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ROMANESQUE ART EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER.

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Presentation on theme: "ROMANESQUE ART EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROMANESQUE ART EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER

2 THEME “BUILD IT (BLOCK BY BLOCK) AND THEY WILL COME” “BUILD IT”: ROMANESQUE ERA A TIME OF BUILDING CHURCHES IN WESTERN EUROPE “BLOCK BY BLOCK”: STONE BLOCK BUILDING AND VAULTING, “BLOCKY” APPEARANCE OF ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE “THEY WILL COME”: PILGRIMAGES AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF ROMANESQUE CHURCHES

3 GENERAL GOALS:  UNDERSTAND THE TERM “ROMANESQUE” IN DESIGNATING THE ARTISTIC STYLE OF A HISTORIC PERIOD  ANALYZE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PILGRIMAGES, CRUSADES, THE GROWTH OF URBAN CENTERS, ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATIONS, AND THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF CHURCHES  UNDERSTAND THE ‘MILLENNIAL’ APOCALYPTIC MOOD OF THE ROMANESQUE ERA AND ITS EFFECT ON ARTISTIC THEMES  UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF RELICS AND THE ARTISTIC OBJECTS DESIGNED TO CONTAIN RELICS

4  RECOGNIZE CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES FROM PRIOR CIVILIZATIONS AND PERIODS IN ROMANESQUE ART AND ARCHITECTURE  RECOGNIZE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN REGIONAL ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE AND ARTISTIC STYLES.  UNDERSTAND THE NARRATIVE FUNCTION OF THE HUMAN FIGURE IN ROMANESQUE SCULPTURE.  NOTE THE BEGINNING OF A NEW SEARCH FOR MIMESIS IN ROMANESQUE SCULPTURE  KNOW AND USE RELEVANT ARTISTIC AND ARCHITECTURAL TERMINOLOGY

5 TIMELINE  THE “ROMANESQUE ERA” = © 1050 – 1200 = A PERIOD IN ART HISTORY BASED ON ITS ARTISTIC AND ARCHITECTURAL STYLES  CONVENTIONAL HISTORICAL PERIODIZATION = THE BEGINNING OF THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES (INCLUDES THE GOTHIC ART HISTORY PERIOD, WHICH OVERLAPS WITH ROMANESQUE)  THE FOLLOWING TIMELINE = THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF THE ROMANESQUE ERA IN WESTERN EUROPEAN ART

6  © BARBARIAN INVASIONS HAVE CEASED (VIKINGS ASSIMILATED), ALSO NO MAJOR WARS UNTIL CRUSADES FEUDALISM NO LONGER NECESSARY FEUDALISM NO LONGER NECESSARY SAFER TO TRAVEL, TRADE REVIVES, CITIES ARISE, NEW TOWNS ALONG TRADE ROUTES AND PILGRIMAGE RO0UTES SAFER TO TRAVEL, TRADE REVIVES, CITIES ARISE, NEW TOWNS ALONG TRADE ROUTES AND PILGRIMAGE RO0UTES LOTS OF SOLDIERS, NO WARS TO FIGHT LOTS OF SOLDIERS, NO WARS TO FIGHT  AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION (STEEL PLOWS, HARNESSES, CROP ROTATION, WINDMILLS, SEED DRILLS  MORE LAND UNDER CULTIVATION  POPULATION BOOM (W. EUROPE POP. DOUBLED )

7  1000: FIRST MILLENNIUM OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA -- AND THE WORLD DIDN’T END  GRATITUDE TO GOD AND SAINTS GRATITUDE TO GOD AND SAINTS COUNTDOWN BEGINS AGAIN: MILLENNIALISM, FOCUS ON THE COMING APOCALYPSE COUNTDOWN BEGINS AGAIN: MILLENNIALISM, FOCUS ON THE COMING APOCALYPSE “THANNE LONGEN FOLK TO GOON ON PILGRIMAUGES” (CHAUCER) “THANNE LONGEN FOLK TO GOON ON PILGRIMAUGES” (CHAUCER)

8  © 1050:  TRADE AND PILGRIMAGE ROUTES LINKED EUROPEAN REGIONS, CITIES, TOWNS TO EACH OTHER AND TO ASIA (AND NORTH AFRICA) MUCH CULTURAL DIFFUSION MUCH CULTURAL DIFFUSION NEED FOR LARGE CHURCHES AT PILGRIMAGE SITES NEED FOR LARGE CHURCHES AT PILGRIMAGE SITES  TOO MANY UNOCCUPIED SOLDIERS, AND SURPLUS POPULATION DEVELOPING  1054: GREAT SCHISM

9 N.B. THAT BOTH LAND AND SEA ROUTES CONNECTED EUROPE TO CONSTANTINOPLE AND THE SILK ROADS - - CLASSICS AND ASIAN TRADE PREDATE CRUSADES

10

11 SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA, ROME, JERUSALEM PRINCIPAL PILGRIMAGES SITES – BUT EVERYWHERE THERE WAS A RELIC, OR A MIRACLE HAD SUPPOSEDLY OCCURRED, WAS A SITE

12 SANTIAGO MATAMOROS (NOT UNLESS HE LIVED ≈ 700 YEARS), PILGRIMS W/ COMPOSTELA HATS AND STAFFS, COCKLESHELL = EMBLEM OF ST. JAMES

13  1066:  HALLEY’S COMET VISIBLE (APOCALYPTIC!)  NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND  1071: SELJUK TURKS CONQUERED JERUSALEM (AND MOST OF ASIA MINOR, THREATENING CONSTANTINOPLE)  1075: INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY BEGAN (POWER STRUGGLES BETWEEN KINGS AND POPES CONTINUE THROUGH 1378 (END OF AVIGNON PAPACY)

14 PHOTO OF THE HALE-BOPP COMET, AS VISIBLE ALL NIGHT IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE IN MARCH, 1997 TRY TO IMAGINE HOW THE MEDIEVAL MIND WOULD REACT TO SEEING SOMETHING LIKE THIS – RIGHT AFTER THE MILLENNIUM!

15  1095: COUNCIL OF CLERMONT – POPE URBAN II CALLED CRUSADE AGAINST MUSLIMS  1096 – 1272: CRUSADES (MOSTLY AGAINST MIDDLE-EASTERN MUSLIMS, ONE AGAINST CONSTANTINOPE, ONE AGAINST “ALBIGENSIANS” = CATHARS IN S. FRANCE (AND THE RECONQUISTA IN SPAIN)

16

17 ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

18 SPECIFIC GOALS:  EXAMINE THE ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS AND SCHEME THAT MADE POSSIBLE MATURE ROMANEQUE ARCHITECTURE/ PILGRIMAGE CHURCHES  UNDERSTAND THAT THE DESIGN OF A ROMANESQUE CHURCH IS BASED ON MATHEMATICAL RATIOS IN RELATION TO THE SIZE OF ITS CROSSING SQUARE  UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF CLUNY AND THE CISTERCIAN MONASTIC ORDERS IN ARCHITECTURE AND ART.  RECOGNIZE REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN ROMANSQUE ART

19  RECOGNIZE THE FOLLOWING ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES:  AMBULATORY  RADIATING CHAPELS  PORTAL AND ITS PARTS (TYMPANUM, VOUSSOIRS, LINTEL, TRUMEAU, JAMBS)  NAVE, TRANSEPT, AND SIDE AISLES  CRUCIFORM  CROSSING SQUARE

20  BAYS  GALLERY/ TRIBUNE LEVEL  CLERESTORY (USUALLY SMALL IN ROMANESQUE CHURCHES)  BARREL VAULT (THE NORM FOR ROMANESQUE NAVES)  GROIN VAULT (LESS COMMON, USED MORE IN SIDE AISLES)  CLOISTER (ELEMENT IN A MONASTIC ABBEY CHURCH)  RECOGNIZE IMPORTANCE OF ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE IN ROMANESQUE ART

21 FRANCE

22

23 SAINT ÉTIENNE, VIGNORY © 1050 – 1057 (EARLY ROMANESQUE

24 SAINT ÉTIENNE, VIGNORY

25 INTERIOR OF SAINT ÉTIENNE, VIGNORY HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM OTTONIAN BASILICA? FALSE TRIBUNE TIMBER LOFT

26 PLAN OF SAINT ÉTIENNE 1) NAVE 2) AISLES 3) CHOIR 4) AMBULATORY 5) RADIATING CHAPELS WHERE DID WE SEE AMBULATORIES BEFORE? SANTA CONSTANZA

27 SANTA COSTANZA, ROME ©

28 SAINT PHILBERT, TOURNUS, FRANCE © 1060 STONEVAULTS

29 CHRIST IN MAJESTY (MAIESTAS DOMINI) WITH APOSTLES, LINTEL FROM CATHEDRAL OF SAINT- GENIS-DES-FONTAINES, FRANCE, THE EARLIEST OF MANY RELIEFS ON ROMANESQUE CHURCH FAÇADES DEPICTING THE LAST JUDGMENT CHRIST IN MANDORLA SUPPORTED BY ANGELS FLANKED BY APOSTLES (WHO LOOK LIKE PENGUINS)

30

31 SAINT-SERNIN, TOULOUSE, FRANCE © PILGRIMAGE CHURCH

32 SAINT-SERNIN

33 1 2 3 PLAN OF SAINT-SERNIN. 1) CROSSING SQUARE 2) QUADRUPLE AISLES 3) BAYS

34 INTERIOR OF SAINT- SERNIN, NAVE DESCRIBE: TRIBUNE (FOR OVERFLOW CROWDS). COMPOUND PIERS WITH ENGAGED COLUMNS THAT FLOW INTO TRANSVERSE ARCHES (MARK BAYS) BARREL VAULT -- WHY? TO GAIN HEIGHT AND AVOID FIRES

35 NAVE OF SAINT-SERNIN

36 NOTE SCULPTURE ON CEILING

37 BERNARDUS GELDUINUS, CHRIST IN MAJESTY, RELIEF IN THE AMBULATORY OF SAINT-SERNIN, TOULOUSE, FRANCE © MARBLE, 4’ 2” HIGH PROBABLY COPIED FROM OTTONIAN MANUSCRIPT -- CHRIST IS IN MANDORLA

38

39 RESTORED CUTAWAY VIEW OF THIRD ABBEY CHURCH AT CLUNY (CLUNY III), CLUNY, FRANCE – LARGEST CHURCH IN EUROPE

40 CHURCH, SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC © SAINT-PIERRE = MONASTERY UNDER CLUNY ABBEY

41 GENERAL VIEW OF THE CLOISTER, SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC. (POINTED ARCHES ARE LATER ), 76 PIERS AND COLUMNS (SINGLE/ PAIRED) AROUND GARTH = 20 X 18

42 HISTORIATED CAPITAL – THE BEHEADING OF JOHN THE BAPTIST

43 FOLIATE CAPITAL 45 OF THE CAPITALS ARE HISTORIATED. THE OTHER 31 ARE DECORATIVE (FOLIATE OR BESTIARY )

44 BESTIARY CAPITAL

45 ST. ANDREW, PIER RELIEF, CLOISTER AT SAINT- PIERRE, MOISSAC. LIMESTONE, 6’ HIGH. NOTE STYLIZED HAIR, BEARD AND DRAPING, HEAD IN PARTIAL PROFILE BUT EYE FRONTAL, BODY FRONTAL (ONLY EXCEPTION TO PROFILE HEAD / FRONTAL EYE ON PIER RELIEFS IS PORTRAIT OF ABBOT DURANDUS)

46 SOUTH PORTAL, SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC

47 ARCHIVOLTS

48

49 SOUTH PORTAL. MOISSAC

50 LAST JUDGMENT, TYMPANUM, SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC

51 DETAIL OF MOISSAC TYMPANUM: CHRIST FLANKED BY TWO ANGELS AND SYMBOLS OF EVANGELISTS

52 DETAIL OF MOISSAC TYMPANUM: FIVE OF THE 24 ELDERS (FROM THE BOOK OF REVELATION)

53 LIONS AND OLD TESTAMENT PROPHET, TRUMEAU, SOUTH PORTAL, SAINT- PIERRE MOISSAC

54 CATHEDRAL OF ST. LAZARE, AUTUN, 1120 – 1146 ALSO CLUNIAC

55 GISLEBERTUS, LAST JUDGMENT, WEST TYMPANUM OF SAINT-LAZARE D' AUTUN, FRANCE, © 1120–1135. MARBLE, 21’ WIDE AT BASE.

56 DETAILS OF TYMPANUM, SAINT LAZARE D'AUTUN

57 VÈZELAY ABBEY (BASILICA OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE (LA MADELEINE) – CRUSADE CHURCH

58

59 PENTECOST AND MISSION OF THE APOSTLES, TYMPANUM OF THE CENTER PORTAL OF THE NARTHEX OF LA MADELEINE, VÉZELAY, FRANCE, 1120–1132.

60 DETAIL: DOG-HEADED PEOPLE

61 PEOPLE WITH PIG SNOUTS

62

63 INTERIOR OF ABBEY CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DE FONTENAY, CISTERCIAN ABBEY – COMPARE TO CLUNAIC NOTICE THAT POINTED ARCHES SUPPORT THE BARREL VAULT OVER THE NAVE

64 ABBEY CHURCH, NOTRE DAME DE FONTENAY AND ITS PLAN – CISTERCIAN MONASTIC SIMPLICITY

65 CLOISTER, NOTRE DAME DE FONTENAY

66 REGIONAL VARIATIONS

67 NORMAN KINGDOM (ENGLAND AND NORMANDY) SPECIFIC GOAL IDENTIFY ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURAL VARIATIONS AND INNOVATIONS IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN TERRITORY OF THE NORMAN KINGDOM

68

69 DURHAM CATHEDRAL, 1093 – NAVE 461' X 81' X 73'. PATRON: WILLIAM I (THE CONQUEROR)

70 PLAN & TRANSVERSE SECTION OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL

71 NAVE, DURHAM THREE STORIES, RIBBED GROIN VAULTS PROBABLY USED AS A DECORATIVE ELEMENT AT DURHAM (RECALL THE NORMAN-ARAB CHURCH AT MONREAL, SICILY PROBABLY USED AS A DECORATIVE ELEMENT AT DURHAM (RECALL THE NORMAN-ARAB CHURCH AT MONREAL, SICILY

72 RIBBED GROIN VAULTS, WITH HEMISPHERICAL ARCHES (L) AND POINTED ARCHES (R). TRANSVERSE RIBS DIAGONAL RIBS

73 WEST FAÇADE OF SAINT- ÉTIENNE, CAEN, FRANCE, BEGUN (SPIRES ARE GOTHIC) PATRON: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR INFLUENCE? CAROLINGIAN/ OTTONIAN WESTWORK "MAGIC NUMBER?" 3 (TRINITY)

74 INTERIOR, SAINT- ÉTIENNE, CAEN WHAT KIND OF RIBBED VAULTS? SEXPARTITE NOTE HOW MUCH MORE LIGHT ENTERS CHURCHES WITH RIBBED GROIN VAULTS – FULL THIRD STORY WITH BIG WINDOWS POSSIBLE

75 VIEW OF SIDE OF NAVE, SAINT-ÉTIENNE, CAEN

76 PLAN OF SAINT-ÉTIENNE, CAEN. NOTE THAT EACH GROIN VAULT COVERS TWO BAYS. PLAN IS MORE ROOTED IN OTTONIAN TRADITION THAN OTHER ROMANESQUE CHURCHES.

77 NAVE, SAINT-SAVIN-SUR - GARTEMPE © 1000 ARCHITECTURE: HALL CHURCH = AISLES ARE AS HIG AND NAVE. IN CHURCH WITHOUT RIBBED VAULTS, THIS ALLOWED BIG WINDOWS (IN AISLE) THIS CHURCH IS YOUR TEXTBOOK BECAUSE THE BARREL VAULT IS PAINTED

78 HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

79 SPECIFIC GOALS  IDENTIFY ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS IN GERMANY, LOMBARDY, AND TUSCANY  EXAMINE THE DISTINCT QUALITIES OF ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE, PARTICULARLY IN TUSCANY  NOTICE ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS SUCH AS STONE TRACERY, GABLES, AND PINNACLES THAT WERE LATER GOTHIC ADDITIONS.

80

81 INTERIOR OF SPEYER CATHEDRAL, SPEYER, GERMANY, BEGUN 1030; NAVE VAULTS, © 1082–1105. PATRON OF NAVE RIBBED VAULTS: HENRY IV (INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY!) DOUBLE-BAY VAULTING

82 SPEYER PLAN – BUT APSE IS LATER – ORIGINALLY IT WAS SQUARE

83 SPEYER CATHEDRAL AS IT APPEARS TODAY – BUT WESTWORK AND APSE ARE NOT THE ORIGINAL ONES

84 AERIAL VIEW OF SANT’ AMBROGIO MILAN, ITALY. LATE 11 TH TO 12 TH CENTURIES NOTE THE OCTAGONAL DOME

85 PLAN OF SANT’ AMBROGIO, MILAN. WHAT'S REALLY DIFFERENT FROM OTHER ROMANESQUE CHURCHES? IT HAS AN ATRIUM AND NO TRANSEPT (ROMAN, EARLY X'IAN (OLD ST. PETER'S)

86 INTERIOR OF SANT’ AMBROGIO, MILAN DARK – NO CLERESTORY NOTE ALTERNATE SUPPORT DEFINING SQUARE BAYS

87 PISA CATHEDRAL COMPLEX, PISA, ITALY. CATHEDRAL BEGUN 1063 BAPTISTERY BEGUN 1153 (FREESTANDING!) CAMPANILE BEGUN 1174 AND WAS NOT COMPLETED UNTIL ALL THE BUILDINGS HAVE GOTHIC ELEMENTS

88 PISA CATHEDRAL CAMPANILE "THE LEANING TOWER" SHALLOW FOUNDATION AND SANDY SOIL! ' ON HIGH SIDE, ' ON THE LOW SIDE> DOES IT RECALL ANY OTHER MONUMENTAL BUILDING? COLOSSEUM

89 INTERIOR OF PISA CATHEDRAL, BEGUN 1063

90 BAPTISTERY OF SAN GIOVANNI, FLORENCE. DEDICATED 1059 CENTRAL PLAN: DOMED OCTAGON (DOME 90' HIGH) PRECEDENTS? PANTHEON, SANTA COSTANZA, SAN VITALE, ETC. ROMAN FIRST-STYLE WALL PAINTING (INCRUSTED MARBLE PANELS) NOTE HOW PANELS DIFFERENTIATE STORIES

91 SAN MINIATO AL MONTE, FLORENCE. BEGUN 1062

92 WESTERN FAÇADE, SAN MINIATO AL MONTE

93 INTERIOR, SAN MINIATO AL MONTE. DIAPHRAGM ARCHES DIVIDE NAVE INTO THREE BAY AND SERVE AS FIREBREAKS FOR TIMBER ROOF GEOMETRIC INCRUSTATION

94 MODENA CATHEDRAL,

95 WILIGELMO, CREATION OF ADAM AND EVE, FRIEZE ON THE WEST FAÇADE, MODENA CATHEDRAL © MARBLE, APPROXIMATELY 3' HIGH

96 BENEDETTO ANTELAMI, KING DAVID, STATUE IN A NICHE ON THE WEST FACADE OF FIDENZA CATHEDRAL, FIDENZA, ITALY, © 1180–1190. MARBLE, LIFE-SIZE BENEDETTO ANTELAMI, KING DAVID, STATUE IN A NICHE ON THE WEST FACADE OF FIDENZA CATHEDRAL, FIDENZA, ITALY, © 1180–1190. MARBLE, LIFE-SIZE. WHAT'S REMARKABLE? WE HAVEN'T SEEN ANY FULLY-IN-THE-ROUND SCULPTURE ON BUILDINGS SINCE THE CLASSICAL ERA

97 OTHER ROMANESQUE ART

98 CHRIST IN MAJESTY APSE FRESCO FROM SANTA MARÍA DE MUIR NEAR LÉRIDA, SPAIN MID-12 TH CENTURY. FRESCO, 22' X 24'. MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON NOTE: TYPICAL ROMANESQUE PREOCCUPATION WITH LAST JUDGMENT AND CHRIST IN MANDORA FLANKED BY SIGNS OF THE EVANGELISTS ; BYZANTINE INFLUENCE

99 VIRGIN AND CHILD (MORGAN MADONNA), FROM AUVERGNE, FRANCE, SECOND HALF OF TWELFTH CENTURY. PAINTED WOOD, 2' 7" HIGH. MET (GIFT OF J. PIERPONT MORGAN) SELDES SAPIENTE – THE THRONE OF WISDOM. WESTERN THEOTOKIS

100 HEAD RELIQUARY OF SAINT ALEXANDER, FROM STAVELOT ABBEY, BELGIUM, 1145 SILVER REPOUSSÉ, GILT BRONZE, GEMS, ENAMEL 17 ½" HIGH. MUSÉES ROYAUX D'HISTOIRE, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM

101 RAINER OF HUY, BAPTISM OF CHRIST, BAPTISMAL FONT FROM NOTRE-DAME-DES- FONTS, LIÈGE, BELGIUM, BRONZE, 2’ 1” HIGH. SAINT- BARTHÉLÉMY, LIÈGE

102 NAKED JESUS GETTING BAPTIZED (BUT HE KEEPS HIS TRIDENTINE HALO ON!)

103 HILDEGARD RECEIVES HER VISIONS, DETAIL OF A FACSIMILE OF A LOST FOLIO IN THE RUPERTS- BERGER SCIVIASBY HILDEGARD OF BINGEN, FROM TRIER OR BINGEN, GERMANY, ©1150–1179. ABBEY OF ST. HILDEGARD, RÜDESHEIM/EIBINGEN.

104 INITIAL R WITH KNIGHT FIGHTING DRAGON FROM THE MORALIA IN JOB FROM CÎTEAUX, FRANCE © INK AND TEMPERA ON VELLUM 13 ¾" X 9 ¼". BIBILIOTHÈQUE MUNICIPALE, DIJON, FRANCE

105 MASTER HUGO, MOSES EXPOUNDING THE LAW FOLIO 94 RECTO OF THE BURY BIBLE FROM BURY SAINT EDMUNDS, ENGLAND © 1135 INK AND TEMPERA ON VELLUM 20" X 14". CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND NOTE THAT MOSES HAS HORNS! (HE WAS A JEW, AFTER ALL!)

106 EADWINE THE SCRIBE(?), EADWINE THE SCRIBE AT WORK FOLIO 283 VERSO OF THE EADWINE PSALTER © INK AND TEMPERA ON VELLUM. TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE CLEARLY BASED ON PAINTINGS OF SAINT MATTHEW IN EARLIER MANUSCRIPTS (E.G.. CORONATIION AND EBBO GOSPELS)

107 CAT, MOUSE AND WEASEL, DETAIL FROM BESTIARY, MS 11283, FOLIO 15, FROM ENGLAND © INK AND TEMPERA ON VELLUM 30 X 180 CM. BRITISH LIBRARY. LONDON

108 MOUTH OF HELL WINCHESTER PSALTER FROM WINCHESTER, ENGLAND © 1150 INK AND TEMPERA ON VELLUM 12 ¾" X 9 1 / 8". BRITISH LIBRARY, LONDON.

109 STEPHANUS GARSIA, ENTHRONED CHRIST WITH 4 EVANGELISTS AND THE 24 ELDERS, FOLIOS 121 VERSO AND 122 RECTO OF THE APOCALYPSE OF SAINT-SEVER FROM SAINT-SEVER-SUR-L’ADOUR, FRANCE © INK AND TEMPERA ON VELLUM 14 ½” X 22”. BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE, PARIS DON'T FORGET THIS MOZARABIC MANUSCRIPT – WHICH YOU CAN NOW PLACE IN ROMANESQUE CONTEXT

110 STEPHANUS GARSIA, RAIN OF FIRE AND BLOOD, FOLIOS 137 VERSO, APOCALYPSE OF SAINT-SEVER

111 FUNERAL OF EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, PROCESSION TO WESTMINSTER ABBEY, DETAIL OF THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY FROM BAYEUX CATHEDRAL, BAYEUX, FRANCE © EMBROIDERED WOOL ON LINEN. 229' 8" OVERALL. CENTRE GUILLAUME CONQUERANT, BAYEUX

112 HALLEY'S COMET APPEARS

113 BATTLE OF HASTINGS, DETAIL OF THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY

114 IN ADDITION TO THE OTHER GOALS, YOU SHOULD NOW KNOW THE NAMES OF SIX ROMANESQUE ARTISTS: 1) BERNARDUS GELDUINUS 2) GISLEBERTUS 3)RAINIER OF HUY 4) WILIGELMO 5) BENEDETTO ANTELAMI 6) MASTER HUGO MORE AND MORE ARTISTS SIGNED THEIR WORK FROM THE ROMANESQUE ERA ON – MORE TO MEMORIZE!


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