesus for the authorities by giving him a kiss. He was arrested and charged with blasphemy, the showing of contempt for God by attributing god-like qualities to that which is not God. He was arrested and charged with blasphemy, the showing of contempt for God by attributing god-like qualities to that which is not God. Because he did not deny that he was the Messiah, Jesus was found guilty and turned over to Pontius Pilate for sentencing. Because he did not deny that he was the Messiah, Jesus was found guilty and turned over to Pontius Pilate for sentencing. Although he could not find Jesus at fault, he bowed to the demands of the crowd and sentenced Jesus to be crucified. Although he could not find Jesus at fault, he bowed to the demands of the crowd and sentenced Jesus to be crucified.

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16 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre Perhaps the holiest structure in all of Christianity! Perhaps the holiest structure in all of Christianity! Located in Jerusalem, it was built on the site of Jesus’ crucifixion. Located in Jerusalem, it was built on the site of Jesus’ crucifixion.

17 Death and Resurrection Jesus was taken to the “place of the skull” where he was crucified, or nailed to the cross. Jesus was taken to the “place of the skull” where he was crucified, or nailed to the cross. This event is called the Crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the forgiveness of sins and the promise of eternal life. This event is called the Crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the forgiveness of sins and the promise of eternal life. After his death Jesus’ body was placed in a tomb cut from rock, with a large boulder rolled in front of its entrance. Three days later Mary Magdalene and other female disciples went to anoint his body, only to discover the tomb was empty. After his death Jesus’ body was placed in a tomb cut from rock, with a large boulder rolled in front of its entrance. Three days later Mary Magdalene and other female disciples went to anoint his body, only to discover the tomb was empty. An angel appeared to them and told them that Jesus had risen from the dead. This is referred to as the Resurrection. An angel appeared to them and told them that Jesus had risen from the dead. This is referred to as the Resurrection.

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19 The Ascension and the Pentecost Christians believe that forty days after the resurrection, Jesus ascended bodily into heaven, the Ascension. Christians believe that forty days after the resurrection, Jesus ascended bodily into heaven, the Ascension. Fifty days after Easter comes the Pentecost. During this event the apostles were visited by the Holy Spirit, giving the apostles special gifts, including the ability to speak different languages. It is often referred to as the birthday of the church. Fifty days after Easter comes the Pentecost. During this event the apostles were visited by the Holy Spirit, giving the apostles special gifts, including the ability to speak different languages. It is often referred to as the birthday of the church.

20 Persecution of Christians Early converts to Christianity were Greeks who took the name Christians, from “Christos” which is Greek for Messiah. Early converts to Christianity were Greeks who took the name Christians, from “Christos” which is Greek for Messiah. Soon after Jesus’ death, an early missionary named Paul (his name was originally Saul) actively spread Christianity in the eastern Roman empire. He wrote letters called Epistles, instructing early Christians and providing inspiration and guidance. Soon after Jesus’ death, an early missionary named Paul (his name was originally Saul) actively spread Christianity in the eastern Roman empire. He wrote letters called Epistles, instructing early Christians and providing inspiration and guidance. What is ironic is that Paul was once a major persecutor of Christianity: then an amazing event led to a dedication to his faith that makes him often referred to as the 13 th apostle. What is ironic is that Paul was once a major persecutor of Christianity: then an amazing event led to a dedication to his faith that makes him often referred to as the 13 th apostle.

21 The Lord, seeing in him a "chosen vessel," called him to Apostolic service by miraculous means on the road to Damascus. During his journey, a bright light enveloped Saul, from which he fell to the ground blind. A voice resounded from the light, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?" Saul asked, "Who are you?" Jesus answered, "I am Jesus, Who you are persecuting." The Lord commanded Saul to go to Damascus, where he would be instructed on what to do further. Saul's companions heard the voice of Christ, but they did not see the light. After being led by the arm to Damascus, Paul was taught the faith and on the third day was baptized by Ananias. The moment Saul was submerged in the baptismal water, he regained his sight. From that point on, he became a zealous preacher of the teachings he had formerly persecuted. He went to Arabia for a short period and then returned to Damascus to preach about Christ.

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24 As Rome’s power reached its height, a relatively peaceful period occurred, known as the Pax Romana, during which Christianity grew rapidly. As Rome’s power reached its height, a relatively peaceful period occurred, known as the Pax Romana, during which Christianity grew rapidly. However, sometimes emperors who opposed the religion use Christians as scapegoats for Rome’s problems and they therefore were persecuted. However, sometimes emperors who opposed the religion use Christians as scapegoats for Rome’s problems and they therefore were persecuted. 200 years later, the emperors Decius, Valerian and Diocletian destroyed churches, holy articles and books, and of course, killed Christians. 200 years later, the emperors Decius, Valerian and Diocletian destroyed churches, holy articles and books, and of course, killed Christians. Christians killed for their faith were called martyrs, who were often dragged to the Colosseum and mauled by wild animals in front of cheering crowds. Christians killed for their faith were called martyrs, who were often dragged to the Colosseum and mauled by wild animals in front of cheering crowds. Christians worshipped in secret in underground chambers where they buried their dead, called the catacombs. Christians worshipped in secret in underground chambers where they buried their dead, called the catacombs. When Constantine became emperor he legalized Christianity and was the first of many Christian rulers of the Roman empire. When Constantine became emperor he legalized Christianity and was the first of many Christian rulers of the Roman empire.

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28 Christian Beliefs Council of Nicaea – an important council of 300 early Christian leaders. It produced the Nicene Creed, a statement of beliefs universally accepted by Christians. Council of Nicaea – an important council of 300 early Christian leaders. It produced the Nicene Creed, a statement of beliefs universally accepted by Christians. Creation – God created the whole universe. Creation – God created the whole universe. The Holy Trinity – Christians believe in God the father, Jesus his son and the holy spirit, together they make up the holy trinity. The Holy Trinity – Christians believe in God the father, Jesus his son and the holy spirit, together they make up the holy trinity. The Holy Spirit – The life-giving presence of God. Christians believe that the holy spirit enters into believers, just like the Apostles experienced at Pentecost. The Holy Spirit – The life-giving presence of God. Christians believe that the holy spirit enters into believers, just like the Apostles experienced at Pentecost. Salvation and Eternal life – Jesus’ mission on earth was to bridge the gap between humanity and God, to bring about the forgiveness of sins and to open the way to eternal life. So, he came to give humans a chance to be “saved” and attain eternal life in heaven after death. Salvation and Eternal life – Jesus’ mission on earth was to bridge the gap between humanity and God, to bring about the forgiveness of sins and to open the way to eternal life. So, he came to give humans a chance to be “saved” and attain eternal life in heaven after death. Last Judgment – The belief that Jesus will return to judge the living and the dead to determine which humans will join him, body and soul, in heaven. Those who live their lives as Jesus taught would be awarded with heaven…those who did not, punished with eternal suffering in hell. Last Judgment – The belief that Jesus will return to judge the living and the dead to determine which humans will join him, body and soul, in heaven. Those who live their lives as Jesus taught would be awarded with heaven…those who did not, punished with eternal suffering in hell.

29 Important Symbols Holy Communion – representation of Jesus’ body and blood (bread and wine) that is shared with the congregation. Represents the last supper. Holy Communion – representation of Jesus’ body and blood (bread and wine) that is shared with the congregation. Represents the last supper. Rosary – small chain or string that holds a cross and beads that are arranged in five “decades” or groups of ten. Each decade begins with the Lord’s prayer, followed by a Hail Mary for each bead. Rosary – small chain or string that holds a cross and beads that are arranged in five “decades” or groups of ten. Each decade begins with the Lord’s prayer, followed by a Hail Mary for each bead. The Cross – most recognizable Christian symbol, it represents Jesus’ crucifixion. The Cross – most recognizable Christian symbol, it represents Jesus’ crucifixion. The Fish – Symbol of the spreading of the Gospels. It comes from when Jesus said “follow me and I will make you fishers of men.” The Fish – Symbol of the spreading of the Gospels. It comes from when Jesus said “follow me and I will make you fishers of men.”

30 Festivals Christmas – celebration of the birth of Jesus. Christmas – celebration of the birth of Jesus. Lent – The forty days before Easter, it represents the forty days Jesus spent in the desert. Traditionally it is a time of fasting. Begins on Ash Wednesday, where Christians are marked with ashes on their foreheads to remind them of their mortality. Lent – The forty days before Easter, it represents the forty days Jesus spent in the desert. Traditionally it is a time of fasting. Begins on Ash Wednesday, where Christians are marked with ashes on their foreheads to remind them of their mortality. Easter – Begins with Palm Sunday, the day Jesus first entered Jerusalem, Holy Thursday which marks the day of the Last Supper, Good Friday which marks the day of Jesus’ arrest and crucifixion and Easter Sunday, which celebrates Jesus’ resurrection. Easter – Begins with Palm Sunday, the day Jesus first entered Jerusalem, Holy Thursday which marks the day of the Last Supper, Good Friday which marks the day of Jesus’ arrest and crucifixion and Easter Sunday, which celebrates Jesus’ resurrection.

31 Sacred Writings The Bible; Old and New testaments. The Bible; Old and New testaments. The New Testament tells the story of Jesus and includes the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Book of Revelation. The New Testament tells the story of Jesus and includes the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Book of Revelation.

32 The Gospels Mark – oldest, written about 70 CE. It is also the shortest, but it forms the core of Matthew and Luke’s Gospels, which were written later. The three are considered the Synoptic Gospels because of their shared perspective. Mark – oldest, written about 70 CE. It is also the shortest, but it forms the core of Matthew and Luke’s Gospels, which were written later. The three are considered the Synoptic Gospels because of their shared perspective. Matthew – written about 80 CE., Matthew was one of the 12 apostles. (the tax collector) It is the longest of the Gospels and is set apart from the others because it tries to connect Jesus with the old Testament and it provides great detail about the teachings of Jesus. Matthew – written about 80 CE., Matthew was one of the 12 apostles. (the tax collector) It is the longest of the Gospels and is set apart from the others because it tries to connect Jesus with the old Testament and it provides great detail about the teachings of Jesus.

33 Luke – written between 80 and 90 CE., it is very close to Matthew’s Gospel, so much that scholars believe Luke borrowed from Matthew. Highlights the message of healing and provides most of the details of Christ’s early life. Luke – written between 80 and 90 CE., it is very close to Matthew’s Gospel, so much that scholars believe Luke borrowed from Matthew. Highlights the message of healing and provides most of the details of Christ’s early life. John – one of the 12 apostles; written about 100 CE. Most likely written by followers of John rather than John himself. More theological than the other gospels, it provides metaphors such as “the lamb of God”. It also gives us the 11 th commandment to “love one another”. John – one of the 12 apostles; written about 100 CE. Most likely written by followers of John rather than John himself. More theological than the other gospels, it provides metaphors such as “the lamb of God”. It also gives us the 11 th commandment to “love one another”. Mark, Luke and Matthew’s gospels are called the Synoptic gospels, because they are so similar. John’s Gospel is more theological than biographic. Mark, Luke and Matthew’s gospels are called the Synoptic gospels, because they are so similar. John’s Gospel is more theological than biographic.

34 The Acts of the Apostles Written by Luke, it outlines the beginnings of the Church and describes the work of Peter and Paul in spreading the Christian faith. Written by Luke, it outlines the beginnings of the Church and describes the work of Peter and Paul in spreading the Christian faith. It highlights the importance of the Holy Spirit in guiding early leaders of the Church. It highlights the importance of the Holy Spirit in guiding early leaders of the Church.

35 The Epistles Mostly written by Paul, there were also three from John and some from other early church leaders. They are letters written to early Christian communities to provide guidance and encouragement. Mostly written by Paul, there were also three from John and some from other early church leaders. They are letters written to early Christian communities to provide guidance and encouragement. Paul’s are the earliest and were written from 50 to 60 CE. They are used as readings during Christian services and ceremonies. Paul’s are the earliest and were written from 50 to 60 CE. They are used as readings during Christian services and ceremonies.

36 The Book of Revelation Last book of the New testament, it was written about 95 CE by a persecuted Christian named John, not necessarily the apostle. Last book of the New testament, it was written about 95 CE by a persecuted Christian named John, not necessarily the apostle. It is an example of apocalyptic literature, describing in symbolic and visionary terms, the destruction of Christian enemies. It is an example of apocalyptic literature, describing in symbolic and visionary terms, the destruction of Christian enemies. It also foretells judgment day or the apocalypse. It also foretells judgment day or the apocalypse.

37 "18: This calls for wisdom: let him who has understanding reckon the number of the beast, for it is a the name of a human person, its number is six hundred and sixty-six".

38 The Eastern Schism Christianity split into two branches, the Eastern orthodox, centered on the universal patriarch in Constantinople, and the Western Church, focused on the pope in Rome. Christianity split into two branches, the Eastern orthodox, centered on the universal patriarch in Constantinople, and the Western Church, focused on the pope in Rome. Part of the problem was the power of the Pope, who claimed authority over the whole church. Another issue was the filioque clause, where the pope added the “and the son” to this statement “ and we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the father” Part of the problem was the power of the Pope, who claimed authority over the whole church. Another issue was the filioque clause, where the pope added the “and the son” to this statement “ and we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the father” The western Church believed that the Holy Spirit was sent by both the father and the son, the eastern Church believed the Holy spirit came only from God the father. The western Church believed that the Holy Spirit was sent by both the father and the son, the eastern Church believed the Holy spirit came only from God the father. In 1054 CE, the pope in Rome and the Patriarch in Constantinople, excommunicated each other’s senior Church officials, thus splitting the Church in two. In 1054 CE, the pope in Rome and the Patriarch in Constantinople, excommunicated each other’s senior Church officials, thus splitting the Church in two.

39 The Roman Catholic Church Centered in Rome, Vatican City, with the Pope as its leader. Centered in Rome, Vatican City, with the Pope as its leader. “ Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church.” “ Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church.” Papal Infallibility – the Pope’s teachings relating to faith and morals are protected from error by God. Papal Infallibility – the Pope’s teachings relating to faith and morals are protected from error by God. The Vatican is considered a state, the smallest in both size (108 acres) and population (900). The Vatican is considered a state, the smallest in both size (108 acres) and population (900).

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49 The Protestant Reformation In 1517 CE, a German monk named Martin Luther caused a dramatic change in Christianity. In 1517 CE, a German monk named Martin Luther caused a dramatic change in Christianity. Called the Protestant Reformation, it was the reformation of the western Church, protesting against the corruption that was infecting the Church. Called the Protestant Reformation, it was the reformation of the western Church, protesting against the corruption that was infecting the Church. Martin nailed 95 theses or arguments against the Church to the Cathedral door, trying to start a debate, but instead, inspiring a revolution. Martin nailed 95 theses or arguments against the Church to the Cathedral door, trying to start a debate, but instead, inspiring a revolution. New Christian Churches developed, that were referred to as protestant because they were protesting against the Roman Church. New Christian Churches developed, that were referred to as protestant because they were protesting against the Roman Church. Some of the new Churches that developed include the Lutheran Church (the first), The Calvinists, Presbyterian, Anglican, Baptist, Methodist, The Mormons and the Jehovah’s Witnesses. Some of the new Churches that developed include the Lutheran Church (the first), The Calvinists, Presbyterian, Anglican, Baptist, Methodist, The Mormons and the Jehovah’s Witnesses.

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51 Christianity in Canada Christianity is the most widely held faith in Canada. Christianity is the most widely held faith in Canada. Many Canadian cities have beautiful churches which attract tourists and Christians alike. Many Canadian cities have beautiful churches which attract tourists and Christians alike. Our educational system includes publicly funded Catholic school systems. Our educational system includes publicly funded Catholic school systems. Many cities, towns and streets in Canada have names associated with Christianity. Many cities, towns and streets in Canada have names associated with Christianity. Many of our holidays are Christian in origin including Christmas, Easter and Thanksgiving. Many of our holidays are Christian in origin including Christmas, Easter and Thanksgiving.

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