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The Development of Christianity A graphical presentation © 2004 Mark Poyser This is a work in progress. This product has not been finalized. This is a development version.
General information Screen setting: At least 1024x768 (better with 1280x1024 or 1600x1200) Fonts: Wingdings, Wingdings 2, Webdings Resources / Source material: The New Oxford Annotated Bible (NRSV) 2001Oxford University Press Isaac Asimov: Asimov’s Guide to the Bible (2vol) 1969Wings Books Lawrence Boadt: Reading the Old Testament 1984Paulist Press James Carroll: Constantine’s Sword 2001Houghton Mifflin Richard Elliott Friedman: Who Wrote the Bible? 1989Harper Collins Paul Johnson: A History of the Jews 1987Harper Perennial Paul Johnson: A History of Christianity 1976Simon & Schuster © 2004 Mark Poyser
Background In order to understand the forces that influenced Christianity, it is necessary to examine the various historical developments in Judaism from the period of Greek domination up to the Roman era. This set of slides will review the history of the eastern Mediterranean region from 300 BC to 250 AD. Note: To save space in the diagrams, dates have the notation BC (instead of the more generally used BCE: Before Christian Era). Similarly, AD is used instead of CE. © 2004 Mark Poyser
Judea High priest The Jewish Ideal vs. Reality temple A descendant of the tribe of Aaron A descendant of King David ruler Temple attendants: descendants of the tribe of Levy Hebrew Bible Independent kingdom Determines the way society works. It is the Law. Rejectio n of other cultures Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Egypt Installed by foreign overlord Ruled by Syria or Rome Roman procuratorNon-Davidic king Greek cultural influences Roman cultural influences Temple defiled with idols/statues © 2004 Mark Poyser
Judea High priest 289 BC BC279 BC BC269 BC BC259 BC BC299 BC BC deposed killed 299 BC – 250 BC Maccabees M Seleucids temple Seleucus I Nicator (“conqueror”) 305 BC – 280 BC 289 BC BC279 BC BC269 BC BC259 BC BC Antiochus I Soter (“conqueror”) 280 BC – 261 BC Book of Ecclesiastes Book of Jonah Ptolemy I Soter (“savior”) 306 BC – 285 BC Ptolemy II Philadelphus (“loving his sister”) 285 BC – 246 BC son Judea under Ptolemies Simon I son Septuagint Hebrew Bible Museum and Library at Alexandria Antiochus II Theos (“god”) 261 BC – 246 BC son Treaty of Friendship 1 st Syrian war 2 nd 1 st Greek Dictatorship of Quintus Hortensius (plebian) 287 BC - The Ogulnian law 300 BC - 1 st Punic war 1 st Pharos lighthouse is finished (275) Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Egypt © 2004 Mark Poyser
Judea High priest 239 BC BC229 BC BC219 BC BC209 BC BC249 BC BC deposed killed 249 BC – 200 BC Maccabees M Seleucids temple 239 BC BC229 BC BC219 BC BC209 BC BC Antiochus II Theos 261 – 246 Seleucus II Callinicus (“gloriously victorious”) 246 BC – 226 BC Seleucus III Ceraunus 226 – 223 Antiochus III Magnus (“great”) 223 BC – 187 BC lose to Egypt defeat Parthians Ptolemy II Philadelphus 285 – 246 Ptolemy III Euergetes (“benefactor”) 246 BC – 221 BC defeat Seleucids march into Babylon Ptolemy IV Philopater (“loving his father”) 221 BC – 203 BC Ptolemy V 203–181 Simon II Judea under Ptolemies son bro. son Peak of Ptolemaic power 3 rd 4 th Syrian war Hierax War of the Brothers bro. 3 rd 1 st Punic war 1 st 2 nd Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major defeat Hannibaldefeated at Cannae Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Egypt © 2004 Mark Poyser
Judea under Seleucids Judea High priest 189 BC BC179 BC BC169 BC BC159 BC BC199 BC BC 189 BC BC179 BC BC169 BC BC159 BC BC199 BC BC Judas Maccabeus 165 BC – 160 BC Jonathan 160 BC – 142 BC Mattathias – 165 BC deposed killed 199 BC – 150 BC Maccabees M Antiochus IV Epiphanes (“god manifest”) 175 BC – 164 BC Temple reform rededicate temple: Hanukkah Antiochus V Eupator alliance (161) recognize Jonathan (152) MM statue of Zeus (167) banned circumcision banned scriptures Book of Esther Book of Ecclesiasticus Demetrius I Soter (“savior”) Seleucus IV Philopater (“loving his father”) 187 BC – 175 BC Antiochus III Magnus (“great”) 223 BC – 187 BC defeat Egypt Hashmon Gr: Asmon Hasmonaeans semi- inde- pendent Ptolemy V Ephphanes (“god manifest”) 203 BC – 181 BC Seleucids defeat Egypt Onias III 198 – 175 S.II Jueda under Ptolemies son bro. 5 th Syrian war son bro. Rome defeats in Greece (192) Rome defeats in Asia Minor (190) ApolloniusLysias Bethhoran Jason 175 – 172 Menelaus 172 BC – 162 BC Alcimus 162 BC – 153 BC Jonathan 153 – 142 M join Orders A. IV out of Egypt Parthians (Persians) hostage Physcon (“Pot-Belly”) Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (“benefactor”) 170 BC – 116 BC acceptance by others resistance by some Greek cultural influences Ptolemy VI Philomater (“loving his mother”) 181 BC – 170 BC sonbro. Hassidim Gr: Assideans Parthians break away (190) temple 6 th anti- Greek / Seleucid oppose revolt Book of Daniel ruler 5 th Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus 163 BC – 133 BC son Cornelia Gracchus sondau. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major Davidic descent Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Egypt © 2004 Mark Poyser
anti- Greek/Seleucid Gaius G. 123–121 High priest 139 BC BC129 BC BC119 BC BC109 BC BC149 BC BC 139 BC BC129 BC BC119 BC BC109 BC BC149 BC BC John Hyrcanus I 134 BC – 104 BC H Aristobulus I 104 – 103 BC H Jonathan 153 BC – 142 BC M Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus 163 BC – 133 BC destroy Samaritan temple Jonathan 160 BC – 142 BC Pharisees Sadducees Simon 142 BC – 134 BC John Hyrcanus I 134 BC – 104 BC A. J. 103 – 76 deposed killed 149 BC – 100 BC House of Hyrcanus H Simon 142 BC – 134 BC M A. J. 103 – 76 H Judea Seleucids Maccabees M destroy Samaria Antio. VI 145 – 142 Antiochus VII Sidetes 138 BC – 125 BC Antiochus VIII Grypus 125 BC – 96 BC Alexander Balas 150 – 146 Book of 1 Maccabees semi- independent Judah exempt from taxation (142) Physcon (“Pot-Belly”) Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (“benefactor”) 170 BC – 116 BC Ptolemy IX Soter II Ptolemy X Alexander Cleopatra III 116 BC – 101 BCC. Demetrius II Trypho Cleo. Thea Essenes Dead Sea Scrolls bro.son bro. temple Oppose lineage of High Priests Purist / Descendants of Zadoc & Aaron / Move to Qumran Ptolemy son-i-law Book of 2 Maccabees JudJonMatSim JudMat secularreligious life after death Judea formally independent Jason of Cyrene Jason of Cyrene Teacher of Righteousness ruler 3 rd slave revolt leader bro. Gaius Marius ( consul) 107 BC – 82 BC Eunus Davidic descent Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Egypt © 2004 Mark Poyser
1st Trium: Caesar, Pompey, Crassus 60 BC – 47 BC High priest 89 BC - 80 BC79 BC - 70 BC69 BC - 60 BC59 BC - 50 BC99 BC - 90 BC Alexander Jannaeus 103 BC – 76 BC 89 BC - 80 BC79 BC - 70 BC69 BC - 60 BC59 BC - 50 BC99 BC - 90 BC Sulla 82 BC – 60 BC Gaius Marius ( consul) 107 BC – 82 BC H Seleucids Alexander Jannaeus 103 BC – 76 BC Alexandra Salome (widow of Alexander Jannaeus) 76 BC – 67 BC Pompey Antipater the Idumean 66 BC – 43 BC take Jerusalem visit Temple deposed killed 99 BC – 50 BC House of Hyrcanus H Judea annex Syria Ephesus Athens Seleucids Judea a Roman client-state (63) civil war (Alexander vs rigorists) Sanhedrin bring Pharisees in Judea independent Ptolemy X Alexander 107 BC – 88 BC Cleopatra Berenice 101 BC – 88 BC Ptolemy IX Soter II (“savior”) Pt. XI 80 Ptolemy XII Auletes 80 BC – 59 BC, 55 BC – 51 BC C. VII 51 - Antiochus VIII Grypus 125 BC – 96 BC Essenes Dead Sea Scrolls John Hyrcanus II 76 BC – 66 BC 63 BC – 40 BC H Aristobulus II 66 BC – 63 BC H son temple Pharisees Sadducees Egypt life after death ruler Spartacus slave revolt leader Davidic descent Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece © 2004 Mark Poyser
Parthians Octavian - Augustus 27 BC - 14 deposed High priest Essenes killed Dead Sea Scrolls 49 BC – 00 BC Galilee Iturea 29 BC - 20 BC19 BC - 10 BC9 BC - 00 House of Hyrcanus John Hyrcanus II 63 BC – 40 BC 49 BC - 40 BC Joshua 3 BC - 6 Mattathias ben Theophilus Herod Archelaus 4 BC - 6 Herod The Great 37 BC – 4 BC H 39 BC - 30 BC29 BC - 20 BC19 BC - 10 BC9 BC BC - 40 BC Octavian 30 – 27 2nd Triumvirate: Octavian, Antony, Lepidus 42 BC – 30 BC H Elezar 4 BC – 3 BC Joazar ben Boethus 4 BC 1st T. 60 – 46 Julius Caesar 47 – 44 Antipater the Idumean 66 BC – 43 BC Pompey Judea Joshua ben Fabus 30 – 23 BC good relations build Herod’s temple (22 BC – 24 AD) Simon ben Boethus take Jerusalem Senate 39 BC - 30 BC Antigonus 40 – 37 BC Ananelus 36 – 30 BC Aristobulus III 36 BC H mutilate Mariamne – 23 BC good relations H.Antipas 4 - H.Philip 4 - Herod rex socius et amicus populi Romani Judea a Roman client-state son temple Pharisees Sadducees ruler Davidic descent Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Galilee life after deathvicarious suffering © 2004 Mark Poyser 70 – AD10 Hillel
deposed procurator killed preaching missionary voyage Herod Archelaus 4 BC - 6 Pontius Pilate Annas (Ananus) Coponius Valerius Gratus Marullus 37 – 41 Herod Agrippa I High priest Essenes massacre of Samaritans Jewish- Christians / Ebionites apocalyptic expectations Miriam Cuspius Fadus Tiberius Alexander V. C. 48 teachings disputes Joseph Caiaphas Marcellus Trinity baptism Faith suffices apocalyptic Jesus, Mary Christ persecutes? Saul “anointed” (47)(49) Cyprus Antioch Iconium Lystra Philippi Thessalonica Berea, Corinth Antioch Ephesus Caesarea Eleazar Matthias 43 AAA A via marriage Joshua 3 BC - 6 Ishmael Simon Simon Josephus ? Aljoneus A Theophilus A Jonathan A M. Ambivius Valerius Gratus Octavian - Augustus 30 BC - 14 Tiberius Gaius - Caligula Claudius 00 AD – 50 AD House of Annas A Judea Paul build Herod’s temple (22 BC – 24 AD) Zealots Judah the Galilean Abba God as father temple Pharisees Sadducees Y’shua God as father life after death Stephen vision orders emperor worship (39) Petronius stopped by Dead Sea Scrolls messiah apocalyptic The War of the Children of Light against the Children of Darkness life after death ruler apocalyp. Pentecost completed Essenes James Peter John miracles teachings Abba apocalyptic miracles adhere to Law faith over Law Davidic descent dispute Paul’s theology Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece vicarious suffering John the Baptist apocalyp. baptism messiah Iturea uprising against Rome Herod Philip 4 BC - 34 Herod Antipas 4 BC - 39 Galilee Jesus divine © 2004 Mark Poyser Greek concepts, terms, opinion, status polytheism distaste for Hebrew law not the Elect Y’shua Jesus; Miriam Mary Christ Plato: divine Idea / Logos Plato: body/soul Greek; Greek-friendly Jewish Pauline redemptive theological elements Jerusalem Christians banished to Gaul
Greek; Greek-friendly Jewish Pauline redemptive theological elements deposed procurator killed preaching missionary voyage Zealots take temple Ventidius Cumanus 48 – 52 High priest civil war between Zealots & moderates; Zealots win Jewish- Christians / Ebionites Jonathan (47,49) (53-57) Philippi,Thessalonica,Berea,Corinth Claudius AD – 99 AD authentic Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Judea Paul Zealots temple Pharisees Sadducees ruler Mattathias Phannias Ananias 50? - 53 Ishmael Ananus ben A. 63 Joseph ben S. Joshua ben D. 63 A Joshua ben G Essenes Romans 1 Thessalonians Galatians 1,2 Corinthians Philippians imprisoned Nero Vespasian fire Gospel of Matthew Gospel of Luke Acts of the Apostles Cyprus Antioch Galatia Ephesus teachings: Quelle Hebrews Ephesians Colossians 2 Thessalonians same author Titus Domitianus Nerva Trajan 98 - Quelle teachings Trinity baptism Faith suffices apocalyptic Jesus, Mary Christ God as father life after death faith over Law Paul’s theology vicarious suffering Zealots rebel against Rome Gospel of Mark Rabbinic traditionsynagogue / Talmud Jesus divine SYNOPTIC GOSPELS 3 emp. M. Antonius Felix 52 – 60? Porcius Festus Clodius Albinus Gessius Florus Gospel of Thomas non-canonical as early as 50 AD (James) as late as 140 AD © 2004 Mark Poyser James Peter John teachings Abba apocalyptic miracles adhere to Law Davidic descent Rome fights back oral tradition destroyed Revelation 1 Peter Pauline epistles other Jude Antioch Ignatius St saint 50-98/117 Jerusalem Christians pastoral 1 Timothy Titus 2 Timothy Colossae Greek speaking audience Jewish audience Menorah on Titus’ Arch in Rome Gen. Titus 4 legions: V, X, XII, XV Herodium Machaerus Masada centers of resistance X legion
Greek; Greek-friendly Jewish Pauline redemptive theological elements deposed killed — preaching AD – 149 AD Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Judea ruler Rabbinic; synagogue / Talmud © 2004 Mark Poyser Hadrian Antoninus Pius Papias 5 volume Oracles or Explanations of the Sayings of the Lord Bishop of Hieropolis Marcion Marcion’s Gospel Gospel of Luke 10 epistles of Paul Hebrew Bible rejected heretical Marcionites love not fear, Manichean, celibacy Trajan Simon bar Kochba James Gospel of John Plato: divine Idea / word / Logos Plato: body/soul 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John anti- Gnostic rebel against Rome Major operation Gen. Severus Jerusalem evacuated of Jews temple plans temple of Jupiter on mount (132) Rome fights back Simon bar Kochba on coin 12 legions Judea renamed by Rome to Syria-Palestine Cave of Letters Trinity Christ Jesus divine
Greek; Greek-friendly Jewish Pauline redemptive theological elements deposed killed — preaching AD – 199 AD Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Judea ruler teachings Trinity baptism Faith suffices apocalypse Jesus, Mary Christ God as father life after death faith over Law vicarious suffering Jesus divine © 2004 Mark Poyser divine Idea / word / Logos body/soul Catholic theology Antoninus Pius church organization along lines of Roman Empire illegal – but tolerated religion cooperative with state Catholic church Phrygia Priest of Cybele Maximilla Prisca Montanus heretical Montanists dispensation of Holy Spirit -179 Tertullian Origen Carthage apocalyptic Marcus Aurelius 161 – 180 Lucius Verus 161 – 169 Commodus 180 – 192 P DJDJ Septimius Severus 193 – 211
Greek; Greek-friendly Jewish Pauline redemptive theological elements deposed killed — preaching AD – 249 AD Asia Minor Syria Rome Greece Judea ruler © 2004 Mark Poyser Septimius Severus 193 – Tertullian Origen X 193 – 211 heretical Montanists dispensation of Holy Spirit
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