2 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon (of Jesus and Evangelists; 300 of 350 OT quotes) OT Canon (similar to Trent’s) 45/46 books^Orthodox Jewish Rabbis at Jamnia cir 200 AD; /24 books^^Jamnia; Unfixed OT canonFixed OT canonAugustusNeroDomitianTrajanMarcus Aurelius145468819698117161180193ClementIrenaeus?Rome 97130Lyons 200Justin Martyr100Rome 165HermasOrigin?Rome 140184PapiasTertullianHierapolis 120?160IgnatiusClement69Antioch 107JESUS CHRIST150AlexandriaPolycarp6 BC3069Smyrna 155DidacheHippolytus70Syria 110Paul of Tarsus170Rome 67Melito^?Barnabas170List of Septuagintcanon of 45/46 booksSardis 190?Jerusalem 130Alexander IClement ITelesphorusPius ISoterVictor IPeter bar JonaLinusAnacletusEvaristusSixtus IHygenusAnicetusEleutherius42Rome 6779921011051151251361401551661751891991255075100125150175200COUNCILOF JERUSALEM+ Destruction of JerusalemASIATIC COUNCILEarliest known Council200+80s+ Luke written+ Pentecost60s+ Mark written90s+ John writtenApostles Creed80s+ Matthew written12550+ Paul’s1 Thessalonianswritten+ Excommunication ofChristians from JewishSynagogues
3 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (45/46 books) NT Canon (27 books) ^Palestinian Canon (39 books) (Books originally written in Hebrew)^Fixed OT canonFixed NT canonDeciusSeptimius SeverusMaximiniusValerianAurelianDiocletianConstantineAugustine386Conversion354211235238249251260270275264305337PatrickGregory Thaumaturgus253Hilary+ Edict of Milan213Neo-Caesarea 270Poitiers 371387291CyprianAmbrose200Carthage 258Ephraen340Tier 397Origin306BasilSyria 373Alexandria 254329Caesarea Mazaca 379TertullianLactantiusGregoryRome 220Italy 320329Nazianzus 389ClementGregoryAlexandria 215335Nyssa 394Cyril315Jerusalem 387HippolytusAthanasiusCyrilRome 235293Alexandria 373376EusebiusJeromeLatin Vulgate260Caesarea 339345John ChrysostomSixtus IIStephen IMilteades349AntiochTheodoreFabianDionysiusEusebiusCallistus IPontianCorneliusEutychianMarcellinusSylvester I350Anastasius IZephyrinusUrban IAnteriusLucius IFelix ICaiusMarcellus IMarcusJulius ILiberiusSiricius217230236253257-8269283296308311335352356383399222235250254260268274304309314336200225250275300325350375400325381COUNCIL OFNICEACOUNCIL OFCONSTANTINOPLE IManiManichaeism215Persia 277AriusCouncil of Rome 382Council of Hippo 393Council of Carthage 397256Subordinationism ArianismLybia*336Sabellianism/PatripassiansApollinariusApollinarianism*Modalism310Laodicea 380PhotinianismPelagianismAdoptionismPelagius354Vandals accept Arian Christianity
4 * * 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 Anastasius II Felix III Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (45/46 books) NT Canon (27 books)Palestinian Canon OT Canon (39 books)+ BishopVandals in North AfricaHippo 430Augustine?CanterburyIreland 493BenedictNumidia430480Monte Casino550Peter ChrysologusTheodora406Ravenna450500Byzantine Empress548Attila the Hun attacks ItalyVandals overrun Gaul+ besieges Paris+ disappearsIsidoreLeo the Great440400Rome 461Gregory the GreatAlexandria254440RomeStridon419Vandals sack RomeVigilius407SilveriusAnastasius ISixtus IIIAnastasius IIJohn IJohn IIPelagius IZosimusHilariusGelasius IHormisdasBonaface IIBenedict ICelestineGregory IInnocent IBonaface ILeo ISimpliciusFelix IIISymmachusFelix IVAgapetus IJohn IIIPelagius II401417422432461468483492498514523530535555561574590604418440496526532536-7579400425450475500525550575600431451553COUNCIL OFEPHESUSCOUNCIL OFCHALCEDONCOUNCIL OFCONSTANTINOPLE II+ End of theWestern Roman Empire+ VisigothSack of Rome+ Hippo BesiegedBubonic plagueNestoriusNestorianism*?451*MonophysitismPlagianismBritain418EutychianismMohammedVandals defeated +570
5 Condemns Monothelitism Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books)+ Translation of parts of the Bibleinto English (Caedmon, Aldhein)+ Conversion of England609First Archbishop of CanterburyVikings invade IrelandCharlemagne742774Donation ofTerritory toPopeBede the Venerable673England 735John Damascene?Damascus 749RestoresImageWorshipSeville636794CondemnsImageWorship604SisinniusJohn VIDeusdeditTheodore IAdeodatus (II)CononBonaface IVSeverinusBenedict IIJohn VIIBonaface IIIHonorius IMartin IVitalianAgathoJohn VConstantineGregory IIIStephen IIStephen IIILeo IIISabinianBonaface VJohn IVEugene IDonusLeo IIGregory IIZacharyPaul IAdrian I604607615625638642655676681685687705708-15731741751757767772795606608618640649657672678682-3686701707600625650675700725750775800680787+Lateran SynodCondemns MonothelitismCOUNCIL OFCONSTANTINOPLE IIICOUNCIL OFNICEA IIMonothelitism*Iconoclasm*+First use ofepiscopal rings726Mohammedanism / Islamd. 610632
6 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books)+909 Benedictine Abbey of Clunyfounded; center of reform996Civil warat RomeActus Hludovicianumconfirms papal territory817+Rome increases; Constantinople declines814800Crowned first Holy Roman EmperorPhotian SchismBreak in communionbetween Nicholas I andPhotias of Constantinople863-67800Leo separates fromeastern empire;becomes supremeBishop of WestLeo VBenedict IVTheodore IIRomanusBenedict VIValentineBonaface VIMarinus IIBenedict VEugene IIBenedict IIIAdrian IIIStephen VILandoStephen VIIStephen VIIILeo VIIIJohn XVPaschal ISergius IINicholas IJohn VIIIStephen VJohn IXAnastasius IIILeo VILeo VIIJohn XIIBenedict VIIGregory VLeo IIIStephen VGregory IVLeo IVAdrian IIMarinus IFormosusSergius IIIJohn XJohn XIAgapitus IIJohn XIIIJohn XIV8168248448558678728828858918979009119149289319399469559639729839968178278478588848968989039139299359429649749849998008258508759009259509751000870COUNCIL OFCONSTANTINOPLE IV993Firstcanonizationof saintsIconoclasmIcons restored879Pope and Patriarchexcommunicate each other832Persecutionof imageworshipers904Pornacracy of the Papacybegins with Sergius988RussiaConvertedMohammedanism / Islam846 Muslims invade Italy and Rome902 Muslims control Sicily
7 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books)FrancisPeter Abelard11811054Separation betweenRoman and Easternchurches becomespermanent1079France 1042Pope John XIXCrowns Conrad IIHoly Roman Emperor1027BernardAnthony1090Clairvaux 11531195Peter LombardDominic1095Italy 1159Anselm1190+Beginning of Scholasticism1033Canterbury 1109Hugh of St VictorPeter Damien1096France 1142100710721170Rules for thecanonizationof saintsBenedict IXClement IIBenedict VIIIGregory VINicholas IIAnastasius IVCelestine IIISergius IVBenedict IXStephen IXEugene IIIClement IIIJohn XVIIISylvester IIIVictor IICallistus IILucius IIGregory VIIIJohn XVIIBenedict IXLeo IXGregory VIIUrban IIGelasius IIInnocent IIAlexander IIIUrban IIISylvester IIJohn XIXDamasus IIAlexander IIVictor IIIPaschal IIHonorius IICelestine IIAdrian IVLucius III100310091024103210451054106110731085109911181124113011431153115911811187119810121057-81086-71144-51154118511911000102510501075110011251150117512001123COUNCIL OFLATERAN I1139COUNCIL OFLATERAN II1179COUNCIL OFLATERAN III1052Berenger of Toursdenies Transubstantiation1074Excommunication ofmarried priestsBogomils / Albigensians / Cathars1176AlbigensianCouncilPope Urban callsFirst Crusade+ conquers Nicaea+defeats Turks at Antioch+ takes Jerusalem1009Muslims sack theHoly Sepulcher inJerusalemSecond Crusade+ failureThird Crusade
8 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books)Wycliffe English BibleDuns ScotusAssisi 1225Bonaventure1266Scotland 1308Catherine1217Italy 12741347Sienna 1380Padua 1231Julian of NorwichDante Alighieri13421265Italy 1321Spain 1221William of OckhamThomas Aquinas1380128013491225Italy 1274Francesco Petrarch1380Albert the Great1304Italy 13741380Ratisson 12801233Pope entruststhe Inquisitionto the Dominicans1252Inquisitionbegins touse tortureJohn WycliffeMeister Eckhart13271384Martin IVJan Hus12601327Nicholas III1369John XXIClement VClement IVAdrian VBonaface VIIIBonaface IXHonorius IIIInnocent IVUrban IVInnocent VNicholas IVBenedict XIJohn XXIIInnocent VIGregory XIInnocent IIICelestine IVAlexander IVGregory XHonorious IVCelestine VBenedict XIIClement VIUrban VUrban VI1216122712411254126112681276-71281-512921303-41314133413421352136213701378138912431264127112801287-8129413051316Avignon Papacy130513761200122512501275130013251350137514001215COUNCIL OFLATERAN IV1245COUNCIL OFLYON I1274COUNCIL OFLYON II1311COUNCIL OFVIENNE1348-1349The Black DeathThe Great Schism1378 Two PopesBogomils / Albigensians / Cathars*1302“Unam Sanctam”Universal jurisdiction;spiritual over secularClement VIIBenedict XIII1248FourthCrusadeFifthCrusadeSixthCrusadeSeventhCrusade121212441291Children’s CrusadeJerusalem lost to MuslimsHoly Land falls out of Western control
9 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) 1456^Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) + NT (27 books)^Luther opts for Palestinian OT canonPalestinian Canon) OT Canon (34 books)Tyndale Bible+ Cloverdale Bible 1535Francis De SalesErasmus15361567Johann Gutenberg1465Thomas MooreLawrence1468England 15351559John FisherRobert Bellarmine1460England 153615421416Peter CanisiusThomas a’ Kempis15211597Theresa1471Bernadine of Sienna1515Avila 1582Johann TetzelJohn of the Cross1444John Capistrano1465Germany 15191542Spain1591Philip Neri145615151595Ignatius LoyolaGalileo GalileiJoan of Arc1491Jesuits begin +Spain15561564Martin LutherJohann Kepler1412France 14311483Henry VIIIGermany 15451571Innocent IX1415Pius IVGregory XIV14911547Paul IIJulius IIPaul IVUrban VIIGregory XIINicholas VPius IIInnocent VIIIPius IIIAdrian VIPaul IIIMarcellus IIGregory XIIIInnocent VIIMartin VEugene IVCallistus IIISextus IVAlexander VILeo XClement VIIJulius IIIPius VSixtus V14041415143114471455146414711484149215031513152115341549155515651572158515921406141714581522-3155015591590-1Counter Reformation1400142514501475150015251550157516001414COUNCIL OFCONSTANCE1238COUNCIL OFFLORENCERenaissance1512COUNCIL OFLATERAN V1545COUNCIL OFTRENT1517 Luther breaks from Rome*1417+John CalvinAlexander VJohn XXIIIBenedict XIII1520 Calvin Reformed breaks from LutheranPapacy overConciliarism+Huldrich Zwingli+ John Knox1560 Presbyterian ChurchConciliarism1534 Anglican Church breaks from RomePavia- Siena1423BaselChristopher Columbus1525 Anabaptists break from Reformed14511505
10 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) ^Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) NT Canon (27 books)^^Palestinian Canon) OT Canon (34 books)Douay-Rheims BibleChalloner Revision+1611 King James BibleItaly 1622Brindisi 1619Alphonsus LiguoriNaples 1797Capua 1621Thirty Years’ War16181648The French Revolution+Italy1642Germany1630Clement VIIIClement XInnocent XIIClement XIIPaul VUrban VIIIAlexander VIIInnocent XIInnocent XIIIClement XIIILeo XIGregory XVInnocent XClement IXAlexander VIIIClement XIBenedict XIIIBenedict XIVClement XIVPius VI16051621164416551667167616891700172117301740175817691799162316691691172417741800160016251650167517001725175017751800+ John Wesley1787 Methodism1612 Baptist Church breaks from Anglican ChurchLutheranism+ Charles WesleyCalvin ReformedPresbyterianismAnglicanismEpiscopal Church 1785Anabaptists
11 Immaculate Conception Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)^^^Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) NT Canon (27 books)Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books)Knox BibleJerusalem BibleNew American BibleNew International VersionDead Sea scrolls discoveredOxford MovementMother TheresaJohn Henry Cardinal Newman1910India 19971801End of theHoly Roman Empire(since 800)England 1890TheresaCharismaticMovement1873Lisieux 1897Lamentabili SaneCondemnation of Modernism+ Notre DameUniversityTiepolo1670Murillo+ Concordat of 1801Napoleon reconcileswith Pius II1854Defined ex cathedraImmaculate Conceptionof Mary1950Defined ex cathedrathe Assumptionof MaryPius VIIIBenedict XVPaul VIJohn Paul IIPius VIILeo XIIGregory XVIPius IXLeo XIIIPius XPius XIPius XIIJohn XXIIIJohn Paul I18051823183018461878190319141922193919581978182919631800182518501875190019251950197520001870COUNCIL OFVATICAN I1962COUNCIL OFVATICAN IIBaptistsLutheranismAssemblies of GodCalvin ReformedPentecostal Holiness /Vineyard ChurchesPresbyterianismAzusa Street RevivalsUnited Church of ChristAnglicanismRevivalism beginsWillow Creek AssociationAnabaptistsSeventh-Day AdventistsThe Fundamentals published
12 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) NT Canon (27 books)Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books)Benedict XVI200520002025205020752100212521502175220033,000+ Denominations worldwideLutheranismCalvin ReformedPresbyterianismAnglicanismAnabaptists
13 Decrees and resolutions Jerusalem (Acts 15:2)When and whereJerusalem, Palestine, 49 AD.Crisis or controversyGentile converts must follow Mosaic Law;"Unless you are circumcised according to the Mosaic practice, you cannot be saved." Acts 15:1Attendees"Apostles and presbyters" Acts 15:6,and the following notables: Paul and Barnabas, Peter, James (Acts 15:6-22)Decrees and resolutions"It is the decision of the Holy Spirit and of us not to place onyou any burden beyond these necessities." Acts 15:28
14 Decrees and resolutions Nicea IWhen and where325 AD in Nicea (Now Iznik, Turkey,70 miles from Constantinople onthe Asiatic shore of the Bosporus)Crisis or controversyChrist was a pure creature; made outof nothing; liable to fall;the Son of God by adoption, not God by nature: ArianismAttendees318 bishops; Convened: Constantine I, Emperor; Eusebius of Caesarea, historian; St. Athanasius, theologian; Ratified: Silvester I, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsThe Nicene Creed; The Consubstantiality of the Word: homousion with the Father; Solved how the date of Easter should be calculated.
15 Decrees and resolutions Constantinople IWhen and where381 AD in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey)Crisis or controversyThe need to insist on homousion; Demonstrate to the world that Christians of the East are not Arians; Apollinaris was teaching that Christ was not true man.Attendees186 bishops; Convened: Theodosius I, Emperor; St. Basil the Great; St. Gregory of Nyssa; St. Gregory of Nazianzanus, theologians; Ratified: Damasus, PopeDecrees and resolutionsRenewed the work of Nicaea; Condemned the heresy of the Macedonians (the Holy Spiritwas not really God); Condemned the heresy of Apollinaris(that Christ was not really a man).The 4th century CE Church of Haghia Eirene ("Divine Peace") in Istanbul.The site of the Ecumenical Council of Constantinople of 381AD.
16 Basilica of St. John at Ephesus When and where431 AD in EphesusCrisis or controversyNestorius was teaching that Mary was not the mother of God; Proponents of Nestorius began claiming that Christ was actually two separate persons, human and divine.Attendees250 bishops; Convened: Theodosius II, Emperor; St. Cyril of Alexandria; St. John Chrysostom; Ratified: Celestinus I, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsCondemned Nestorius; Decreed that Mary was also Theotokos, mother of God; Declared that Christ is true God and true man, that he has twonatures (human and divine) joined in one person.Basilica of St. John at Ephesus
17 Decrees and resolutions ChalcedonWhen and where451 AD in Calcedon (ancient seaportof Bithynia on the seaof Marmara)Crisis or controversyMonophysites were teaching that Christhad a single divine nature andno human nature.Attendees600 bishops; Convened: Marcianus, Emperor; Ratified: Leo I, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsCondemned Monophysitism; Declared that Christ had two distinct natures and was both trueGod and true man; Promulgated canons of church discipline.The ecumenical council, at Chalcedon, taught Jesus is true God and true man (Painting by Vasili Ivanovich Surikov)
18 Decrees and resolutions Constantinople IIWhen and where553 AD in ConstantinopleCrisis or controversyEmperor Justinian I wanted the Churchto consider the orthodoxy of three Greektheologians: Theodore of Mopsuestia,Theodoret of Cyrrhus, andEbas of Edessa.Attendees150 bishops, Convened:Justinian I, Emperor;Decrees and resolutionsCondemned the writings of theologians as having beeninfested with Nestorianism.Basilica of Hagia Sophia, site of the Council
19 Decrees and resolutions Constantinople IIIWhen and where680 AD in ConstantinopleCrisis or controversyMonothelism was teaching thatChrist did not possess ahuman will.Attendees174 bishops; Convened: EmperorConstantine IV; Ratified: Leo II, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsCondemned Monothelism; Declared that Christ has two wills, human and divine.Basilica of Hagia Sophia, site of the Council
20 Decrees and resolutions Nicaea IIWhen and where787 AD in NiceaCrisis or controversyIconoclasts taught that using sacred images was idolatry.Attendees390 bishops; Convened: Irene, Empress; Ratified: Adrian I, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsCondemned Iconoclasts; Declared that sacred images may be honored without idolatry Promulgated canons of church discipline.Ancient Church in Nicaea
21 Decrees and resolutions Constantinople IVWhen and where870 AD in ConstantinopleCrisis or controversyNeeded to decide the rightof Patriarch Photius orthe restoration of Ignatius.Attendees102 bishops; Convened: Basil, Emperor; Ratified: Adrian II, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsPhotius was condemned in 27 canons.Basilica of Hagia Sophia, site of the Council
22 Decrees and resolutions Lateran IWhen and where1123 AD (Lateran Basilica in Rome, Italy)Crisis or controversyNeeded to face the social andreligious problems of the day; First ecumenical council in the West.Attendees300 bishops; Convened: Callistus II, Pope; Ratified: CallistusDecrees and resolutionsPromulgated canons of mixedmatters.
23 Decrees and resolutions Lateran IIWhen and where1139 AD at the Lateran BasilicaCrisis or controversyA double papal election andensuing schism when two rivalsclaiming to be pope divided the church.Attendees1000 bishops; Convened: Innocent II, Pope; St. Bernard of Clairvaux Ratified: Innocent II.Decrees and resolutionsTook measures against schism ofantipope Anacletis II; Promulgated canons of church discipline
24 Decrees and resolutions Lateran IIIWhen and where1179 AD in the Lateran BasilicaCrisis or controversyReorganization had to be faced;there was the ever-neededpressure to reform; restraintof abuses.AttendeesMore than 300 bishops; Convened: Alexander III, Pope; Ratified: Alexander III, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsDecreed that papal elections requiredtwo-thirds majority of cardinals atthe conclave; Promulgated numerous disciplinary canons.
25 Decrees and resolutions Lateran IVWhen and where1215 AD in the Lateran BasilicaCrisis or controversyAlbigensian heresy: two supreme beings, Evil and Good;Christ did not die; all material things must.Attendees412 bishops; 388 priests; Convened: Innocent III, Pope; Ratified: Innocent III, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsDeclaration of Canon Law: the lawof the Church; Decrees against Albegensiansand Waldensians.
26 Decrees and resolutions Lyons IWhen and where1245 AD in Lyon (city in E. France)Crisis or controversyThe difficult and heretical behaviorof Emperor Frederick II; The persecution of religion.Attendees140 bishops; more than 300 priests; Convened: Innocent IV, Pope; Ratified: Innocent IV, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsExcommunication and depositionof Frederick II.Cathedral where the Council of Lyons I was held.
27 Decrees and resolutions Lyons IIWhen and where1274 AD in Lyons, FranceCrisis or controversyA marked decline of the detachment of the popes from thethings of the world; Chronic restiveness of the Greeks toward Roman primacy.Attendees500 bishops; 570 priests;Convened: Gregory X, Pope; St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Bonaventure; Ratified: Gregory X, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsGeneral reformation of the morals of clergyand bishops; Dogmatic constitution of filioque; Profession of faith of Greek Emperor Michael VIII.St Bonaventure at the Council of Lyons
28 Decrees and resolutions VienneWhen and where1312 AD in Vienne(city in E. France near Lyons)Crisis or controversyProblems with the religious orderof Knights Templars.Attendees122 bishops; 300 abbots; Convened: Clemens V, Pope; Ratified: Clemens V, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsTemplars were suppressed; Canon Law enacted; Three definition of dogmas; Disciplinary decrees written.
29 Decrees and resolutions ConstanceWhen and where1414 – 1418 AD in Constance (city inGermany on Swiss border)Crisis or controversyThe Great Western Schism:two sets of popes.Attendees32 Cardinals; 183 bishops; 100 abbots;350 priests;Convened: Segismund, Emperor; Ratified: Martin V, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsReformation of the Church; Material organization of religion.
30 Decrees and resolutions FlorenceWhen and where1438 AD in Florence(city of northern Italy)Crisis or controversyEast/West reunion; Constantinople was beingthreatened by Mohammedans.AttendeesMore than 150 bishops; Convened: Eugene IV, Pope; Ratified: Eugene IV, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsReunion of oriental churches.
31 Decrees and resolutions Lateran VWhen and where1512 – 1517 AD in the Lateran BasilicaCrisis or controversyNeeded reform in church administration; Rise of atheistic philosophy; Friction between bishops and ordersof friars.Attendees115 bishops; Convened: Julius II, Pope; Cajetan; Ratified: Leo X, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsCondemned the Averroes philosophy: the soul of man isnot immortal; Promulgated reform decrees; Established principles of book censorship; Rights of bishops defined.
32 Decrees and resolutions TrentWhen and where1545 – 1563 AD in Trent(in Hapsburg's Germany; now N. Italy)Crisis or controversyMartin Luther; Revolt against the Pope; Widespread heresy.Attendeesbishops; Convened: Paul III, Pope; Ratified: Pius IV, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsDoctrinal decrees: restatement of belief in opposition to thenew theologies; The Catholic Reformation: the reformation of Catholic life.
33 Decrees and resolutions Vatican IWhen and where1870 AD in St. Peter's Basilica,Vatican CityCrisis or controversyA return to life of the Catholic Church:needed a revival of religious life General restoration and restatementof the faith was needed; Christian marriages and educationneeded safeguarding.Attendees747 bishops; Convened & Ratified : Pius IX, PopeDecrees and resolutionsPromulgated decrees on the CatholicFaith and on the Church; Condemned the Rationalists andSemirationalists; Defined the charism of infallibility.Façade, St. Peter’ Basilica
34 Decrees and resolutions Vatican IIWhen and where1962 – 1965 AD in St. Peter’s BasilicaCrisis or controversyConstant need for reform and revival; Needed translation of faith into modern era:communication media; Christians and Jews; religious freedom, etc.Attendees2908 bishops; Convened: John XXIII, Pope; Ratified: Paul VI, Pope.Decrees and resolutionsIssued 16 documents: On Divine Revelation;The Pastoral Constitution; On The Church in the Modern World; On The Church, etc.Blessed John XXIII; opening session2908 Bishops in plenary session
35 Ignatius of Antioch, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Martyr for the faith Disciple of John the Evangelist Condemned to die by wild beasts in Rome Brought from Antioch to Rome and wrote sevenletters to churches and individuals along the wayPlace and datesAntioch; d. 110WritingsLetter to Ephesians; Letter to Magnesians; Letter to Tralles; Letter to Philadelphians; Letter to Smyrnans; Letter to Polycarpof Smryna; Letter to Romans These contain warnings against heretical doctrines; contain detailedsummaries of doctrines; and a picture of Church organizationwith bishops, presbyters (elders) and deacons; First to stress Virgin Birth and to use the term "catholic church"To the Ephesians
36 Clement I, St. (Clement of Rome) Personal 4th Bishop of RomePlace and datesRomerWritingsI Clement or Letter to the Corinthians (c. 96):earliest piece of literature outside the NThistorically attested;addressed disputes in the Church at Corinth; II Clement (a sermon)(c. 140): Clementineauthorship disputedFirst Clement
37 Polycarp of Symrna, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Received a visit and letter from Ignatius Represented the Church of Asia Minor in meetings with Pope Anicetus Dating of Easter A teacher of Irenaeus Knew John the Evangelist and other apostles Was a disciple of John the EvangelistPlace and datesSymrna69-155WritingsPolycarp to the Philippians Martyrdom of Polycarp (about him)Polycarp to the Philippians
38 Unknown Author of the Didache Personal Place and dates Syria70-110?WritingsDidache ("Teaching"): A compendium of moral precepts,instructions on organizationof church communities, liturgicalworship and regulation. It contains oldest Eucharistic prayer,directions on Baptism, fasting, prayer,treatment of bishops, deacons,prophets .The Didache
39 Place and dates Jerusalem? BarnabasPersonalSurname of Joseph, a member of the early ChristianChurch in Jerusalem (Acts 4:36) Companion of Paul Did missionary work with Mark (Acts 15:39)Place and dates Jerusalem?c. 130WritingsEpistle of Barnabas Allegorical interpretation of theOld TestamentThe Epistle of Barnabas
40 Papias of Hierapolis Personal Place and dates Writings Papias Contemporary of Polycarp Knew of a collection of the "sayings of the Lord" to have beenwritten in Aramaic or Hebrew by MatthewPlace and datesPhrygia120?WritingsFive Books of Exegeses ofthe Dominical Oracles: Quoted by Irenaeus Witness to the existence of JewishChristianityPapias
41 Hermas Personal Place and dates Writings The Shepherd of Hermas Little knownPlace and datesRome140?WritingsMandates Similitudes The Shepherd: a vivid description ofearly ChristianityThe Shepherd of Hermas
42 Justin (Martyr), St. Personal Place and dates Writings Philosopher, theologian, early apologist, martyr Convert to ChristianityPlace and datesRomeWritingsApologies for the Christians: eruditeof Christians against charges of atheismand sedition; Dialogue with Trypho the Jew: a record ofan actual discussion at Ephesus;valuable information about 2nd centuryChristian Church .First ApologySecond ApologyDialogue with Trypho
43 Irenaeus, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Heard the preaching of Polycarp the disciple ofJohn the Evangelist Appointed the bishop of Lyon (177)Place and datesAsia Minor140?-202?WritingsAgainst the Heresies: written against theGnostics; contributed to the knowledgeof GnosticismAgainst Heresies / Adversus Haereses, Book 1
44 Clement of Alexandria Personal Place and dates Athens Writings Greek theologian Converted from paganism Ordained a presbyter A teacher of OrigenPlace and dates Athens150?-215?WritingsHortatory Address to the Greeks: a defenseof the faith The Tutor: instruction in manners and morals The Miscellanies: a discussion of various pointsof doctrinal theology designed to guidethe mature Christian to perfect knowledge .
45 Tertullian Personal Place and dates Writings Converted to Christianity between 190 and 195 Became a presbyter of the Church (197) Zealous champion of Christianity Profoundly influences later Church fathers Embraced and became a leader ofthe Montanists (207?) a sect later declaredhereticalPlace and datesRome160?-220?WritingsApologeticus (c. 197): his most famous work; a defense ofChristians against pagan charges On the Claims of Heretics: argues that the Church alone hasthe authority to declare what is and is not orthodox Christianity On Baptism On Prayer: throws light on contemporary religious practices
46 Origen Personal Place and dates Writings A student of Clement Ordained a presbyter The most accomplished biblical scholarof the early Church Father of the allegorical method ofscripture interpretation He developed the idea of Christ asLogos or Incarnate WordPlace and datesAlexandria185?-254?WritingsAgainst Celsus: closely reasoned apologetic work refuting thearguments advanced by the Celsus, the first serious critic ofChristianity
47 Cyprian, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Convert to Christianity c Bishop of Carthage, 248 One of the most authoritative Fathersof the Church Involved in controversy over treatmentof those who had left the Church, andthose who were baptized by heretics:Accepted the teaching of Rome.Place and datesCarthageWritingsOn Unity of the Catholic Church: exposition of the hierarchicalorganization of the Church
48 Played a prominent role in the theological struggle in the Athanasius, St.PersonalPlayed a prominent role in the theological struggle in theCouncil of Nicea (325) Opposed Arius ( ) who maintained that the Son was ofa different substance from that of the Father, and was merelya creature Formulated the "homousian doctrine" that the Son of God is thesame essence of substance of the Father Became bishop of Alexandria (328)Place and datesAlexandriaWritingsDiscourses Against the Arians History of the Arians Apology Against the Arians On the Decrees of the Nicene Synod
49 Cyril of Jerusalem Personal Place and dates Writings Bishop of Jerusalem in 351 Embroiled in controversy overepiscopal dutiesPlace and datesJerusalem315?-387?Writings23 Treatises: addressed to catechumens andnewly baptized; some treatises are doctrinaland present the creed of the Church;some are concerned with ritual and present a detailed account of Baptism, Eucharistand chrism
50 Basil, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Brother of Gregory of Nyssa and a friend of Gregory of Nazianzus Patriarch of Eastern monasticism Wrote a rule of the monastic way of life Founded the Basilian monks (360) Bishop of Caesarea (370).Place and datesCaesarea Mazaca329?-379WritingsAgainst Eunomius: written against the Arianleader Eunomius On the Holy Spirit: a doctrinal treatise Moralia: an anthology of New Testament verses Liturgy of St. Basil
51 Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Personal Bishop of Sasima (371) Took charge of the Nicene congregation of Constantinoplewhere he delivered five discourses on the Trinity that earnedhim fame as "The Theologian"Place and datesNazianzus in Capadocia, now Turkey329?-389WritingsPhilokalia (Love of the Beautiful):an anthology of the writings of Origen
52 Gregory of Nyssa, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Bishop of Milan (374) Fame is chiefly as a theologianPlace and datesNeocaesarea, now in Turkey335?-394WritingsAgainst Eunomius: a defense of theNicene Creed Great Catechetical Discourse: a defenseof the Christian faith against Jews andpagans On Faith: a treatise against the Arians Ten Syllogisms: directed againstthe Apollinarists
53 Ambrose, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Bishop of Milan (374) Defended the churches of Milan against Arianism Friend of Monica, mother of Augustine, and finally broughtAugustine into the ChurchPlace and datesTier, now in W. Germany340?-397WritingsOn Faith: a Christian morals manual On the Sacraments: an exegetical treatise On the Holy Spirit: an exegetical treatise Composed many hymns
54 Jerome, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Biblical scholar Ordained a priest in 386 Secretary to Pope Damasus I in 382 Confronted many heresies,especially PelagianismPlace and datesStridon, present day Yugoslavia345?-419WritingsThe Vulgate: translated the Bible fromHebrew and Greek into Latin, ,in Rome
55 John Chrysostom, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Ordained a priest in 386 Greatest orator of the early Church Patriarch of Constantinople in 398Place and datesAntioch, Syria349?-407WritingsOn the Priesthood Homilies Wrote commentaries, epistles, treatises,and liturgies
56 Augustine, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Son of Monica (332?-387) Born a pagan Converted in 387 and baptized by Ambrose Ordained a priest in 391 Bishop of Hippo (395) Combated Manichean heresy (conflict of Good and Evil) Martin Luther and John Calvin were students of the works of AugustinePlace and datesNumidia, now AlgeriaWritingsConfessions (c. 400): his autobiography The City of God ( ): Retractions (428); Epistles ( ), On Free Will ( ) On Christian Doctrine (397) On Baptism: Against the Donatists (400) On the Trinity ( ); On Nature and Grace (415) and Homilies
57 Cyril of Alexandria, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Patriarch of Alexandria in 412 Leader of the Council of Ephesus, 431 Instrumental in condemning NestorianismPlace and datesAlexandriaWritingsAgainst Nestorius Against Julian the Apostate Prolific writer
58 Gregory I, St. ("The Great") Personal Prefect of Rome in 570 Became a monk in 575 Elected pope (r ) Enhanced prestige of the papacy Upheld Rome's traditional claims ofchurch primacy over the patriarch ofConstantinople; Extensive pastoral activity. Introduced liturgical reforms and GregorianchantPlace and datesRome540?-604WritingsMoralia: a commentary on the Book of Job Pastoral Care: describes the ideal bishop; instruction on thepractice and nature of preaching Dialogues: legends of saints of his own time.
59 John Damascene, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Financial officer to Saracen caliph Resigned in 700 Entered a monastery and ordained a priest Opposed the IconoclastsPlace and datesDamascus, SyriaWritingsSource of Knowledge: three part textof dogmatic theology in the early Greekchurch; contains a complete theologicalsystem based on the early Greek fathersand synods of 4th-7th centuries
60 Ephrem The Syrian, St. Personal Place and dates Syria Writings Deacon, monk Noted for his defense of the Church, the mysteriesof Our Lord and the honor of the Virgin Mary. Named Doctor in 1920 by Benedict XVPlace and datesSyria306?-373WritingsWrote exegetical works and hymns
61 Hilary of Poitiers, St. Personal Place and dates Poitiers Writings Pagan, convert in 350 Bishop of Poitiers, 353 Defended the decrees of the Council of Nicaea Named Doctor in 1851 by Pius IXPlace and datesPoitiers15?-368?WritingsDe Trinitate: against the Arians De Synodis Commentary of the Psalms Commentary of Matthew's Gospel
62 Peter Chrysologus, St. Personal Place and dates Ravenna Writings Called chrysologus (golden-mouthed) because of exceptionalpreaching eloquence Archbishop of Ravenna, Named Doctor in 1729 by Benedict XIIIPlace and datesRavennaWritingsMany sermons survive
63 Leo The Great, St. Personal Place and dates Rome 461 Writings Pope, Confirmed the doctrine of the Incarnation (Council ofChalcedon, 451) Held the doctrinal primacy of Rome Persuaded Attila the Hun not to invade Rome Named Doctor in 1754 by Benedict XIVPlace and datesRomeWritings143 surviving letters 96 sermons
64 Gregory I, St. Personal The Great Place and dates Writings Western theologian Named Doctor in 1298 by Bonaface VIIIPlace and datesRome540?-604WritingsSee Post-Apostolic Fathers' list
65 Isidore of Seville, St. Personal Place and dates Seville Writings Encyclopedic knowledge Archbishop of Seville Conversion of Visigoths Organizing the church in Spain Named Doctor in 1722 by Innocent XIIIPlace and datesSeville560?-636?WritingsDe Natura Rerum Etymologies: an encyclopedia Chronica Majora: a compilationfrom church historians Biographies A summary of Christian doctrine
66 Bede The Venerable, St. Personal Place and dates England Writings English Benedictine monk Prolific writer Named Doctor in 1899 by Leo XIIIPlace and datesEngland673?-735WritingsEcclesiastical History of the EnglishPeople (731) On the Reckoning of Time (725) Historia Abbatum (725)
67 Anselm, St. Personal Place and dates Canterbury Writings Benedictine monk Theologian Philosopher; proposed famous argumentfor existence of God Archbishop of Canterbury, Named Doctor in 1720 by Clement XIPlace and datesCanterburyWritingsMonologium (1077): God as highest being and His attributes Proslogium (1078): Faith seeking understanding Cur Deus Homo (1093): On the Incarnation and crucifixion
68 Bernard of Clairvaux, St. Personal Cistercian monk Preacher of the Second Crusade Founded over 90 monasteries Named Doctor in 1830 by Pius VIIIPlace and datesClairvauxWritingsThe Love of God (1127) Consideration to Eugene III (1148)
69 Anthony of Padua, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Franciscan monk Theologian Exceptional intellectual andoratorical gifts Named Doctor in 1946 by Pius XIIPlace and datesPaduaWritingsLector in theology: taught at Bologna,Montpellier, and ToulouseCountless sermons exist(franciscan-archive.org/antonius/opera/ant-hd00.html)
70 Albert The Great, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Bishop of Ratisbon, Introduced Greek and Arabic science andphilosophy into the medieval world Dominican, Order of Preachers Teacher of Thomas Aquinas Named Doctor in 1932 by Pius XIPlace and datesRatisbonWritingsSumma Theologiae (1270): attempted to reconcileAristotelianism and Christianity Sentences: a commentary on Peter the Lombard De Unitate Intellectus: against the Averrhoists
71 Bonaventure, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Franciscan friar Philosopher, theologian Cardinal archbishop of Albano Assisted at Council of Lyons Named Doctor in 1588 by Sixtus VPlace and datesAlbanoWritingsBreviloquium (1254): Commentary onSacred Scripture Journey of the Mind to God (1259) Life of St. Francis of Assisi (1263)
72 Place and dates Fossa Nuova Thomas Aquinas, St.PersonalTheologian Named in 1568 by Pius V Italian philosopher Educated at Monte Cassino Ordained a priest in Advisor and lecturer to the papal court,; named Doctor in 1568by Pius VPlace and dates Fossa NuovaWritingsEighty works are ascribed to him Summa Contra Gentiles: "On the Truth of Catholic Faith,": one of his greatest works, closely reasoned treatiseon the truth of Christianity Summa Theologica: a summary of theology, ( )
73 Catherine of Siena, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Western mystic Joined the Dominican Order in Convinced Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome from Avignon Noted for works of charity and unity in the Church Named Doctor in 1970 by Pope Paul VI;Place and datesSienaWritingsLetters on spiritual matters Dialogue: her ideals of reform andrepentance
74 Theresa of Avila, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Western mystic Foundress of the Order of Discalced Carmelites Entered the convent in Worked with the aid of St. John of the Cross,Spanish mystic and Doctor of the Church Named Doctor in 1970 by Pope Paul VIPlace and datesAvilaWritingsThe Way of Perfection: (1565) advice to her nuns The Interior Castle: (1577) an eloquent description of thecontemplative life The Foundations: ( ) the origins of the DiscalcedCarmelites
75 Peter Canisius, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Jesuit Second great Apostle of Germany Leader, Counter-Reformation Named Doctor in 1925 by Pius XIPlace and datesFribourgWritingsCatechism (1560): instructed thefaithful to defend their Faith
76 Robert Bellarmine, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Jesuit theologian Cardinal archbishop of Capua Revision of the Vulgate (1592) Leader of the Counter Reformation Named Doctor in 1931 by Pius XIPlace and datesCapuaWritingsDisputations on the Controversies of theChristian Faith: ( )
77 Lawrence of Brindisi, St. Personal Capuchin Worked for the conversion of the Jews Confronted the rise of Lutheranism Organized Catholic princes againstTurkish invasion Named Doctor in 1959 by John XXIIIPlace and datesBrindisiWritingsSermons A commentary on Genesis Writings against Lutheranism
78 John of the Cross, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Western mystic Combined mysticism with the theologyand philosophy of Aquinas Became a Carmelite monk in Ordained a priest in Organized the Discalced Carmelites in Imprisoned for monastic reform Named Doctor in 1926 by Benedict XVPlace and datesUbeda, AndalusiaWritingsSpiritual Canticle: a mystical poem Living Flame of Love: a mystical poem Dark Night of the Soul: describes the soul's progressin union with God
79 Francis De Sales, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Bishop of Genova, Founded the Order of the Visitation Confronted the rise of CalvinismNamed Doctor in 1877 by Pius IXPlace and datesGenovaWritingsIntroduction to the Devout Life: (1609)shows how ordinary life can besanctified .
80 Alfonsus Liguori, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Founded the Redemptorist Order in Bishop of St. Agatha, Named Doctor in 1871 by Pius IXPlace and datesNocera de' PaganiWritingsMoral Theology Glories of Mary: (1750)
81 Theresa of Lisieux, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Carmelite Nun: Sister Theresa of the Child Jesus Also known as "The Little Flower of Jesus" Canonized: May 17, 1925 Created a Doctor of the Churchby Pope John Paul II, October 19, 1997 The third woman among 33 DoctorsPlace and datesBorn: Alencon, France, January 2, 1873 Died: Lisieux, France, September 30, 1897WritingsAutobiography of a Saint: Letter andSpiritual Counsels
82 Peter Damien, St. Personal Place and dates Writings Benedictine monk Cardinal and Bishop of Ostia Ecclesiastical statesman and reformer Named Doctor in 1828 by Leo XIIPlace and datesOstiaWritingsNotable poet Wrote reforms for popes, clergy, monks
83 Popes’ Mosaic IconsThere are many iconographies on the Supreme Pontiffs, from St. Peter to the present day. The set used in this timeline is the one highly valued and officially acknowledged by the Vatican. It is found in the naves of the Patriarchal Basilica of St. Paul- Outside the Walls in Rome, Italy. The reproductions in the Pope Chart* are from this collection. The collection is made of medallions in mosaic; each one has the Pontiff’s name written in Latin and the period of his pontificate in Roman numbers. This iconography was started by St. Leo the Great in 498 and historically updated in 1947.The Patriarchal Basilicaof St. Paul Outside the Walls,Rome, Italy.St. Peter 42-67The first PopeEnlarged section of the Basilicashowing the mosaicsDiagram showingthe chronologicalorder of the mosaicsin the BasilicaInterior of St. Paul’s Outside the Walls* Chart copies of the mosaics available at: adapted here for teaching purposes.