Presentation on theme: "Romanesque Art EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL"— Presentation transcript:
1Romanesque Art EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDAWITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER
2THEME“BUILD IT (BLOCK BY BLOCK) AND THEY WILL COME”“BUILD IT”: ROMANESQUE ERA A TIME OF BUILDING CHURCHES IN WESTERN EUROPE“BLOCK BY BLOCK”: STONE BLOCK BUILDING AND VAULTING, “BLOCKY” APPEARANCE OF ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE“THEY WILL COME”: PILGRIMAGES AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF ROMANESQUE CHURCHES
3GENERAL GOALS:Understand the term “Romanesque” in designating the artistic style of a historic periodanalyze cause and effect relationships among pilgrimages, crusades, the growth of urban centers, architectural innovations, and the size and location of churches Understand the ‘millennial’ Apocalyptic mood of the Romanesque era and ItS EFFECT on artistic themesUnderstand the role of relics and the artistic objects designed to contain relics
4recognize changes and continuities from prior civilizations and periods in romanesque art and architectureRecognize differences and similarities in regional Romanesque architecture and artistic styles.Understand the narrative function of the human figure in Romanesque sculpture.note the beginning of a new search for mimesis in romanesque sculptureknow and use relevant artistic and architectural terminology
71000: FIRST MILLENNIUM OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA -- AND THE WORLD DIDN’T END GRATITUDE TO GOD AND SAINTSCOUNTDOWN BEGINS AGAIN: MILLENNIALISM, FOCUS ON THE COMING APOCALYPSE“THANNE LONGEN FOLK TO GOON ON PILGRIMAUGES” (CHAUCER)
11SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA, ROME, JERUSALEM PRINCIPAL PILGRIMAGES SITES – BUT EVERYWHERE THERE WAS A RELIC, OR A MIRACLE HAD SUPPOSEDLY OCCURRED, WAS A SITE
12SANTIAGO MATAMOROS (NOT UNLESS HE LIVED ≈ 700 YEARS), PILGRIMS W/ COMPOSTELA HATS AND STAFFS, COCKLESHELL = EMBLEM OF ST. JAMES
131066:HALLEY’S COMET VISIBLE (APOCALYPTIC!)NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND1071: SELJUK TURKS CONQUERED JERUSALEM (AND MOST OF ASIA MINOR, THREATENING CONSTANTINOPLE)1075: INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY BEGAN (POWER STRUGGLES BETWEEN KINGS AND POPES CONTINUE THROUGH 1378 (END OF AVIGNON PAPACY)
14PHOTO OF THE HALE-BOPP COMET, AS VISIBLE ALL NIGHT IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE IN MARCH, 1997 TRY TO IMAGINE HOW THE MEDIEVAL MIND WOULD REACT TO SEEING SOMETHING LIKE THIS – RIGHT AFTER THE MILLENNIUM!
151095: COUNCIL OF CLERMONT – POPE URBAN II CALLED CRUSADE AGAINST MUSLIMS 1096 – 1272: CRUSADES (MOSTLY AGAINST MIDDLE-EASTERN MUSLIMS, ONE AGAINST CONSTANTINOPE, ONE AGAINST “ALBIGENSIANS” = CATHARS IN S. FRANCE (AND THE RECONQUISTA IN SPAIN)
18SPECIFIC GOALS:Examine the architectural elements and scheme that made possible MATURE ROMANEQUE ARCHITECTURE/ PILGRIMAGE CHURCHESUnderstand that the design of a Romanesque church is based on mathematical ratios in relation to the size of its crossing squareUnderstand the importance of Cluny and the Cistercian monastic orders in architecture and art.RECOGNIZE REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN ROMANSQUE ART
19Recognize the following architectural features: AmbulatoryRadiating chapelsPortal and its parts (TYMPANUM, VOUSSOIRS, LINTEL, TRUMEAU, JAMBS)Nave, transept, and side aislesCruciformCROSSING SQUARE
20BaysGallery/ tribune levelClerestory (usually small in Romanesque churches)Barrel vault (the norm for Romanesque naves)Groin vault (less common, used more in side aisles)Cloister (element in a monastic abbey church)RECOGNIZE IMPORTANCE OF architectural SCULPTURE IN ROMANESQUE ART
29Christ in Majesty (Maiestas Domini) with apostles, LINTEL FROM CATHEDRAL OF Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines, France, THE EARLIEST OF MANY RELIEFS ON ROMANESQUE CHURCH FAÇADES DEPICTING THE LAST JUDGMENTCHRIST IN MANDORLA SUPPORTED BY ANGELS FLANKED BY APOSTLES (WHO LOOK LIKE PENGUINS)Dated by inscription, the lintel depicts Christ enthroned in a lobed mandorla supported by angels and flanked by apostles.To the left and right of Christ are inscribed the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, a reference to his role as Last Judge: “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the Last, the Beginning and the End."The Saint-Genis lintel is the earliest of many reliefs on Romanesque church facades depicting or alluding to Judgment Day and the separation of those who will be saved from those who will be damned. Its hierarchical, hieratic composition reflects that of Early Christian sarcophagi.
34Interior of Saint-Sernin, NAVE DESCRIBE: TRIBUNE (FOR OVERFLOW CROWDS).COMPOUND PIERS WITH ENGAGED COLUMNS THAT FLOW INTO TRANSVERSE ARCHES (MARK BAYS)BARREL VAULT -- why?To gain height and avoid firesThe builders placed the semicircular stone barrel vault below the timber-roofed loft to avoid fires – and also to gain height in the naveThe geometric floor plan is reflected in the nave walls.The engaged columns rise from the bottom of the compound piers to the vaults springing and continue across the nave as transverse arches.
39Largest church in Europe until New St Largest church in Europe until New St. Peter’s was built in 17th century. Nave alone > 500’ long and 100’ high with three stories (arcade-tribune-clerestory). Cluny III had four aisles, radiating chapels and slightly pointed barrel vaults. Cluny was the wealthiest, most powerful monastery in Europe. It was sacked during the French Revolution and Cluny III was mostly destroyed.RESTORED CUTAWAY VIEW OF THIRD ABBEY CHURCH AT CLUNY (CLUNY III), CLUNY, FRANCE – LARGEST CHURCH IN EUROPE
41The church’s cloister was decorated for the monks alone to see The church’s cloister was decorated for the monks alone to see. It provided the monks with a foretaste of Paradise.At Moissac a timber-roofed walkway supported by piers and columns decorated with sculpture surrounds the cloister garth on four sides.This was the sort of ornamentation St. Bernard of Clairvaux criticized.GENERAL VIEW OF THE CLOISTER, SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC. (POINTED ARCHES ARE LATER ), 76 PIERS AND COLUMNS (SINGLE/ PAIRED) AROUND GARTH = 20 X 18
42HISTORIATED CAPITAL – THE BEHEADING OF JOHN THE BAPTIST Salome dances (center). To left, Herod’s attendants hold the silver platter with the head of John the Baptist.HISTORIATED CAPITAL – THE BEHEADING OF JOHN THE BAPTIST
43FOLIATE CAPITAL45 OF THE CAPITALS ARE HISTORIATED. THE OTHER 31 ARE DECORATIVE(FOLIATE OR BESTIARY )
45ST. ANDREW, PIER RELIEF, CLOISTER AT SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC ST. ANDREW, PIER RELIEF, CLOISTER AT SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC. LIMESTONE, 6’ HIGH.NOTE STYLIZED HAIR, BEARD AND DRAPING, HEAD IN PARTIAL PROFILE BUT EYE FRONTAL, BODY FRONTAL (ONLY EXCEPTION TO PROFILE HEAD / FRONTAL EYE ON PIER RELIEFS IS PORTRAIT OF ABBOT DURANDUS)
50LAST JUDGMENT, TYMPANUM, SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC Because the tympanum is both filled with figures and now dirty, it's difficult to make out the design. It has thirty-one figures: the representation of Christ, which occupies three registers, a size which befits his importance, the 24 Elders beneath and flanking him, and two angels, a seraph, and the four symbols of the Evangelists. On the left side (Christ's right) are a seraph holding a phylactery, who standing is the height of the seated Christ--again height related to a hieratic scale; the symbol for Matthew, a beautiful elongated crossed-legged angel; and the lion, symbol for Mark. On the opposite side there are a tall seraph who holds a scroll (the record of deeds on earth); the eagle, symbol of John; and the winged ox, symbol for Luke.LAST JUDGMENT, TYMPANUM, SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC
51Notice the stylization. DETAIL OF MOISSAC TYMPANUM: CHRIST FLANKED BY TWO ANGELS AND SYMBOLS OF EVANGELISTS
52DETAIL OF MOISSAC TYMPANUM: FIVE OF THE 24 ELDERS (FROM THE BOOK OF REVELATION)
53LIONS AND OLD TESTAMENT PROPHET, TRUMEAU, SOUTH PORTAL, SAINT-PIERRE MOISSAC On the trumeau’s right face is a prophet identified by some as Jeremiah, by others as Isaiah.Whoever the prophet is, he displays the scroll where his prophetic version is written.His position below the apparition of Christ as the apocalyptic Judge is yet another instance of the pairing of New Testament themes and Old Testament prefigurations.
54CATHEDRAL OF ST. LAZARE, AUTUN, 1120 – 1146ALSO CLUNIAC
57Pope Urban II planned to call the First Crusade at La Madeleine, but did it at Clermont. St. Bernard of Clairvaux called the Second Crusade at La Madeleine, and Richard the III launched the Third Crusade there.VÈZELAY ABBEY (BASILICA OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE (LA MADELEINE) – CRUSADE CHURCH
58Pope Urban II planned to call the First Crusade at La Madeleine, but did it at Clermont. St. Bernard of Clairvaux called the Second Crusade at La Madeleine, and Richard the III launched the Third Crusade there.VÈZELAY ABBEY (BASILICA OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE (LA MADELEINE) – CRUSADE CHURCH
59The tympanum at La Madeleine is unique for its time, because it does not depict the Last Judgment. That is a reflection of the church's relationship to the Crusades.The tympanum depicts the Pentecost and the Mission of the Apostles. According to the New Testament, Christ foretold that the Twelve Apostles would receive the power of the Holy Spirit and become the witness of the truth of the Gospels throughout the world. The Book of Acts says this occurred on the Pentecost, the fiftieth day after the crucifixion. The tympanum depicts this with the light rays emanating from Christ’s hands represent the instilling of the Holy Spirit in the apostles at the Pentecost.The figures in the tympanum who have not received the word of God are depicted as not fully human. Some are shown with pig snouts or dog heads; others are misshapen; and several are depicted as dwarves. One pygmy in particular is depicted as mounting a horse with the assistance of a ladder. On the far right, there is a man with elephantine ears, while in the center we see a man covered in feathers. This is a direct reflection of Western perceptions of foreigners such as the Muslim Seljuk Turks and Jews, who were being specifically targeted by the Crusaders. Pope Urban II, in his call for a crusade, helped promote this ethnocentric perception of the Turks by calling on westerners to "exterminate this vile race."Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles, tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, 1120–1132.
63INTERIOR OF ABBEY CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DE FONTENAY, 1139-47 CISTERCIAN ABBEY – COMPARE TO CLUNAICNOTICE THAT POINTED ARCHES SUPPORT THE BARREL VAULT OVER THE NAVEThe Cistercian Order of Monks was founded by St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who believed that Clunaic monasteries did not adhere strictly enough to the Benedictine Rule, particularly the vow of poverty. Cistercian monks and nuns follow the via contempliva, (contemplative life) which means they are “enclosed.” They never leave their abbeys (except for extraordinary reasons).St. Bernard of Claivaux founded the Abbey of Notre Dame at Fonteny (near Clairvaux) in The plainness of the church and cloister, especially when compared to those of Cluniac abbeys, reflects Cistercian goal of strict observance of the Benedictine rule.
64ABBEY CHURCH, NOTRE DAME DE FONTENAY AND ITS PLAN – CISTERCIAN MONASTIC SIMPLICITY Notre Dame de Fontenay was sacked during the French Revolution, but most of the buildings survived. It has been in private hands ever since. It was a paper mill in the 19th century, but the family who bought the property in the early 20th century restored the abbey and church so now it is a museum and tourist attraction.
69Durham was a pilgrimage site associated with St Durham was a pilgrimage site associated with St. Cuthbert, a bishop of Lindisfarne, before the Cathedral was built, but his relics were not enshrined there until 1103.DURHAM CATHEDRAL, 1093 – NAVE 461' X 81' X 73'. PATRON: WILLIAM I (THE CONQUEROR)
70Plan & transverse section of Durham Cathedral Durham Cathedral signals the arrival of French Romanesque architecture in England. It is a basilica with a transept -- but its plan is typically English with its long, slender proportions.It was begun around 1093, in the generation following the Norman conquest, and is the centerpiece of a monastery, cathedral, and fortified-castle complex on the Scottish frontier..The longitudinal section reveals that simple quadrant arches were used in place of groin vaults in the tribune. The structural descendants of the Durham quadrant arches are the flying buttresses that epitomize the mature Gothic solution to church construction.Plan & transverse section of Durham Cathedral
71THREE STORIES, RIBBED GROIN VAULTS NAVE, DURHAMTHREE STORIES, RIBBED GROIN VAULTSPROBABLY USED AS A DECORATIVE ELEMENT AT DURHAM (RECALL THE NORMAN-ARAB CHURCH AT MONREAL, SICILYThe church’s vaulted interior, which predates that of the remodeled Saint-Etienne at Caen, retains its original severe Romanesque appearance. The ribbed groin vaults at Durham predate those of the remodeled church at Caen. The ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the fairly massive web.These vaults rise high enough to provide room for an efficient clerestory, which allows more light to enter the nave.
72RIBBED GROIN VAULTS, WITH HEMISPHERICAL ARCHES (L) AND POINTED ARCHES (R). Earlier Romanesque churches had barrel vaults in their naves. Putting windows in the clerestories weakened the barrel vaults at their springing (bases), the most vulnerable point of any arch because it's where gravity created lateral (sideway) thrust. So it was necessary to support the walls of those churches with massive buttresses.Ribs in groin vaults form a scaffold to hold the stone panels (webs) of the vaults. The ribs allow the webs to be lighter than domes or barrel vaults (although in Romanesque churches the webs are still very heavy), and more efficiently channel lateral thrust downward (to piers or columns) and require less buttressing.Pointed arches in groin vaults have structural advantages over semi-circular arches. Pointed arches channel lateral thrust downward more efficiently, so vaults with those arches require less buttressing than vaults with semi-circular arches.Stylistically, pointed arches create more symmetric vaults, even when vaults top rectangular bays. In a vault with semi-circular arches, the height of each arch is determined by its width, so that if the vault tops a rectangular bay the transverse arches will be higher than the arcade arches. Also the crown will be higher than the arches. Using pointed arches allows the transverse and arcade arches to be the same height as the crown.In addition, pointed arches draw the eye upward and make the ceiling appear higher than it is.TRANSVERSE RIBS DIAGONAL RIBS
73PATRON: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR West faÇade of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France, begun (SPIRES are gothic)PATRON: WILLIAM THE CONQUERORINFLUENCE?Carolingian/ ottonian westwork"magic number?"3 (trinity)This church was begun by William of Normandy in 1067 and must have advanced rapidly, as he was buried there in 1087.Saint-Etiennes west façade is a striking design rooted in the tradition of Carolingian and Ottonian westworks , but it displays the increased rationalism of Romanesque architecture.The three story elevation, with its large arched openings, provides more light into the interior.
74INTERIOR, SAINT-ÉTIENNE, CAEN WHAT KIND OF RIBBED VAULTS?SEXPARTITENOTE HOW MUCH MORE LIGHT ENTERS CHURCHES WITH RIBBED GROIN VAULTS – FULL THIRD STORY WITH BIG WINDOWS POSSIBLEThe original plan for Saint-Étienne de Caen called for a wooden roof. But the builders decided to install ribbed groin vaults, supported by the compound piers already in place.
76The transept is less wide in relationship to the nave, choir and apse than in the major pilgrimage churches, making its cruciform aspect less pronounced. The radiating chapels are not exedra but rather are incorporated in the apse.PLAN OF SAINT-ÉTIENNE, CAEN. NOTE THAT EACH GROIN VAULT COVERS TWO BAYS. PLAN IS MORE ROOTED IN OTTONIAN TRADITION THAN OTHER ROMANESQUE CHURCHES.
79SPECIFIC GOALSIdentify Romanesque architectural elements in Germany, Lombardy, AND TUSCANYExamine the distinct qualities of Italian Romanesque ARCHITECTURE, PARTICULARLY IN TUSCANYNotice architectural elements such as stone tracery, gables, and pinnacles that were later Gothic additions.
82SPEYER PLAN – BUT APSE IS LATER – ORIGINALLY IT WAS SQUARE
83SPEYER CATHEDRAL AS IT APPEARS TODAY – BUT WESTWORK AND APSE ARE NOT THE ORIGINAL ONES
84Aerial view of Sant’ Ambrogio Milan, Italy. late 11TH TO 12TH CENTURIESNOTE THE OCTAGONAL DOMEThis church erected in honor of Saint Ambrose, Milan’s first bishop.It has an atrium in the Roman- Early Christian tradition, and an octagonal dome over dome reflecting early . It also has a two-story narthex (pieced by arches) and twin bell towers, reflecting German (Carolinginan/Ottonian) westwork.A two-story narthex pierced by arches on both levels, two bell towers joined to the building, and over towers of German churchesOf the façade bell towers the shorter one dates back to the tenth century while the taller north campanile is a twelfth century addition.The main vaults are slightly domical, rising higher than the transverse arches.The emphatic alternate support system perfectly reflects the plans geometric regularity.
85Plan of Sant’ Ambrogio, MILAN. WHAT'S REALLY DIFFERENT FROM OTHER ROMANESQUE CHURCHES?IT HAS AN ATRIUM AND NO TRANSEPT (ROMAN, EARLY X'IAN (OLD ST. PETER'S)Sant’ Ambrogio has an atrium and no transept. Each bay consists of a full square in the nave flanked by two small squares in each aisle, all covered with groin vaults.An octagonal dome covers the last bay, its windows providing the major light source for the otherwise rather dark interior.
86Interior of Sant’ Ambrogio, milan Dark – no clerestory There is no clerestory. The only windows are those in the octagonal dome over the last bay.Interior of Sant’ Ambrogio, milanDark – no clerestoryNote alternate support defining square bays
87Pisa Cathedral complex, Pisa, Italy. Pisa cathedral has a freestanding bell tower and a baptistery, where infants and converts were initiated into the Christian community. The freestanding baptistery was unique to Italy. Pisa presents a rare opportunity to examine a group of three Romanesque buildings – but all have Gothic elements on upper stories.Construction of Pisa Cathedral began first-in 1063, the same year work began on San Marco in Venice.The cathedral is large, five aisled, and one of the most impressive and majestic of all Romanesque churches.Pisa Cathedral complex, Pisa, Italy.cathedral begun 1063 baptistery begun 1153 (freestanding!) campanile begun 1174 and was not completed until 1319.All the buildings have gothic elements
88Pisa Cathedral campanile "the leaning tower" Shallow foundation and sandy soil!186.02' on high side, ' on the low side>Does it recall any other monumental building?colosseumThe campanile began to lean in 1178 when the third floor was finished. Construction was halted and was not resumed until 1272, primarily because Pisa was at war with other city-states – but this allowed the soil under the tower to settle so more stories could be added.Three more stories were added between 1272 and The upper stories were built with the walls on the "outside" higher than those of the "inside" so the tower is actually curved. Construction was again delayed because of wars and the 7th story was not completed until 1319.Originally the tower was 5.5 degrees off plumb. Because it was in danger of falling, between 1999 and 2001 soil was removed from under the higher side and now the tower is 3.99 degrees off plumb. That means it is displaced by 3.9 meters (12' 10") from where its top would be if it were straight.
89Interior of Pisa Cathedral, begun 1063 The interior at first suggests the Early Christian basilica, with its timber rather than vaulted ceiling and nave arcade of reused Roman columns (spolia) in unbroken procession.Above the colonnade is a continuous horizontal molding, on which the gallery arcades rest.The striped walls of alternating dark green and cream-colored marble provide a luxurious polychromy that became a hallmark of Tuscan Romanesque and Gothic buildings.
90BAPTISTERY OF SAN GIOVANNI, FLORENCE. DEDICATED 1059 CENTRAL PLAN: DOMED OCTAGON (DOME 90' HIGH)PRECEDENTS?PANTHEON, SANTA COSTANZA, SAN VITALE, ETC.ROMAN FIRST-STYLE WALL PAINTING (INCRUSTED MARBLE PANELS)NOTE HOW PANELS DIFFERENTIATE STORIES
91San Miniato al Monte, Florence. BEGUN 1062 San Minato at Monte sits, as its name implies, on a hillside overlooking the Arno River and the heart of the Florence.The body of the church was completed by 1090, the gable-crowned façade during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries.Even more than Pisa Cathedral, the structure recalls the Early Christian basilica in plan and elevation, although its elaborate geometric marble incrustation makes for a rich ornamental effects distinctive to Florence.San Miniato al Monte, Florence. BEGUN 1062
92WESTERN FAÇADE, SAN MINIATO AL MONTE Though at first glance, the lowest level much resembles the patterning of Florence’s baptistery, the arcades and panels do not reflect the building’s structure. Though at first glance, the lowest level much resembles the patterning of Florence’s baptistery, the arcades and panels do not reflect the building’s structure.The façade’s upper levels, of much later date than the lowest level are filled capriciously with geometrical shapes that have a purely, ornamental function.WESTERN FAÇADE, SAN MINIATO AL MONTE
93INTERIOR, SAN MINIATO AL MONTE. DIAPHRAGM ARCHES DIVIDE NAVE INTO THREE BAY AND SERVE AS FIREBREAKS FOR TIMBER ROOFGEOMETRIC INCRUSTATIONThe nave is divided into three equal compartments by diaphragm arches – transverse wall-bearing arches.The arches rise from compound piers and brace the rather high, thin walls.They also provide firebreaks beneath the wooden roof and compartmentalizes the basilican interior in the manner so popular with most Romanesque builders.
98Christ in Majesty apse fresco from Santa María de Muir near Lérida, Spainmid-12th century. Fresco, 22' x 24'. Museum of fine arts, bostonNote: typical romanesque preoccupation with last judgment and christ in mandora flanked by signs of the evangelists ; byzantine influenceThis is in your textbook because it's a rare example of a Medieval fresco, and a painted apse in a Romanesque church. It is not necessarily representative of other Spanish churches of the era.
99Virgin and Child (Morgan Madonna), FROM Auvergne, France, second half of twelfth century. painted wood, 2' 7" HIGH. MET (GIFT OF J. PIERPONT MORGAN)SELDES SAPIENTE – THE THRONE OF WISDOM.WESTERN THEOTOKISA wooden statuette depicting the Virgin Mary with Christ Child in her lap.The Morgan Madonna so named because it once belonged to the financer and prolific collector J.Pierpont Morgan.The type-known as the Throne of Wisdom, seldes sapientiae, is a western European freestanding version of the Byzantine Theotokos theme popular in icons and mosaics.
100Head Reliquary of Saint Alexander, from Stavelot Abbey, Belgium, 1145 silver repoussé, gilt bronze, gems, enamel 17 ½" high. MUSÉES ROYAUX D'HISTOIRE, BRUSSELS, BELGIUMReliquaries are cases made to hold relics of saints.
101RAINER OF HUY, baptism of Christ, baptismal font from Notre-Dame-des-Fonts, Liège, Belgium, Bronze, 2’ 1” high. Saint-Barthélémy, LiègeClassical elements include rounded figures, idealized figures and faces, soft draping, foreshortening and nudity – Christ is naked. Nudity was rare in Medieval art because it was associated with Adam and Eve and thus Original Sin.The font rests on 12 oxen (only their foresections are visible), a reference to the "molten sea on twelve oxen" cast for Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 7:23-25) which was regarded as an Old Testament prefiguration.
102NAKED JESUS GETTING BAPTIZED (BUT HE KEEPS HIS TRIDENTINE HALO ON!)
112"Isti mirant stella" = "these men wonder at the star "Isti mirant stella" = "these men wonder at the star." The appearance of the comet presages Harold Godwinson's "betrayal" of William by accepting the crown of England.HALLEY'S COMET APPEARS
113detail of the Bayeux Tapestry Battle of Hastings,detail of the Bayeux Tapestry
114IN ADDITION TO THE OTHER GOALS, YOU SHOULD NOW KNOW THE NAMES OF SIX ROMANESQUE ARTISTS: BERNARDUS GELDUINUSGISLEBERTUSRAINIER OF HUYWILIGELMOBENEDETTO ANTELAMIMASTER HUGOMORE AND MORE ARTISTS SIGNED THEIR WORK FROM THE ROMANESQUE ERA ON – MORE TO MEMORIZE!