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BAPTISM AND THE LORD’S SUPPER IN REFORMED WORSHIP THE SACRAMENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "BAPTISM AND THE LORD’S SUPPER IN REFORMED WORSHIP THE SACRAMENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 BAPTISM AND THE LORD’S SUPPER IN REFORMED WORSHIP THE SACRAMENTS

2 DEFINING TERMS Sacraments (sacramentum) Tertullian (c. 200) Military oath; oath of allegiance East, Mysteries (mysterion) – actions with a hidden meaning Rites, Ordinances, Ceremonies

3 SIGNS OF THE COVENANT God often attaches signs to his promises  Noah (Genesis 9)  Abraham (Genesis 17) To confirm, guarantee, seal the promises The sacraments–confirmatory signs attached to divine promises

4 Gen 9:11-12 I establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of the flood, and never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth. And God said, This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations:

5 Gen 9:16-17 When the bow is in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth. … This is the sign of the covenant that I have established between me and all flesh that is on the earth.

6 Gen 17:7-8 And I will establish my covenant between me and you and your offspring after you throughout their generations … to be God to you and to your offspring after you. And I will give to you and to your offspring after you the land of your sojournings … and I will be their God.

7 Gen 17:10-11 This is my covenant, which you shall keep, between me and you and your offspring after you: Every male among you shall be circumcised. You shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and you.

8 SIGNS OF THE COVENANT God establishes covt w/ Abr. Promises blessings Gives him sign of circumcision as a seal of the covt promises A guarantee that God will fulfill his promises

9 Rom 4.11a [Abraham] received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised….

10 SIGNS OF THE COVENANT Baptism and Communion, signs of the new covenant Attached to the promises of the covenant as seals As such, they’re a confirmation/guarantee that God will fulfil his promises

11 Acts 2.38 And Peter said to them, "Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself."

12 Matt 26:27-28 And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.”

13 WORD AND SACRAMENTS Sacraments not the only means of grace The Word chief means of grace Sacraments subordinate to and serve the Word

14 WORD AND SACRAMENTS Appended to the Word as seals Derive their meaning and life from the Word Cannot exist without Word Same grace given through both Word and sacrament

15 Ex. 24.7-8 Moses took the book of the covenant & read it in the hearing of the people. And they said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do, & we will be obedient.“ And Moses took the blood & sprinkled it on the people & said, "Behold the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words."

16 Ex. 24.9-11 Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up, and they saw the God of Israel. There was under his feet as it were a pavement of sapphire stone, like the very heaven for clearness. … they beheld God, and ate and drank.

17 WORD AND SACRAMENTS Why are the sacraments necessary? Why did God add them to the Word? To seal, confirm his promises Does they need confirmation?

18 WORD AND SACRAMENTS Necessary for our sakes Our faith is weak; assailed with doubts; lack assurance Visible supports that build up our faith, remove doubts and uncertainty

19 WORD AND SACRAMENTS Not superfluous or unnecessary Bolster our weak faith Assurance is good and desirable

20 John Calvin “If God chooses to add anything to his Word, it ought not to be regarded as a virtue to reject this addition as superfluous. It is no small insult to God when his goodness is despised in such a manner.... Let us, therefore, learn to embrace the signs along with the Word, since it is not in the power of man to separate them.”

21 John Calvin “For seeing that we are so weak that we cannot receive him with true heartfelt trust, when he is presented to us by simple doctrine and preaching, the Father of mercy, disdaining not to condescend in this matter to our infirmity, has been pleased to add to his word a visible sign, by which he might represent the substance of his promises, to confirm and fortify us by delivering us from all doubt and uncertainty.”

22 Robert Bruce (1554-1631) You get a better grip of the same thing in the Sacrament than you got by the hearing of the Word. That same thing which you possess by the hearing of the Word, you now possess more fully. God has more room in your soul, through your receiving of the Sacrament, than He could otherwise have by your hearing of the Word only.

23 What then, you ask, is the new thing we get? We get Christ better than we did before. We get the thing which we had more fully, that is, with a surer apprehension than we had before. We get a better grip of Christ now, for by the Sacrament my faith is nourished, the bounds of my soul are enlarged, and so

24 where I had but a little of Christ before, as it were, between my finger and my thumb, now I get Him in my whole hand, and indeed the more my faith grows, the better grip I get of Christ Jesus. Thus the Sacrament is very necessary, if only for the reason that we get Christ better, and get a firmer grasp of Him by the Sacrament, than we could have before.

25 WORD AND SACRAMENTS The same Christ is given in both … not another Christ or a better Christ When the Supper is joined to the Word, we receive the same Christ better

26 SIGN AND THING SIGNIFIED A sacrament has two parts  Outward, visible sign  Spiritual grace signified Union between sign and grace signified by it Distinguish, not separate

27 Larger Catechism 163 A. The parts of a sacrament are two; the one an outward and sensible sign, used according to Christ's own appointment; the other an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified.

28 WCF 27.2 There is, in every sacrament, a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified: whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.

29 SIGN AND THING SIGNIFIED Two questions to ask: What is the sign? What does it signify?

30 SIGN AND THING SIGNIFIED The sign of:  Baptism – washing with water…  Lord’s Supper – bread & wine The reality signified?  Ultimately, Christ and all the saving benefits of the new covenant

31 MEANS OF GRACE Sacraments are means of saving grace God employs them as means through which Christ & his saving benefits are applied to the elect

32 Shorter Catechism Q. 88. What are the outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of redemption? A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of redemption are his ordinances, especially the Word, sacraments, and prayer; all of which are made effectual to the elect for their salvation.

33 Shorter Catechism Q. 92. What is a sacrament? A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ; wherein, by sensible signs, Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant, are represented, sealed, and applied to believers.

34 Shorter Catechism Q. 91. How do the sacraments become effectual means of salvation? A. The sacraments become effectual means of salvation, not from any virtue in them, or in him that doth administer them; but only by the blessing of Christ, and the working of his Spirit in them that by faith receive them.

35 MEANS OF GRACE Christ and benefits of salvation are given through means of grace Through these means, they are:  represented/signified,  sealed/confirmed  and applied/conferred/ communicated to believers

36 MEANS OF GRACE Sacraments are signs, but not empty or bare signs Union between sign & what is signified Signs are means through which the grace signified is given

37 MEANS OF GRACE Holy Spirit uses the means of grace to apply salvation The “grace promised” is “not only offered but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Spirit” through these means (WCF 28.6)

38 MEANS OF GRACE Means of salvation:  Only for the elect  Only through faith  Only in God’s appointed time Reformed view vs. Ceremonialism

39 MEANS OF GRACE Means of salvation:  Cer. For all who receive them  Ref. For the elect alone  Cer. Coincides w/ its administration  Ref. Need not coincide w/ its admin.  Cer. Independent of faith  Ref. Only through faith

40 SACRAMENTS AND FAITH The role of faith Christ & his saving benefits are received through faith alone No saving benefit can be received apart from faith

41 SACRAMENTS AND FAITH Contra ex opera operato Not salvation by ceremony Necessity of faith, necessity of the Word Rom. 10.17 – “faith comes by hearing…”

42 SACRAMENTS AND FAITH Faith receives what is presented by the sign Apart from faith, no saving benefit is received For believers the sign & what’s signified go hand in hand

43 THREE REFORMED VIEWS “The Reformed view” vs. Roman Catholic or Lutheran Defined negatively not positively Confusion over what is “the Reformed view”

44 THREE REFORMED VIEWS More than one Reformed view 3 Common Views  Memorialism (Zwingli?)  Parallelism (Bullinger)  Instrumentalism (Calvin, Knox) Illustrate with Lord’s Supper

45 THREE REFORMED VIEWS Memorialism:  An aid to the memory  Enables mind to recollect & contemplate significance of Christ’s death  Focuses on “Do this in remembrance of me”

46 THREE REFORMED VIEWS Parallelism:  Symbolizes outwardly what Spirit does inwardly  Two realities are parallel to each other  Defines as “a visible sign of an invisible grace”

47 THREE REFORMED VIEWS Instrumentalism:  Sign doesn’t merely symbolize (as in parallelism)  The grace signified is given by means of the sign  It is a means of saving grace  We receive Christ, not mere symbols of him

48 THREE REFORMED VIEWS The Supper does not merely:  Remind us of our redemption (memorialism)  Or represent our redemption (parallelism).  It makes us recipients of the benefits of our redemption

49 BAPTISM Baptism is a sign of forgiveness & cleansing The sign signifies washing away of sin by the blood of Christ The promise is presented in baptism; held out to faith

50 Luke 3.3 And he went into all the region around the Jordan, proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.

51 Act 2:38 And Peter said to them, "Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.”

52 Acts 22.16 And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on his name.

53 Eze. 36.25-27 I will sprinkle clean water on you, & you shall be clean from all your uncleannesses, & from all your idols I will cleanse you. And I will give you a new heart, & a new spirit I will put within you. And I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh & give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit within you, & cause you to walk in my statutes & be careful to obey my rules.

54 Psalm 51.1-7 Have mercy on me, O God, according to your steadfast love; according to your abundant mercy blot out my transgressions. Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin! … Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

55 BAPTISM Baptism consecrates us to the priestly service of prayer and praise Sets us apart to serve living and true God Marks us off as God’s holy people

56 Ex. 24.8 And Moses took the blood & sprinkled it on the people & said, "Behold the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words."

57 Heb 10.19-22 Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain … let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.

58 BAPTISM A sign of the gift of the Holy Spirit Water baptism and Spirit baptism When Jesus baptized by John, Spirit descended on him

59 Acts 2.38 And Peter said to them, "Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.”

60 Acts 10.44-47 … the Holy Spirit fell on all who heard the word. And the believers from among the circumcised who had come with Peter were amazed, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was poured out even on the Gentiles. … Then Peter declared, "Can anyone withhold water for baptizing these people, who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?"

61 BAPTISM Marks us off as Christ’s disciples A sign of what the Christian life is to be “The benefit of baptism applies to the entire course of life” Calvin

62 BAPTISM Administered once at our in- corporation into the church Shapes our entire Christian life The sign under which our whole life is to be lived

63 BAPTISM “Improving our baptism” I.e. make good use of our baptism Calls us to obey all that Christ has commanded Obligates us to obedience

64 Matt. 28.18-20 And Jesus came & said to them, "All authority in heaven & on earth has been given to me. Go therefore & make disciples of all nations, {by means of…} baptizing them in the name of the Father & of the Son & of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you….”

65 BAPTISM Sign of union and communion with Christ Signifies and seals “our engrafting into Christ” (SC 94) Benefits of new covt. given “in Christ;” in virtue of union

66 Gal. 3.26-27 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God, through faith. For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

67 Rom 6.3-4 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.

68 Col 2.11-12 In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ, having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead.

69 J. I. Packer “Christian baptism is a sign from God that signifies inward cleansing and remission of sins, Spirit wrought regeneration and new life, and the abiding presence of the Holy Spirit as God’s seal testifying and guaranteeing that one will be kept safe in Christ forever.

70 Baptism carries these meanings because first and fundamentally it signifies union with Christ is in death, burial and resurrection. And this union with Christ is the source of every element in our salvation.”

71 BAPTISM Significance of Trinitarian name Not a magical formula; cf. “Hoc est corpus meum” Efficacy of not dependent on certain formulas

72 BAPTISM “In the name of” means with a view to the relationship with the Triune God Our fellowship is with the Father & with his Son through the Spirit

73 Hughes Oliphant Old “By baptizing in the name of the Father, the apostles made it clear that those baptized have been adopted as children of the Father. By baptizing in the name of the Son, [they] made it clear that those baptized were to be joined to Christ in his death and resurrection.

74 By baptizing in the name of the Holy Spirit, they made it clear that baptism in water is a prophetic sign of being baptized in the Holy Spirit.”

75 THE LORD’S SUPPER Not a work of man but of God God is primary actor From God to us, not offered to God We are thankful recipients of divine blessings

76 THE LORD’S SUPPER If focus on our actions, we turn it into a human work It ceases to be gospel and becomes law We “examine,” “remember,” “discern,” “confess,” etc.

77 THE LORD’S SUPPER Unfortunate, unintended consequences:  Unbiblical expectations re: preparation; “Am I a worthy communicant?”  Turns us away from Christ; introspective

78 THE LORD’S SUPPER  Leaves us without assurance, peace, joy  Fosters Pelagianism; salvation by human effort, rather than free, unmerited grace  Blinds us to glorious riches given through the Supper

79 THE LORD’S SUPPER Sign of Christian unity Gathers us unto one body & knits us together, so that we become “members of one another” – Knox Establishes & strengthens the unity of the church

80 1 Cor. 10:17 Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread.

81 John Calvin “Now, since [Christ] has only one body, of which he makes us all partakers, it is necessary that all of us also be made one body by such participation. The bread shown in the Sacrament represents this unity.

82 As it is made of many grains so mixed together that one cannot be distinguished from another, so it is fitting that in the same way we should be joined & bound together by such great agreement of minds that no sort of disagreement or division may intrude.”

83 THE LORD’S SUPPER Nourishes mutual love, reconciliation and peace Calls us to live in peace with one another Incites us to reconcile with our brothers and sisters

84 Matthew 5.23-24 So if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.

85 1 Corinthians 11.17-34 …in the following instructions I do not commend you, because when you come together it is not for the better but for the worse. For, in the first place, when you come together as a church, I hear that there are divisions among you. And I believe it in part …

86 When you come together, it is not the Lord's supper that you eat. For in eating, each one goes ahead with his own meal. One goes hungry, another gets drunk. … Do you despise the church of God and humiliate those who have nothing? … Shall I commend you in this? No, I will not.

87 For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, & when he had given thanks, he broke it, & said, “This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood.

88 Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty concerning the body and blood of the Lord.

89 Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. … So then, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait for one another-- if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home-- so that when you come together it will not be for judgment.

90 THE LORD’S SUPPER Nourishes and strengthens our faith A sign that seals God’s promises Guarantees or confirms God’s promises, to fill us with certainty and assurance

91 THE LORD’S SUPPER A visible gospel Engages all our senses; we see, touch, smell and taste Proclaims the gospel to all our senses

92 1 Cor. 11.26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes.

93 THE LORD’S SUPPER A sign of Christ given as food to nourish us to eternal life Through the Supper, we “really & indeed” feed “upon Christ crucified & all the benefits of his death” (WCF 29.7).

94 THE LORD’S SUPPER The body & blood of Christ are no less truly & really “present to the faith of the receiver” than the “elements themselves are to their outward senses” (LC 170).

95 THE LORD’S SUPPER Through the mouth of faith, we “truly & really” feed on Christ as the bread of life given by the Father through the Spirit to our “spiritual nourishment & growth in grace” (LC 168, 170).

96 1 Corinthians 10.16 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation [koinonia] in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation [koinonia] in the body of Christ?

97 THE LORD’S SUPPER The cup is a means of participation or sharing in the blood of Jesus The bread is a means of participation or sharing in the body of Jesus

98 John Calvin “As truly as we eat the bread and drink the wine with our mouths, our souls have communion with, our souls partake of, the body and blood of Christ.”

99 THE LORD’S SUPPER Not devotional tool to remind us Jesus’ body was given & his blood shed An actual means of sharing in his body & blood

100 THE LORD’S SUPPER A sign of the age to come A foretaste of the eschaton Christ brings us to his heavenly & spiritual banquet In the presence of the exalted Christ, we feed on the heavenly manna

101 John 6.35 Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst.”

102 John 6.51 “I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

103 John 6.53-54 “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.”

104 John 6.55-56 “For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him.”

105 John 6.57-58 “As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on me, he also will live because of me. This is the bread that came down from heaven, not like the bread the fathers ate, and died. Whoever feeds on this bread will live forever.”

106 Revelation 19.6-7 Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude … crying out, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns. Let us rejoice and exult and give him the glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his Bride has made herself ready.

107 Revelation 19.9 “Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.” And he said to me, “These are the true words of God.”


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