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~450 AD- ~1400 AD.  Invasions end Roman protection of empire  Advances slow and people begin to forget the Roman’s advances Literally, people lived.

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Presentation on theme: "~450 AD- ~1400 AD.  Invasions end Roman protection of empire  Advances slow and people begin to forget the Roman’s advances Literally, people lived."— Presentation transcript:

1 ~450 AD- ~1400 AD

2  Invasions end Roman protection of empire  Advances slow and people begin to forget the Roman’s advances Literally, people lived right next to a Roman aqueduct, but had no idea how to make it

3  Breakdown of trade: money became scarce.  Cities abandoned – no longer center of economy or administration  Population became rural.  Decline of literacy – priests were the few that were literate.  Languages slowly changed from Latin (Romance languages)

4  After the decline of the Roman Empire small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe.  The largest and the strongest was controlled by the Franks Lead by Clovis – first Christian king Area that is now France Greatest king was Charlemagne most powerful king in Western Europe encouraged learning


6  Lack of a strong central government  Church is powerful  King less powerful  Europe divided into thousands of small feudal kingdoms

7  Rural  Education decreases  Less trade  Barter system  Living conditions harsh  Laws based on customs

8  Feudalism becomes the dominant political system. At its head is a king. The king trades land to a lower noble for loyalty.

9  Fief:  Vassal:  Manor:  Serf (or peasant):

10 Feudalism Based on mutual obligation Military protection Provide knights in times of war service Fiefs – land grants protection

11  Nobles constantly fought each other  Defend estates  Seize new territories  Increase wealth  Kept Europe fragmented  Glorification of warriors

12  Economic system of the Middle Ages  Manor – self sufficient farming communities  Little trade between manors  Typical had 200-300 people  Heart of the manor was the manor house / castle





17  Europe continues to suffer invasions Further disrupts trade The need for protection strengthens feudal system

18  Lived in Denmark and Germany- invaded/immigrated to England between 500- 700 AD  The modern name England or English comes from Angle Anglo- is also a root word  What is an “Anglophone?”  Also, the French word anglais (English)  Some people think the word “Yankee” comes from a corruption of the pronunciation “l’anglais”

19  People from Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark) Due to rising populations in those countries, Vikings sought places to expand- so they started sailing to Western Europe and further In the process, became famous for raiding towns and monasteries throughout Western Europe

20  By the 900’s AD, the Vikings (also called Northman, Norseman, and Norse) are beginning to settle in parts of Russia, France, Ireland, and England In fact, modern day Normandy in France takes its name after the Northman

21  Nomadic people from central Europe Modern day Hungary  Raided villages and monasteries throughout Germany, Italy, and France often selling people into slavery

22  Chivalry – a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters 1. His feudal lord 2. His Heavenly Lord 3. His Lady  Meant to protect the weak and the poor  Be loyal, brave, and courteous

23  Sons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthood  Page – at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trained  Squire – at 14 they act as a servant to a knight  Knight- at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments

24  Tournaments – mock battles that combined recreation and combat training  Fierce and bloody competitions

25  Beginning with Clovis and cemented by Charlemagne was an alliance between the Catholic Church and the secular (worldly, not religious/spiritual) rulers like kings.

26  Papal bull is a written order by the Pope  Used by the Church to justify actions like going to war  Also used to control kings in Europe

27  Set of church laws that govern religious practices.

28  Excommunication means you get thrown out of the church. For kings, it can also mean vassals no longer owe loyalty.

29  Even stronger than Excommunication is interdict, which means the Church will not perform the Sacraments (baptism, marriage, last rites, etc.) in the King’s land Catholics believe this means you would go to Hell

30  If the Pope wanted to control a King, he would threaten to excommunicate him or even his whole kingdom. This usually forced the King to do what the Pope wanted him to do.  In this way, the Church controlled many of Europe’s kings

31 Pope Cardinals Bishops Parish Priests The People The Catholic Clergy (priests, leaders of a religion):

32  Preserver of learning  Art  Shelter for poor  Church offered salvation through the sacraments

33  Amassed wealth  Owned land  Some where dishonest  Political involvement  Corruption

34  Monasteries + Monks  Monasticism:  St. Benedict – Founds Benedictine Monasteries.  Monks swore to poverty, celibacy, obedience  Copied books including Bible- preserved writing  monks became missionaries to the “barbarians,” like the Germanic peoples.







41  Raise your hand. Tell me if it’s Romanesque, Islamic, or Classical (Greek/Roman)

42 Classical- Triumphal Arch

43 Islamic

44 Romanesque

45 Islamic

46 Romanesque

47 Classical- Ampitheater

48 Islamic

49 Romanesque

50 Classical


52 Romanesque (The Church on Left)

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