Presentation on theme: "~450 AD- ~1400 AD. Invasions end Roman protection of empire Advances slow and people begin to forget the Roman’s advances Literally, people lived."— Presentation transcript:
Invasions end Roman protection of empire Advances slow and people begin to forget the Roman’s advances Literally, people lived right next to a Roman aqueduct, but had no idea how to make it
Breakdown of trade: money became scarce. Cities abandoned – no longer center of economy or administration Population became rural. Decline of literacy – priests were the few that were literate. Languages slowly changed from Latin (Romance languages)
After the decline of the Roman Empire small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe. The largest and the strongest was controlled by the Franks Lead by Clovis – first Christian king Area that is now France Greatest king was Charlemagne most powerful king in Western Europe encouraged learning
Europe continues to suffer invasions Further disrupts trade The need for protection strengthens feudal system
Lived in Denmark and Germany- invaded/immigrated to England between 500- 700 AD The modern name England or English comes from Angle Anglo- is also a root word What is an “Anglophone?” Also, the French word anglais (English) Some people think the word “Yankee” comes from a corruption of the pronunciation “l’anglais”
People from Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark) Due to rising populations in those countries, Vikings sought places to expand- so they started sailing to Western Europe and further In the process, became famous for raiding towns and monasteries throughout Western Europe
By the 900’s AD, the Vikings (also called Northman, Norseman, and Norse) are beginning to settle in parts of Russia, France, Ireland, and England In fact, modern day Normandy in France takes its name after the Northman
Nomadic people from central Europe Modern day Hungary Raided villages and monasteries throughout Germany, Italy, and France often selling people into slavery
Chivalry – a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters 1. His feudal lord 2. His Heavenly Lord 3. His Lady Meant to protect the weak and the poor Be loyal, brave, and courteous
Sons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthood Page – at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trained Squire – at 14 they act as a servant to a knight Knight- at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments
Tournaments – mock battles that combined recreation and combat training Fierce and bloody competitions
Beginning with Clovis and cemented by Charlemagne was an alliance between the Catholic Church and the secular (worldly, not religious/spiritual) rulers like kings.
Papal bull is a written order by the Pope Used by the Church to justify actions like going to war Also used to control kings in Europe
Set of church laws that govern religious practices.
Excommunication means you get thrown out of the church. For kings, it can also mean vassals no longer owe loyalty.
Even stronger than Excommunication is interdict, which means the Church will not perform the Sacraments (baptism, marriage, last rites, etc.) in the King’s land Catholics believe this means you would go to Hell
If the Pope wanted to control a King, he would threaten to excommunicate him or even his whole kingdom. This usually forced the King to do what the Pope wanted him to do. In this way, the Church controlled many of Europe’s kings
Pope Cardinals Bishops Parish Priests The People The Catholic Clergy (priests, leaders of a religion):
Preserver of learning Art Shelter for poor Church offered salvation through the sacraments
Amassed wealth Owned land Some where dishonest Political involvement Corruption
Monasteries + Monks Monasticism: St. Benedict – Founds Benedictine Monasteries. Monks swore to poverty, celibacy, obedience Copied books including Bible- preserved writing monks became missionaries to the “barbarians,” like the Germanic peoples.