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Acts of the Apostles 2:475:416:112:251:128:16-31 Witness in JerusalemWitness in Judea, Samaria PentecostPentecost EpilogueEpilogue 3:1 ProloguePrologue.

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Presentation on theme: "Acts of the Apostles 2:475:416:112:251:128:16-31 Witness in JerusalemWitness in Judea, Samaria PentecostPentecost EpilogueEpilogue 3:1 ProloguePrologue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Acts of the Apostles 2:475:416:112:251:128:16-31 Witness in JerusalemWitness in Judea, Samaria PentecostPentecost EpilogueEpilogue 3:1 ProloguePrologue Witness into Gentile Territory 21:3613:121:3728:15 Prisoner to Rome Witnesses to the Resurrection

2 Acts of the Apostles 2:475:416:112:251:128:16-31 Witness in JerusalemWitness in Judea, Samaria PentecostPentecost EpilogueEpilogue 3:1 ProloguePrologue Witness into Gentile Territory 21:3613:121:3728:15 Prisoner to Rome Witnesses to the Resurrection Introduction 1:1-2:47

3 Acts of the Apostles 2:475:416:112:251:128:16-31 Witness in JerusalemWitness in Judea, Samaria PentecostPentecost EpilogueEpilogue 3:1 ProloguePrologue Witness into Gentile Territory 21:3613:121:3728:15 Prisoner to Rome Witnesses to the Resurrection Climactic Empowerment to Witness in World Climax 28:27-28 For this people's heart has become calloused; they hardly hear with their ears, and they have closed their eyes. Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts and turn, and I would heal them.' "Therefore I want you to know that God's salvation has been sent to the Gentiles, and they will listen!"

4 Acts of the Apostles 2:475:416:112:251:128:16-31 Witness in JerusalemWitness in Judea, Samaria PentecostPentecost EpilogueEpilogue 3:1 ProloguePrologue Witness into Gentile Territory 21:3613:121:3728:15 Prisoner to Rome Witnesses to the Resurrection Temple Centered Worship House Centered Worship God not confined spatially

5 Coming of the Spirit & Peter’s Pentecost Sermon Life in the Community 2:1 2:42 Acts 2 2:43 47

6 2:12:242:5132:3742 2:43 47 Setting Coming of the Spirit Peter’s Pentecost Sermon Life in the Community Descent of the Spirit Reactions of Multitude Declarations of Peter Response to Peter’s Declarations 1.Qs.-What-Do? (37) 2. Answer Repent & Be Baptized (38-40) 3. Action (41-42) Preparation (2:14a) Speech (2:14b-36) (a) Identification- Event: Fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy (2:14b-21) (“Men of Judah…give ear to my words”) (b) Implications-Event: Exaltation of Jesus (2:22-36) (“Men of Israel…hear these words”) Qs. - What does this mean? (2:13) 2:2 132:14 2:42 2:14 36 Answer Acts 2 Climax Effect Acts 2 Time Persons State Cause

7 Logic of the Passage: Preparation/Realization 2:1 - Setting2: Realization (1) Time - Day - Pentecost (2) Persons - They (cf. 1:15-26) (3) Situation Recurrence of Question (and Causation) (1) Question - Crowd: “What does this mean?” (2:12) Answer of Peter (Apostles) (2:14-36) (Cause) (2) Question - Crowd: “What shall we do?” (2:37) -> (Effect) Answer of Peter (Apostles) (2:38-40) Together In one place

8 Causation The coming of the Spirit (2:2-13) (Cause) Peter’s bold Pentecostal sermon (2:14-36) (Effect)

9 Climax (1) Re. existence of the community (2:1-47) (2) Re. the Pentecost Sermon (2:14-42) Declaration of the status of crucified Jesus: God has made Jesus both Lord and Christ Pouring out of Spirit and large evangelistic response Continuing graced existence (and continuing increase) of the community (2:43-47) Peter’s Sermon

10 Acts 2 – Thought Flow and Interp The following slides describe in detail a thought flow through the material in Acts 2 (similar to working at detailed observation) The following slides describe in detail a thought flow through the material in Acts 2 (similar to working at detailed observation)

11 Setting (2:1) Time - Day of Pentecost Situation All together ( pa,ntej o`mou / - cf. 1:14- 15) In one place ( evpi. to. auvto - cf. 1:14- 15) Recurrence I. The Event - Coming of the Spirit (2:2-13) A. Descent of Holy Spirit (2:2-4) 1. Accompanying Signs (2:2-3) (Prep n ) a. Auditory - Sound (Wind) (2:2) b. Visual - Tongues ( glw/ssai ) (Fire) (2:3) (Real n ) 2. Arrival - Spirit (2:4) B. Reactions of the Multitude (2:5-13) Initial Action - Came Manner - Suddenly Origin - Heaven (cf.1:9-11) Nature (Comparison) - Like rushing, mighty wind Further Action - Filled All - House (inclusive scope) Nature - (Comparison) - As of fire Phenomena Distributed Resting - Each one them Inclusive Scope- (Recurrence-vv.1-2) Individual Focus Persons - All (Recurrence of inclusive scope) Phenomena Filled - Holy Spirit (Cause) Spoke ( lalei/n ) Manner - Other tongues ( glw,ssaij ) Agency - Spirit gave utterance (Effect) Causation Acts 2, Detailed Analysis (Prep n )

12 B. Reactions of the Multitude (2:5-13) 1. Setting - Persons (2:5) - a. Race - Jews (Prep n ) b. National Origin - Every nation under Heaven - cf.v.2 c. Character - Devout d. Situation - Dwelling in Jerusalem

13 2. Substance (2:6-13) a. Reaction - Bewildered, amazed, wondered (2:6-7a) ( sunecu,qh ) ( evxi,stanto ) ( evqau,mazon ) b. Reason - Reaction - Each heard Galileans speaking (2:6b-11) in his own language ( diale,ktw| ) and tongue ( glw,ssaij ) mighty works - God c. Further Reaction (2:12-13) Perplexity - All (2:12) Mockery - Others (2:12) Internal-Amazed, perplexed ( evxi,stanto ) ( dihpo,roun ) Spoken - What does this mean? Manner - Mocking Speech-Filled-New wine Possible Answers Correct Answer Human Explanation vs. Divine Explanation II. The Proclamation - Peter’s Pentecost Sermon (2:14-42) vs. Real n

14 II. The Proclamation - Peter’s Pentecost Sermon (2:14-42) A. Declarations - Peter (2:14-36) 1. Prep n - Peter standing (with 11) (cf.1:15) 2. Speech (2:14-36) a. Identification - Event: Fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy (2:14b-21) (1) Introductory Call - Hear (2:14b)(Prep n ) (2) Explanation of Phenomena (2:15-21) (Real n ) (a) Negative - Not drunkenness (2:15) (b) Positive (2:16-21) 1 General - Spoken of - Prophet Joel (2:16) 2 Particular (Quotation-Joel 2:28-32) (Also substantiation) Substantiation - 3rd Hour - Day Contrast Substantiation Persons Appeal Men of Judea All dwell Jerusalem Be known - You Give ear Lifted up - Voice Addressed Them ( avpefqe,gxat o ) What it is not vs. What it is

15 2 Particular (Quotation - Joel 2:28-32) (2:17-21) - Prophet Joel a Effusion of Spirit (2:17-19) 1. Preparation (2:17) 2. Promise (2:17-18) Time - In Last Days Actor - God General cause - Pour out my spirit -> All flesh (inclusive) Particular Effect Gender - Sons/Daughters - Prophesy Age Young men - Vision Old men - Dreams General cause - Pour out my spirit And-They shall prophesy (Possibly climax) Note: Particular causation with general substantiation, by chiasm Note also: The changes in the quotation over against original wording of Joel. b Consequent signs (2:19-20) 1. General (2:19) 2. Particular (2:20) c Consequent Salvation Wonders-Heaven above (cf.2:2) Signs-Earth beneath Blood Fire Vapor Events Time-Before-Day of Lord Sun -> Darkness Move -> Blood Great Manifest Cause Effect-Shall be saved (passive) Persons-Whoever (inclusive) Action-Calls upon-Name of Lord Effect Cause Inclusive Scope My menservants My maidservants a b b a

16 b. Implications - Event: Exaltation of Jesus (2:22-36) (1) Introductory call to hear (2:22a) (2) Story of Jesus (as it bears upon the pouring out - Spirit) (a) Death Persons-Men of Israel Appeal-Hear these words (cf. 2:14) Person Murder Deeds-You Circumstance-Delivered up-acc. to plan & foreknowledge-God (Divine purpose) Identity-Jesus of Nazareth Attestation-By God --In your most Mighty works Wonders (cf.v.19) Signs Actions-Crucified/Killed (Rec.) Means-Lawless men (human crime) Contrast vs. (b) Resurrection/Exaltation (2:24-36) raised and Exalted by God 3-Fold Witness 1 Witness - Scripture (24-31) 2 Witness - Apostles (32) 3 Witness-Pouring out-Spirit (Climax-Sermon) (33-36) Affirmation (24) Proof (25-31) Affirmation (32a) Proof (32b) Affirmation (36) Proof (33-35) Lord Christ Put to death by You (2:22-23)

17 B. Response to Peter’s Declarations (2:37-42) 1. Question - What shall - Do? 2. Answer (38-40) a. Particular b. General-Witnessed/Exhorted-Save yourselves-This crooked (40)generation Causation 3. Actions Generalization Note: Both causation and substantiation Appeal Persons-Every one-You (inclusive/individual) Promise Substance-Receive gift-H.S. Objects You/Your children (part.) Everyone-Lord calls (Gen.) (cf.v.21) Repent Be baptized -> Forgiveness of sins (cf.vv ,36) (38-39) Conversion (About 3000) (41) (Cause) Existence (42) (Effect) a. Teaching - Apostles b. Fellowship c. Breaking of bread d. Prayers (41-42) Causation Inter. (2:37) (transitional to vv.43-47)

18 Acts 2 – Historical-Cultural and Interpretative Work The following is a study of background work on Acts 2; Trying to answer the question, “What does this mean?” The following is a study of background work on Acts 2; Trying to answer the question, “What does this mean?” It ends with a study regarding the “Fullness of the Spirit” in Acts. It ends with a study regarding the “Fullness of the Spirit” in Acts.

19 Acts 2:1-13 Pentecost Event 1.Chapter 1 – Day 1 - Day of Ascension Chapter 2 – Day 2 - Day of Pentecost 2.Chapter 1 - Inert Spectators – Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking? (1:11) Chapter 2 – Energized Prophets – Are not all these who are speaking (prophesizing?) Galileans? (2:7)

20 Acts 2:1-13 Pentecost Event 3.Event has feel of Old Testament Echo (Spiritual déjà vu) Genesis 11:1-9 Tower of Babel Foundational story about language; prepare for world-wide witness Luke 1:8-23; Zechariah in Temple struck dumb yet is later “filled with Holy Spirit” (1:67) and prophesizes regarding Israel’s hope in salvation (1:68-79). Note: Place where Zechariah could not speak (Temple) Place where it was restored (home) Exodus 19:16-20 Mt. Sinai Note the change of location of divine revelation From Mt and desert to city (polis) and house (oikos) These represent the major sites of witness in Acts

21 Acts 2:1-13 Pentecost Event 3.Event has feel of Old Testament Echo (Spiritual déjà vu) Isaiah 6 Temple of the Lord Note change of spatial dimension Theophany in Temple vs. private residence Joel 2:16-21 Hold till later

22 Acts 2:1-13 Pentecost Event 4. The Galilean Issue Not just what they were hearing but who was speaking (2:7) Luke-Acts treats Galilee 3 ways: 1. Part of the larger nation of Israel (Luke 4:44; 23:5, Acts 10:37) 2. Inferior regional distinction (Acts 4:13, John 1:46, 7:15) 3. Not to mention the closer association with the gentile world (Mt 4:15, Luke 6:17, 7:1-10) 5.The Global Scope Every nation under heaven All nations may be represented by no ethnic diversity (all appear to be Diaspora Jews

23 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) Peter’s Joel 2 quotation is programmatic for Acts Much as Jesus’ Isaiah 61quotation is programmatic for Luke (4:16-19; see also 7:21-22) Peter’s sharp temporal change Joel 2:28 “Afterward” Joel 3:1 (LXX) “In those days and at that time” Acts 2:17 “In the last days I will pour out my Spirit” The indeterminate “times or seasons” known only to the Father in Acts 1:7 is now made known as God declares (2:17)

24 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) God will dissolve (suspend?) heaven-earth Spatial Dimensions “I will show wonders from heaven above and signs on the earth below” (2:19) Via… 1.Visions and dreams (2:17) Young men...old men is reversed in Acts from Joel Elderly Zechariah (1:8-20) and Simeon (2:25-35) but from that point on in Luke-Acts younger men see and hear. Apostles see heaven opened in 1:9-11, so expect to see further revelations

25 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) God will dissolve (suspend?) heaven-earth Spatial Dimensions “I will show wonders from heaven above and signs on the earth below” (2:19) Via… 1. Visions and dreams (2:17) 2. Wonders and signs (2:19-20) For the most part in Luke-Acts signs-wonders are acts of mercy to relieve the suffering of humanity from disease, demons and death…only occasionally does Jesus manipulate the forces of nature

26 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) God will dissolve (suspend?) heaven-earth Spatial Dimensions “I will show wonders from heaven above and signs on the earth below” (2:19) Via… 1. Visions and dreams (2:17) 2. Wonders and signs (2:19-20) 3. Prophecy (2:18) In addition to signs and wonders…the Spirit will anoint men and women to prophesy. The stage is set for Peter to prophesy but also for sons and daughters also.

27 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) God will dissolve (suspend?) gender and class bias “I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days” (2:17-18) Luke 1-2, Elizabeth, Mary, Anna Luke 8:1-5 Do note the andocentric words of Peter’s speech Men of Judea (2:14) Men of Israel (2:22) men-brothers (2:29) But notice the regional expansion move to familial. The next move may incorporate households (see Luke 8:21)

28 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) The last line of the Joel prophecy (Acts 2:21) raises another interesting question: “ And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord ( ku,rioj ) will be saved.' 1.Who is the Lord? God ( qeo,j ) used 8x’s in 2:22-36 Yet the definition is being reoriented through Jesus’ Life (2:22) Death (2:23) Resurrection (2:24, 32) Exaltation (2:32, 36)

29 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) The last line of the Joel prophecy (Acts 2:21) raises another interesting question: “ And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.' 1. Who is the Lord? 2. Who needs to be saved? Jesus…whom YOU crucified and killed. Peter ignores the specific Jewish groups who were involved in the trial and death (chief priests, scribes, temple elite and Judas) plus the functional involvement of the Romans. Rather Peter puts the full blame on the listening audience and the “entire house of Israel” (2:36) The fate of the entire nation of Israel hangs in the balance because the people have rejected God’s saving purpose.

30 Acts 2:14-36 Pentecost Interpreted What Does This Mean? (2:12) The last line of the Joel prophecy (Acts 2:21) raises another interesting set of questions: “ And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.' 1. Who is the Lord? 2. Who needs to be saved? 3. Why? Salvation is no longer found in the security of ethnicity but or in the Old Covenant but In the name of Jesus (2:38-39)

31 The Kerygma in Acts 1.The age of fulfillment, or the coming of the Kingdom of God is at hand (vv ) 2.This coming of the kingdom has taken place thru the ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus (vv.22-23) 3.By virtue of the resurrection, Jesus is exalted at the right hand of God as the Messianic head of the new Israel (vv.24-36) 4.The H.S. in the church is the sign of Christ’s present power and glory (v.33) 5.The Messianic age will shortly reach its consummation in the second coming of Christ. (vv.34-35) 6.Forgiveness, the H.S., and salvation come w/ repentance (vv.38-39) - C.H. Dodd, Apostolic Preaching and Its Development

32 Acts 2 - Fullness of the Spirit 1 Arguments for Subsequent Experience a.In Acts 8 the Samaritans “receive” the Spirit some time after they believe and are baptized. b.In Acts 19:2 the aorist participle is employed, possibly translated: “Have you received the H.S. after you (cf. Acts 10:29) believed?” c.In all the Gospels (including Luke) the disciples are pictured as believers (e.g., Lk 9:1-2; 10:20; Mt. 12:46- 50; Jn.15-17) d.In John 20:20, on the evening of Easter, Jesus breathes on the disciples and exhorts them to receive the Spirit Conclusion: At Pentecost the disciples were fully converted and already had an initial experience w. the Spirit - Pentecost a subsequent experience w. the Spirit

33 Acts 2 - Fullness of the Spirit 2 Arguments for Initial Experience a.In Acts the phrases “fullness/filled w/. The Spirit,” “receive the Spirit,” “baptized w/. the H.S.,” “the Spirit” “poured out,” etc. seem to be used interchangeably, and to refer to the same experience (see references throughout). All of these are first experiences w. the Spirit, and they are often clearly linked to conversion (e.g., 10:44-47; 15:8). b.Acc. to context, scriptural testimony, and grammarians, the aorist participle. often indicates contemporaneous action vs. antecedent action; this is esp. true in Luke/Acts when the participle follows the finite verb, as it does in Acts 19:2.

34 Acts 2 - Fullness of the Spirit, cont. 2 Arguments for Initial Experience c.In Luke (and in all the Gospels) the disciples do not have any experience of the Spirit during Jesus’ earthly ministry. The Spirit in Lk is restricted to the person of Jesus (Lk. 11:13; 12:12; Acts 10:21- 22; 17:20-21). In Jn, the “counselor” comes only after Jesus is gone (14:17,25-26; 16:7). d. The accounts of Acts 2 and 8 represent unique events in salvation history, and ought therefore not to be pressed as normative. Conclusion: The fullness of the Spirit involves the initial reception of the Spirit, normally experienced as part of conversion.


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