Presentation on theme: "Jesus' Baptism and Temptations. Judean Wilderness."— Presentation transcript:
Jesus' Baptism and Temptations
South-East Corner of Temple
Theater at Caesarea Maritima
Jesus' Baptism Accounts of Jesus' Baptism Mark 1:9-11 = Matt 3:13-17 = Luke 3:21-22 Matthew and Luke have details absent from Mark. They may have access to another source that they independently combined with their Markan source (based on “minor agreements”)
Jesus' Baptism Matt 3: Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John. 14 But John tried to deter him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?" 15 Jesus replied, "Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness." Then John consented. 16 As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. 17 And a voice from heaven said, "This is my son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased." Accounts of Jesus' Baptism What is the narrative detail unique to Matthew’s account of Jesus’ baptism?
Jesus' Baptism Isa 11:1-2 Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit. The spirit of Yahweh will rest on him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and strength, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of Yahweh. The Davidic Messiah and the Spirit Ps. Sol. 17:37 “For God will make him mighty by means of (his) holy spirit, and wise by means of the spirit of understanding“ 1QSb 5:25 "[counsel] and everlasting strength, spirit, and fear of God" 1 Enoch 49:1-4; 51:3; 62:2, the elect one, is said to be indwelt by "the spirit of wisdom, and the spirit that gives insight, and the spirit of understanding and of strength"
Jesus' Baptism Isa 42:1: Behold, my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom my soul delights. I have put my Spirit upon him. Influence of Ps 2:7 and Isa 42:1 (Servant Song) Mark 1:10-11: As Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 11 And a voice came from heaven: "You are my son, whom I love; with you I am well-pleased (eudokêsa)." Ps 2:7 He said to me, “You are my son, today I have begotten you."
Jesus’ Temptations Mark 1:12-13; Matt 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13 Sources for Jesus' Temptations These represent three independent accounts.
Jesus’ Temptations Luke 4:1 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the desert, 2 where for forty days he was tempted by the devil. He ate nothing during those days, and at the end of them he was hungry. 3 The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, tell this stone to become bread." 4 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man does not live on bread alone’” (Deut 8:3). Sources for Jesus' Temptations Luke 4: 5 The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. 6 And he said to him, "I will give you all their authority and splendor, for it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. 7 So if you worship me, it will all be yours." 8 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only’” (Deut 6:13). Luke 4: 9 The devil led him to Jerusalem and had him stand on the highest point of the temple. "If you are the Son of God," he said, "throw yourself down from here. 10 For it is written: “’He will command his angels concerning you to guard you carefully; 11 they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone’” (Ps 91:11-12). 12 Jesus answered, "It says: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test’” (Deut 6:16).
Jesus’ Temptations Jesus is tempted turn stone to bread after having fasted for forty days. Response: “Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God” (Deut 8 :3). Jesus is tempted to jump off “the highest point of the Temple” to test God; Satan quotes Ps 91:11-12 to the effect that God would not let Jesus be harmed. Response: “Do not put the Lord your God to the test” (Deut 6:16). Jesus is tempted to bow to Satan in worship in exchange for all the kingdoms of the world and their glory. Response: “Worship the Lord your God and serve him only” (Deut 6:13).