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TIMELINE OF THE CHURCH 30 AD to the Present * ^

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1 TIMELINE OF THE CHURCH 30 AD to the Present * ^
Biblical Milestone Click here 264 Photos of mosaic portraits of Bishops of Rome (St Paul’s Outside the Walls, Rome, Italy) 30 AD to the Present Apostolic Fathers of the Church (clickable links in the timeline) Post-Apostolic Fathers of the Church (clickable link in the timeline) Doctors of the Church (clickable link in the timeline) List of Early Bishops of Rome/Popes Earliest History of the Church Earliest Canon of the Bible Monasticism Vulgate translation of the Bible Robert J. Schihl, Ph.D. * Dedicated to my son, Joel Robert Schihl, Condemnation of a heresy by a Council © 2006 Robert J. Schihl

2 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon (of Jesus and Evangelists; 300 of 350 OT quotes) OT Canon (similar to Trent’s) 45/46 books ^ Orthodox Jewish Rabbis at Jamnia cir 200 AD; /24 books ^ ^ Jamnia; Unfixed OT canon Fixed OT canon Augustus Nero Domitian Trajan Marcus Aurelius 14 54 68 81 96 98 117 161 180 193 Clement Irenaeus ? Rome 97 130 Lyons 200 Justin Martyr 100 Rome 165 Hermas Origin ? Rome 140 184 Papias Tertullian Hierapolis 120 ? 160 Ignatius Clement 69 Antioch 107 JESUS CHRIST 150 Alexandria Polycarp 6 BC 30 69 Smyrna 155 Didache Hippolytus 70 Syria 110 Paul of Tarsus 170 Rome 67 Melito ^ ? Barnabas 170 List of Septuagint canon of 45/46 books Sardis 190 ? Jerusalem 130 Alexander I Clement I Telesphorus Pius I Soter Victor I Peter bar Jona Linus Anacletus Evaristus Sixtus I Hygenus Anicetus Eleutherius 42 Rome 67 79 92 101 105 115 125 136 140 155 166 175 189 199 1 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM + Destruction of Jerusalem ASIATIC COUNCIL Earliest known Council 200+ 80s + Luke written + Pentecost 60s + Mark written 90s + John written Apostles Creed 80s + Matthew written 125 50 + Paul’s 1 Thessalonians written + Excommunication of Christians from Jewish Synagogues

3 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (45/46 books) NT Canon (27 books)
^ Palestinian Canon (39 books) (Books originally written in Hebrew) ^ Fixed OT canon Fixed NT canon Decius Septimius Severus Maximinius Valerian Aurelian Diocletian Constantine Augustine 386 Conversion 354 211 235 238 249 251 260 270 275 264 305 337 Patrick Gregory Thaumaturgus 253 Hilary + Edict of Milan 213 Neo-Caesarea 270 Poitiers 371 387 291 Cyprian Ambrose 200 Carthage 258 Ephraen 340 Tier 397 Origin 306 Basil Syria 373 Alexandria 254 329 Caesarea Mazaca 379 Tertullian Lactantius Gregory Rome 220 Italy 320 329 Nazianzus 389 Clement Gregory Alexandria 215 335 Nyssa 394 Cyril 315 Jerusalem 387 Hippolytus Athanasius Cyril Rome 235 293 Alexandria 373 376 Eusebius Jerome Latin Vulgate 260 Caesarea 339 345 John Chrysostom Sixtus II Stephen I Milteades 349 Antioch Theodore Fabian Dionysius Eusebius Callistus I Pontian Cornelius Eutychian Marcellinus Sylvester I 350 Anastasius I Zephyrinus Urban I Anterius Lucius I Felix I Caius Marcellus I Marcus Julius I Liberius Siricius 217 230 236 253 257-8 269 283 296 308 311 335 352 356 383 399 222 235 250 254 260 268 274 304 309 314 336 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 325 381 COUNCIL OF NICEA COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE I Mani Manichaeism 215 Persia 277 Arius Council of Rome 382 Council of Hippo 393 Council of Carthage 397 256 Subordinationism Arianism Lybia * 336 Sabellianism/Patripassians Apollinarius Apollinarianism * Modalism 310 Laodicea 380 Photinianism Pelagianism Adoptionism Pelagius 354 Vandals accept Arian Christianity

4 * * 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 Anastasius II Felix III
Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (45/46 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (39 books) + Bishop Vandals in North Africa Hippo 430 Augustine ? Canterbury Ireland 493 Benedict Numidia 430 480 Monte Casino 550 Peter Chrysologus Theodora 406 Ravenna 450 500 Byzantine Empress 548 Attila the Hun attacks Italy Vandals overrun Gaul + besieges Paris + disappears Isidore Leo the Great 440 400 Rome 461 Gregory the Great Alexandria 254 440 Rome Stridon 419 Vandals sack Rome Vigilius 407 Silverius Anastasius I Sixtus III Anastasius II John I John II Pelagius I Zosimus Hilarius Gelasius I Hormisdas Bonaface II Benedict I Celestine Gregory I Innocent I Bonaface I Leo I Simplicius Felix III Symmachus Felix IV Agapetus I John III Pelagius II 401 417 422 432 461 468 483 492 498 514 523 530 535 555 561 574 590 604 418 440 496 526 532 536-7 579 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 431 451 553 COUNCIL OF EPHESUS COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE II + End of the Western Roman Empire + Visigoth Sack of Rome + Hippo Besieged Bubonic plague Nestorius Nestorianism * ? 451 * Monophysitism Plagianism Britain 418 Eutychianism Mohammed Vandals defeated + 570

5 Condemns Monothelitism
Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) + Translation of parts of the Bible into English (Caedmon, Aldhein) + Conversion of England 609 First Archbishop of Canterbury Vikings invade Ireland Charlemagne 742 774 Donation of Territory to Pope Bede the Venerable 673 England 735 John Damascene ? Damascus 749 Restores Image Worship Seville 636 794 Condemns Image Worship 604 Sisinnius John VI Deusdedit Theodore I Adeodatus (II) Conon Bonaface IV Severinus Benedict II John VII Bonaface III Honorius I Martin I Vitalian Agatho John V Constantine Gregory III Stephen II Stephen III Leo III Sabinian Bonaface V John IV Eugene I Donus Leo II Gregory II Zachary Paul I Adrian I 604 607 615 625 638 642 655 676 681 685 687 705 708 -15 731 741 751 757 767 772 795 606 608 618 640 649 657 672 678 682-3 686 701 707 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 775 800 680 787 + Lateran Synod Condemns Monothelitism COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE III COUNCIL OF NICEA II Monothelitism * Iconoclasm * + First use of episcopal rings 726 Mohammedanism / Islam d. 610 632

6 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)
Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) + 909 Benedictine Abbey of Cluny founded; center of reform 996 Civil war at Rome Actus Hludovicianum confirms papal territory 817 + Rome increases; Constantinople declines 814 800 Crowned first Holy Roman Emperor Photian Schism Break in communion between Nicholas I and Photias of Constantinople 863-67 800 Leo separates from eastern empire; becomes supreme Bishop of West Leo V Benedict IV Theodore II Romanus Benedict VI Valentine Bonaface VI Marinus II Benedict V Eugene II Benedict III Adrian III Stephen VI Lando Stephen VII Stephen VIII Leo VIII John XV Paschal I Sergius II Nicholas I John VIII Stephen V John IX Anastasius III Leo VI Leo VII John XII Benedict VII Gregory V Leo III Stephen V Gregory IV Leo IV Adrian II Marinus I Formosus Sergius III John X John XI Agapitus II John XIII John XIV 816 824 844 855 867 872 882 885 891 897 900 911 914 928 931 939 946 955 963 972 983 996 817 827 847 858 884 896 898 903 913 929 935 942 964 974 984 999 800 825 850 875 900 925 950 975 1000 870 COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE IV 993 First canonization of saints Iconoclasm Icons restored 879 Pope and Patriarch excommunicate each other 832 Persecution of image worshipers 904 Pornacracy of the Papacy begins with Sergius 988 Russia Converted Mohammedanism / Islam 846 Muslims invade Italy and Rome 902 Muslims control Sicily

7 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)
Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) Francis Peter Abelard 1181 1054 Separation between Roman and Eastern churches becomes permanent 1079 France 1042 Pope John XIX Crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor 1027 Bernard Anthony 1090 Clairvaux 1153 1195 Peter Lombard Dominic 1095 Italy 1159 Anselm 1190 + Beginning of Scholasticism 1033 Canterbury 1109 Hugh of St Victor Peter Damien 1096 France 1142 1007 1072 1170 Rules for the canonization of saints Benedict IX Clement II Benedict VIII Gregory VI Nicholas II Anastasius IV Celestine III Sergius IV Benedict IX Stephen IX Eugene III Clement III John XVIII Sylvester III Victor II Callistus II Lucius II Gregory VIII John XVII Benedict IX Leo IX Gregory VII Urban II Gelasius II Innocent II Alexander III Urban III Sylvester II John XIX Damasus II Alexander II Victor III Paschal II Honorius II Celestine II Adrian IV Lucius III 1003 1009 1024 1032 1045 1054 1061 1073 1085 1099 1118 1124 1130 1143 1153 1159 1181 1187 1198 1012 1057-8 1086-7 1144-5 1154 1185 1191 1000 1025 1050 1075 1100 1125 1150 1175 1200 1123 COUNCIL OF LATERAN I 1139 COUNCIL OF LATERAN II 1179 COUNCIL OF LATERAN III 1052 Berenger of Tours denies Transubstantiation 1074 Excommunication of married priests Bogomils / Albigensians / Cathars 1176 Albigensian Council Pope Urban calls First Crusade + conquers Nicaea +defeats Turks at Antioch + takes Jerusalem 1009 Muslims sack the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem Second Crusade + failure Third Crusade

8 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)
Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) Wycliffe English Bible Duns Scotus Assisi 1225 Bonaventure 1266 Scotland 1308 Catherine 1217 Italy 1274 1347 Sienna 1380 Padua 1231 Julian of Norwich Dante Alighieri 1342 1265 Italy 1321 Spain 1221 William of Ockham Thomas Aquinas 1380 1280 1349 1225 Italy 1274 Francesco Petrarch 1380 Albert the Great 1304 Italy 1374 1380 Ratisson 1280 1233 Pope entrusts the Inquisition to the Dominicans 1252 Inquisition begins to use torture John Wycliffe Meister Eckhart 1327 1384 Martin IV Jan Hus 1260 1327 Nicholas III 1369 John XXI Clement V Clement IV Adrian V Bonaface VIII Bonaface IX Honorius III Innocent IV Urban IV Innocent V Nicholas IV Benedict XI John XXII Innocent VI Gregory XI Innocent III Celestine IV Alexander IV Gregory X Honorious IV Celestine V Benedict XII Clement VI Urban V Urban VI 1216 1227 1241 1254 1261 1268 1276-7 1281-5 1292 1303-4 1314 1334 1342 1352 1362 1370 1378 1389 1243 1264 1271 1280 1287-8 1294 1305 1316 Avignon Papacy 1305 1376 1200 1225 1250 1275 1300 1325 1350 1375 1400 1215 COUNCIL OF LATERAN IV 1245 COUNCIL OF LYON I 1274 COUNCIL OF LYON II 1311 COUNCIL OF VIENNE 1348- 1349 The Black Death The Great Schism 1378 Two Popes Bogomils / Albigensians / Cathars * 1302 “Unam Sanctam” Universal jurisdiction; spiritual over secular Clement VII Benedict XIII 1248 Fourth Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade 1212 1244 1291 Children’s Crusade Jerusalem lost to Muslims Holy Land falls out of Western control

9 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)
1456 ^ Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) + NT (27 books) ^ Luther opts for Palestinian OT canon Palestinian Canon) OT Canon (34 books) Tyndale Bible + Cloverdale Bible 1535 Francis De Sales Erasmus 1536 1567 Johann Gutenberg 1465 Thomas Moore Lawrence 1468 England 1535 1559 John Fisher Robert Bellarmine 1460 England 1536 1542 1416 Peter Canisius Thomas a’ Kempis 1521 1597 Theresa 1471 Bernadine of Sienna 1515 Avila 1582 Johann Tetzel John of the Cross 1444 John Capistrano 1465 Germany 1519 1542 Spain 1591 Philip Neri 1456 1515 1595 Ignatius Loyola Galileo Galilei Joan of Arc 1491 Jesuits begin + Spain 1556 1564 Martin Luther Johann Kepler 1412 France 1431 1483 Henry VIII Germany 1545 1571 Innocent IX 1415 Pius IV Gregory XIV 1491 1547 Paul II Julius II Paul IV Urban VII Gregory XII Nicholas V Pius II Innocent VIII Pius III Adrian VI Paul III Marcellus II Gregory XIII Innocent VII Martin V Eugene IV Callistus III Sextus IV Alexander VI Leo X Clement VII Julius III Pius V Sixtus V 1404 1415 1431 1447 1455 1464 1471 1484 1492 1503 1513 1521 1534 1549 1555 1565 1572 1585 1592 1406 1417 1458 1522-3 1550 1559 1590-1 Counter Reformation 1400 1425 1450 1475 1500 1525 1550 1575 1600 1414 COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE 1238 COUNCIL OF FLORENCE Renaissance 1512 COUNCIL OF LATERAN V 1545 COUNCIL OF TRENT 1517 Luther breaks from Rome * 1417 + John Calvin Alexander V John XXIII Benedict XIII 1520 Calvin Reformed breaks from Lutheran Papacy over Conciliarism + Huldrich Zwingli + John Knox 1560 Presbyterian Church Conciliarism 1534 Anglican Church breaks from Rome Pavia- Siena 1423 Basel Christopher Columbus 1525 Anabaptists break from Reformed 1451 1505

10 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)
^ Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) NT Canon (27 books) ^ ^ Palestinian Canon) OT Canon (34 books) Douay-Rheims Bible Challoner Revision +1611 King James Bible Italy 1622 Brindisi 1619 Alphonsus Liguori Naples 1797 Capua 1621 Thirty Years’ War 1618 1648 The French Revolution + Italy 1642 Germany 1630 Clement VIII Clement X Innocent XII Clement XII Paul V Urban VIII Alexander VII Innocent XI Innocent XIII Clement XIII Leo XI Gregory XV Innocent X Clement IX Alexander VIII Clement XI Benedict XIII Benedict XIV Clement XIV Pius VI 1605 1621 1644 1655 1667 1676 1689 1700 1721 1730 1740 1758 1769 1799 1623 1669 1691 1724 1774 1800 1600 1625 1650 1675 1700 1725 1750 1775 1800 + John Wesley 1787 Methodism 1612 Baptist Church breaks from Anglican Church Lutheranism + Charles Wesley Calvin Reformed Presbyterianism Anglicanism Episcopal Church 1785 Anabaptists

11 Immaculate Conception
Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books) ^ ^ ^ Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) Knox Bible Jerusalem Bible New American Bible New International Version Dead Sea scrolls discovered Oxford Movement Mother Theresa John Henry Cardinal Newman 1910 India 1997 1801 End of the Holy Roman Empire (since 800) England 1890 Theresa Charismatic Movement 1873 Lisieux 1897 Lamentabili Sane Condemnation of Modernism + Notre Dame University Tiepolo 1670 Murillo + Concordat of 1801 Napoleon reconciles with Pius II 1854 Defined ex cathedra Immaculate Conception of Mary 1950 Defined ex cathedra the Assumption of Mary Pius VIII Benedict XV Paul VI John Paul II Pius VII Leo XII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII John Paul I 1805 1823 1830 1846 1878 1903 1914 1922 1939 1958 1978 1829 1963 1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 1870 COUNCIL OF VATICAN I 1962 COUNCIL OF VATICAN II Baptists Lutheranism Assemblies of God Calvin Reformed Pentecostal Holiness / Vineyard Churches Presbyterianism Azusa Street Revivals United Church of Christ Anglicanism Revivalism begins Willow Creek Association Anabaptists Seventh-Day Adventists The Fundamentals published

12 Alexandrian (Septuagint) Canon OT Canon similar to Trent (39 books) NT Canon (27 books)
Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) NT Canon (27 books) Palestinian Canon OT Canon (34 books) Benedict XVI 2005 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100 2125 2150 2175 2200 33,000+ Denominations worldwide Lutheranism Calvin Reformed Presbyterianism Anglicanism Anabaptists

13 Decrees and resolutions
Jerusalem (Acts 15:2) When and where Jerusalem, Palestine, 49 AD. Crisis or controversy Gentile converts must follow Mosaic Law; "Unless you are circumcised according to the Mosaic practice, you cannot be saved." Acts 15:1 Attendees "Apostles and presbyters" Acts 15:6, and the following notables: Paul and Barnabas, Peter, James (Acts 15:6-22) Decrees and resolutions "It is the decision of the Holy Spirit and of us not to place on you any burden beyond these necessities." Acts 15:28

14 Decrees and resolutions
Nicea I When and where 325 AD in Nicea (Now Iznik, Turkey, 70 miles from Constantinople on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus) Crisis or controversy Christ was a pure creature; made out of nothing; liable to fall; the Son of God by adoption, not God by nature: Arianism Attendees 318 bishops; Convened: Constantine I, Emperor; Eusebius of Caesarea, historian; St. Athanasius, theologian; Ratified: Silvester I, Pope. Decrees and resolutions The Nicene Creed; The Consubstantiality of the Word: homousion with the Father; Solved how the date of Easter should be calculated.

15 Decrees and resolutions
Constantinople I When and where 381 AD in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) Crisis or controversy The need to insist on homousion; Demonstrate to the world that Christians of the East are not Arians; Apollinaris was teaching that Christ was not true man. Attendees 186 bishops; Convened: Theodosius I, Emperor; St. Basil the Great; St. Gregory of Nyssa; St. Gregory of Nazianzanus, theologians; Ratified: Damasus, Pope Decrees and resolutions Renewed the work of Nicaea; Condemned the heresy of the Macedonians (the Holy Spirit was not really God); Condemned the heresy of Apollinaris (that Christ was not really a man). The 4th century CE Church of Haghia Eirene ("Divine Peace") in Istanbul. The site of the Ecumenical Council of Constantinople of 381AD.

16 Basilica of St. John at Ephesus
When and where 431 AD in Ephesus Crisis or controversy Nestorius was teaching that Mary was not the mother of God; Proponents of Nestorius began claiming that Christ was actually two separate persons, human and divine. Attendees 250 bishops; Convened: Theodosius II, Emperor; St. Cyril of Alexandria; St. John Chrysostom; Ratified: Celestinus I, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Condemned Nestorius; Decreed that Mary was also Theotokos, mother of God; Declared that Christ is true God and true man, that he has two natures (human and divine) joined in one person. Basilica of St. John at Ephesus

17 Decrees and resolutions
Chalcedon When and where 451 AD in Calcedon (ancient seaport of Bithynia on the sea of Marmara) Crisis or controversy Monophysites were teaching that Christ had a single divine nature and no human nature. Attendees 600 bishops; Convened: Marcianus, Emperor; Ratified: Leo I, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Condemned Monophysitism; Declared that Christ had two distinct natures and was both true God and true man; Promulgated canons of church discipline. The ecumenical council, at Chalcedon, taught Jesus is true God and true man (Painting by Vasili Ivanovich Surikov)

18 Decrees and resolutions
Constantinople II When and where 553 AD in Constantinople Crisis or controversy Emperor Justinian I wanted the Church to consider the orthodoxy of three Greek theologians: Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, and Ebas of Edessa. Attendees 150 bishops, Convened: Justinian I, Emperor; Decrees and resolutions Condemned the writings of theologians as having been infested with Nestorianism. Basilica of Hagia Sophia, site of the Council

19 Decrees and resolutions
Constantinople III When and where 680 AD in Constantinople Crisis or controversy Monothelism was teaching that Christ did not possess a human will. Attendees 174 bishops; Convened: Emperor Constantine IV; Ratified: Leo II, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Condemned Monothelism; Declared that Christ has two wills, human and divine. Basilica of Hagia Sophia, site of the Council

20 Decrees and resolutions
Nicaea II When and where 787 AD in Nicea Crisis or controversy Iconoclasts taught that using sacred images was idolatry. Attendees 390 bishops; Convened: Irene, Empress; Ratified: Adrian I, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Condemned Iconoclasts; Declared that sacred images may be honored without idolatry Promulgated canons of church discipline. Ancient Church in Nicaea

21 Decrees and resolutions
Constantinople IV When and where 870 AD in Constantinople Crisis or controversy Needed to decide the right of Patriarch Photius or the restoration of Ignatius. Attendees 102 bishops; Convened: Basil, Emperor; Ratified: Adrian II, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Photius was condemned in 27 canons. Basilica of Hagia Sophia, site of the Council

22 Decrees and resolutions
Lateran I When and where 1123 AD (Lateran Basilica in Rome, Italy) Crisis or controversy Needed to face the social and religious problems of the day; First ecumenical council in the West. Attendees 300 bishops; Convened: Callistus II, Pope; Ratified: Callistus Decrees and resolutions Promulgated canons of mixed matters.

23 Decrees and resolutions
Lateran II When and where 1139 AD at the Lateran Basilica Crisis or controversy A double papal election and ensuing schism when two rivals claiming to be pope divided the church. Attendees 1000 bishops; Convened: Innocent II, Pope; St. Bernard of Clairvaux Ratified: Innocent II. Decrees and resolutions Took measures against schism of antipope Anacletis II; Promulgated canons of church discipline

24 Decrees and resolutions
Lateran III When and where 1179 AD in the Lateran Basilica Crisis or controversy Reorganization had to be faced; there was the ever-needed pressure to reform; restraint of abuses. Attendees More than 300 bishops; Convened: Alexander III, Pope; Ratified: Alexander III, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Decreed that papal elections required two-thirds majority of cardinals at the conclave; Promulgated numerous disciplinary canons.

25 Decrees and resolutions
Lateran IV When and where 1215 AD in the Lateran Basilica Crisis or controversy Albigensian heresy: two supreme beings, Evil and Good; Christ did not die; all material things must. Attendees 412 bishops; 388 priests; Convened: Innocent III, Pope; Ratified: Innocent III, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Declaration of Canon Law: the law of the Church; Decrees against Albegensians and Waldensians.

26 Decrees and resolutions
Lyons I When and where 1245 AD in Lyon (city in E. France) Crisis or controversy The difficult and heretical behavior of Emperor Frederick II; The persecution of religion. Attendees 140 bishops; more than 300 priests; Convened: Innocent IV, Pope; Ratified: Innocent IV, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Excommunication and deposition of Frederick II. Cathedral where the Council of Lyons I was held.

27 Decrees and resolutions
Lyons II When and where 1274 AD in Lyons, France Crisis or controversy A marked decline of the detachment of the popes from the things of the world; Chronic restiveness of the Greeks toward Roman primacy. Attendees 500 bishops; 570 priests; Convened: Gregory X, Pope; St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Bonaventure; Ratified: Gregory X, Pope. Decrees and resolutions General reformation of the morals of clergy and bishops; Dogmatic constitution of filioque; Profession of faith of Greek Emperor Michael VIII. St Bonaventure at the Council of Lyons

28 Decrees and resolutions
Vienne When and where 1312 AD in Vienne (city in E. France near Lyons) Crisis or controversy Problems with the religious order of Knights Templars. Attendees 122 bishops; 300 abbots; Convened: Clemens V, Pope; Ratified: Clemens V, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Templars were suppressed; Canon Law enacted; Three definition of dogmas; Disciplinary decrees written.

29 Decrees and resolutions
Constance When and where 1414 – 1418 AD in Constance (city in Germany on Swiss border) Crisis or controversy The Great Western Schism: two sets of popes. Attendees 32 Cardinals; 183 bishops; 100 abbots; 350 priests; Convened: Segismund, Emperor; Ratified: Martin V, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Reformation of the Church; Material organization of religion.

30 Decrees and resolutions
Florence When and where 1438 AD in Florence (city of northern Italy) Crisis or controversy East/West reunion; Constantinople was being threatened by Mohammedans. Attendees More than 150 bishops; Convened: Eugene IV, Pope; Ratified: Eugene IV, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Reunion of oriental churches.

31 Decrees and resolutions
Lateran V When and where 1512 – 1517 AD in the Lateran Basilica Crisis or controversy Needed reform in church administration; Rise of atheistic philosophy; Friction between bishops and orders of friars. Attendees 115 bishops; Convened: Julius II, Pope; Cajetan; Ratified: Leo X, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Condemned the Averroes philosophy: the soul of man is not immortal; Promulgated reform decrees; Established principles of book censorship; Rights of bishops defined.

32 Decrees and resolutions
Trent When and where 1545 – 1563 AD in Trent (in Hapsburg's Germany; now N. Italy) Crisis or controversy Martin Luther; Revolt against the Pope; Widespread heresy. Attendees bishops; Convened: Paul III, Pope; Ratified: Pius IV, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Doctrinal decrees: restatement of belief in opposition to the new theologies; The Catholic Reformation: the reformation of Catholic life.

33 Decrees and resolutions
Vatican I When and where 1870 AD in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City Crisis or controversy A return to life of the Catholic Church: needed a revival of religious life General restoration and restatement of the faith was needed; Christian marriages and education needed safeguarding. Attendees 747 bishops; Convened & Ratified : Pius IX, Pope Decrees and resolutions Promulgated decrees on the Catholic Faith and on the Church; Condemned the Rationalists and Semirationalists; Defined the charism of infallibility. Façade, St. Peter’ Basilica

34 Decrees and resolutions
Vatican II When and where 1962 – 1965 AD in St. Peter’s Basilica Crisis or controversy Constant need for reform and revival; Needed translation of faith into modern era: communication media; Christians and Jews; religious freedom, etc. Attendees 2908 bishops; Convened: John XXIII, Pope; Ratified: Paul VI, Pope. Decrees and resolutions Issued 16 documents: On Divine Revelation; The Pastoral Constitution; On The Church in the Modern World; On The Church, etc. Blessed John XXIII; opening session 2908 Bishops in plenary session

35 Ignatius of Antioch, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Martyr for the faith Disciple of John the Evangelist Condemned to die by wild beasts in Rome Brought from Antioch to Rome and wrote seven letters to churches and individuals along the way Place and dates Antioch; d. 110 Writings Letter to Ephesians; Letter to Magnesians; Letter to Tralles; Letter to Philadelphians; Letter to Smyrnans; Letter to Polycarp of Smryna; Letter to Romans These contain warnings against heretical doctrines; contain detailed summaries of doctrines; and a picture of Church organization with bishops, presbyters (elders) and deacons; First to stress Virgin Birth and to use the term "catholic church" To the Ephesians

36 Clement I, St. (Clement of Rome) Personal
4th Bishop of Rome Place and dates Rome r Writings I Clement or Letter to the Corinthians (c. 96): earliest piece of literature outside the NT historically attested; addressed disputes in the Church at Corinth; II Clement (a sermon)(c. 140): Clementine authorship disputed First Clement

37 Polycarp of Symrna, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Received a visit and letter from Ignatius Represented the Church of Asia Minor in meetings with Pope Anicetus Dating of Easter A teacher of Irenaeus Knew John the Evangelist and other apostles Was a disciple of John the Evangelist Place and dates Symrna 69-155 Writings Polycarp to the Philippians Martyrdom of Polycarp (about him) Polycarp to the Philippians

38 Unknown Author of the Didache Personal Place and dates
Syria 70-110? Writings Didache ("Teaching"): A compendium of moral precepts, instructions on organization of church communities, liturgical worship and regulation. It contains oldest Eucharistic prayer, directions on Baptism, fasting, prayer, treatment of bishops, deacons, prophets . The Didache

39 Place and dates Jerusalem?
Barnabas Personal Surname of Joseph, a member of the early Christian Church in Jerusalem (Acts 4:36) Companion of Paul Did missionary work with Mark (Acts 15:39) Place and dates Jerusalem? c. 130 Writings Epistle of Barnabas Allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament The Epistle of Barnabas

40 Papias of Hierapolis Personal Place and dates Writings Papias
Contemporary of Polycarp Knew of a collection of the "sayings of the Lord" to have been written in Aramaic or Hebrew by Matthew Place and dates Phrygia 120? Writings Five Books of Exegeses of the Dominical Oracles: Quoted by Irenaeus Witness to the existence of Jewish Christianity Papias

41 Hermas Personal Place and dates Writings The Shepherd of Hermas
Little known Place and dates Rome 140? Writings Mandates Similitudes The Shepherd: a vivid description of early Christianity The Shepherd of Hermas

42 Justin (Martyr), St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Philosopher, theologian, early apologist, martyr Convert to Christianity Place and dates Rome Writings Apologies for the Christians: erudite of Christians against charges of atheism and sedition; Dialogue with Trypho the Jew: a record of an actual discussion at Ephesus; valuable information about 2nd century Christian Church . First Apology Second Apology Dialogue with Trypho

43 Irenaeus, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Heard the preaching of Polycarp the disciple of John the Evangelist Appointed the bishop of Lyon (177) Place and dates Asia Minor 140?-202? Writings Against the Heresies: written against the Gnostics; contributed to the knowledge of Gnosticism Against Heresies / Adversus Haereses, Book 1

44 Clement of Alexandria Personal Place and dates Athens Writings
Greek theologian Converted from paganism Ordained a presbyter A teacher of Origen Place and dates Athens 150?-215? Writings Hortatory Address to the Greeks: a defense of the faith The Tutor: instruction in manners and morals The Miscellanies: a discussion of various points of doctrinal theology designed to guide the mature Christian to perfect knowledge .

45 Tertullian Personal Place and dates Writings
Converted to Christianity between 190 and 195 Became a presbyter of the Church (197) Zealous champion of Christianity Profoundly influences later Church fathers Embraced and became a leader of the Montanists (207?) a sect later declared heretical Place and dates Rome 160?-220? Writings Apologeticus (c. 197): his most famous work; a defense of Christians against pagan charges On the Claims of Heretics: argues that the Church alone has the authority to declare what is and is not orthodox Christianity On Baptism On Prayer: throws light on contemporary religious practices

46 Origen Personal Place and dates Writings
A student of Clement Ordained a presbyter The most accomplished biblical scholar of the early Church Father of the allegorical method of scripture interpretation He developed the idea of Christ as Logos or Incarnate Word Place and dates Alexandria 185?-254? Writings Against Celsus: closely reasoned apologetic work refuting the arguments advanced by the Celsus, the first serious critic of Christianity

47 Cyprian, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Convert to Christianity c Bishop of Carthage, 248 One of the most authoritative Fathers of the Church Involved in controversy over treatment of those who had left the Church, and those who were baptized by heretics: Accepted the teaching of Rome. Place and dates Carthage Writings On Unity of the Catholic Church: exposition of the hierarchical organization of the Church

48 Played a prominent role in the theological struggle in the
Athanasius, St. Personal Played a prominent role in the theological struggle in the Council of Nicea (325) Opposed Arius ( ) who maintained that the Son was of a different substance from that of the Father, and was merely a creature Formulated the "homousian doctrine" that the Son of God is the same essence of substance of the Father Became bishop of Alexandria (328) Place and dates Alexandria Writings Discourses Against the Arians History of the Arians Apology Against the Arians On the Decrees of the Nicene Synod

49 Cyril of Jerusalem Personal Place and dates Writings
Bishop of Jerusalem in 351 Embroiled in controversy over episcopal duties Place and dates Jerusalem 315?-387? Writings 23 Treatises: addressed to catechumens and newly baptized; some treatises are doctrinal and present the creed of the Church; some are concerned with ritual and present a detailed account of Baptism, Eucharist and chrism

50 Basil, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Brother of Gregory of Nyssa and a friend of Gregory of Nazianzus Patriarch of Eastern monasticism Wrote a rule of the monastic way of life Founded the Basilian monks (360) Bishop of Caesarea (370). Place and dates Caesarea Mazaca 329?-379 Writings Against Eunomius: written against the Arian leader Eunomius On the Holy Spirit: a doctrinal treatise Moralia: an anthology of New Testament verses Liturgy of St. Basil

51 Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Personal
Bishop of Sasima (371) Took charge of the Nicene congregation of Constantinople where he delivered five discourses on the Trinity that earned him fame as "The Theologian" Place and dates Nazianzus in Capadocia, now Turkey 329?-389 Writings Philokalia (Love of the Beautiful): an anthology of the writings of Origen

52 Gregory of Nyssa, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Bishop of Milan (374) Fame is chiefly as a theologian Place and dates Neocaesarea, now in Turkey 335?-394 Writings Against Eunomius: a defense of the Nicene Creed Great Catechetical Discourse: a defense of the Christian faith against Jews and pagans On Faith: a treatise against the Arians Ten Syllogisms: directed against the Apollinarists

53 Ambrose, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Bishop of Milan (374) Defended the churches of Milan against Arianism Friend of Monica, mother of Augustine, and finally brought Augustine into the Church Place and dates Tier, now in W. Germany 340?-397 Writings On Faith: a Christian morals manual On the Sacraments: an exegetical treatise On the Holy Spirit: an exegetical treatise Composed many hymns

54 Jerome, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Biblical scholar Ordained a priest in 386 Secretary to Pope Damasus I in 382 Confronted many heresies, especially Pelagianism Place and dates Stridon, present day Yugoslavia 345?-419 Writings The Vulgate: translated the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin, , in Rome

55 John Chrysostom, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Ordained a priest in 386 Greatest orator of the early Church Patriarch of Constantinople in 398 Place and dates Antioch, Syria 349?-407 Writings On the Priesthood Homilies Wrote commentaries, epistles, treatises, and liturgies

56 Augustine, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Son of Monica (332?-387) Born a pagan Converted in 387 and baptized by Ambrose Ordained a priest in 391 Bishop of Hippo (395) Combated Manichean heresy (conflict of Good and Evil) Martin Luther and John Calvin were students of the works of Augustine Place and dates Numidia, now Algeria Writings Confessions (c. 400): his autobiography The City of God ( ): Retractions (428); Epistles ( ), On Free Will ( ) On Christian Doctrine (397) On Baptism: Against the Donatists (400) On the Trinity ( ); On Nature and Grace (415) and Homilies

57 Cyril of Alexandria, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Patriarch of Alexandria in 412 Leader of the Council of Ephesus, 431 Instrumental in condemning Nestorianism Place and dates Alexandria Writings Against Nestorius Against Julian the Apostate Prolific writer

58 Gregory I, St. ("The Great") Personal
Prefect of Rome in 570 Became a monk in 575 Elected pope (r ) Enhanced prestige of the papacy Upheld Rome's traditional claims of church primacy over the patriarch of Constantinople; Extensive pastoral activity. Introduced liturgical reforms and Gregorian chant Place and dates Rome 540?-604 Writings Moralia: a commentary on the Book of Job Pastoral Care: describes the ideal bishop; instruction on the practice and nature of preaching Dialogues: legends of saints of his own time.

59 John Damascene, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Financial officer to Saracen caliph Resigned in 700 Entered a monastery and ordained a priest Opposed the Iconoclasts Place and dates Damascus, Syria Writings Source of Knowledge: three part text of dogmatic theology in the early Greek church; contains a complete theological system based on the early Greek fathers and synods of 4th-7th centuries

60 Ephrem The Syrian, St. Personal Place and dates Syria Writings
Deacon, monk Noted for his defense of the Church, the mysteries of Our Lord and the honor of the Virgin Mary. Named Doctor in 1920 by Benedict XV Place and dates Syria 306?-373 Writings Wrote exegetical works and hymns

61 Hilary of Poitiers, St. Personal Place and dates Poitiers Writings
Pagan, convert in 350 Bishop of Poitiers, 353 Defended the decrees of the Council of Nicaea Named Doctor in 1851 by Pius IX Place and dates Poitiers 15?-368? Writings De Trinitate: against the Arians De Synodis Commentary of the Psalms Commentary of Matthew's Gospel

62 Peter Chrysologus, St. Personal Place and dates Ravenna Writings
Called chrysologus (golden-mouthed) because of exceptional preaching eloquence Archbishop of Ravenna, Named Doctor in 1729 by Benedict XIII Place and dates Ravenna Writings Many sermons survive

63 Leo The Great, St. Personal Place and dates Rome 461 Writings
Pope, Confirmed the doctrine of the Incarnation (Council of Chalcedon, 451) Held the doctrinal primacy of Rome Persuaded Attila the Hun not to invade Rome Named Doctor in 1754 by Benedict XIV Place and dates Rome Writings 143 surviving letters 96 sermons

64 Gregory I, St. Personal The Great Place and dates Writings
Western theologian Named Doctor in 1298 by Bonaface VIII Place and dates Rome 540?-604 Writings See Post-Apostolic Fathers' list

65 Isidore of Seville, St. Personal Place and dates Seville Writings
Encyclopedic knowledge Archbishop of Seville Conversion of Visigoths Organizing the church in Spain Named Doctor in 1722 by Innocent XIII Place and dates Seville 560?-636? Writings De Natura Rerum Etymologies: an encyclopedia Chronica Majora: a compilation from church historians Biographies A summary of Christian doctrine

66 Bede The Venerable, St. Personal Place and dates England Writings
English Benedictine monk Prolific writer Named Doctor in 1899 by Leo XIII Place and dates England 673?-735 Writings Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731) On the Reckoning of Time (725) Historia Abbatum (725)

67 Anselm, St. Personal Place and dates Canterbury Writings
Benedictine monk Theologian Philosopher; proposed famous argument for existence of God Archbishop of Canterbury, Named Doctor in 1720 by Clement XI Place and dates Canterbury Writings Monologium (1077): God as highest being and His attributes Proslogium (1078): Faith seeking understanding Cur Deus Homo (1093): On the Incarnation and crucifixion

68 Bernard of Clairvaux, St. Personal
Cistercian monk Preacher of the Second Crusade Founded over 90 monasteries Named Doctor in 1830 by Pius VIII Place and dates Clairvaux Writings The Love of God (1127) Consideration to Eugene III (1148)

69 Anthony of Padua, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Franciscan monk Theologian Exceptional intellectual and oratorical gifts Named Doctor in 1946 by Pius XII Place and dates Padua Writings Lector in theology: taught at Bologna, Montpellier, and Toulouse Countless sermons exist (

70 Albert The Great, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Bishop of Ratisbon, Introduced Greek and Arabic science and philosophy into the medieval world Dominican, Order of Preachers Teacher of Thomas Aquinas Named Doctor in 1932 by Pius XI Place and dates Ratisbon Writings Summa Theologiae (1270): attempted to reconcile Aristotelianism and Christianity Sentences: a commentary on Peter the Lombard De Unitate Intellectus: against the Averrhoists

71 Bonaventure, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Franciscan friar Philosopher, theologian Cardinal archbishop of Albano Assisted at Council of Lyons Named Doctor in 1588 by Sixtus V Place and dates Albano Writings Breviloquium (1254): Commentary on Sacred Scripture Journey of the Mind to God (1259) Life of St. Francis of Assisi (1263)

72 Place and dates Fossa Nuova
Thomas Aquinas, St. Personal Theologian Named in 1568 by Pius V Italian philosopher Educated at Monte Cassino Ordained a priest in Advisor and lecturer to the papal court, ; named Doctor in 1568 by Pius V Place and dates Fossa Nuova Writings Eighty works are ascribed to him Summa Contra Gentiles: "On the Truth of Catholic Faith," : one of his greatest works, closely reasoned treatise on the truth of Christianity Summa Theologica: a summary of theology, ( )

73 Catherine of Siena, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Western mystic Joined the Dominican Order in Convinced Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome from Avignon Noted for works of charity and unity in the Church Named Doctor in 1970 by Pope Paul VI; Place and dates Siena Writings Letters on spiritual matters Dialogue: her ideals of reform and repentance

74 Theresa of Avila, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Western mystic Foundress of the Order of Discalced Carmelites Entered the convent in Worked with the aid of St. John of the Cross, Spanish mystic and Doctor of the Church Named Doctor in 1970 by Pope Paul VI Place and dates Avila Writings The Way of Perfection: (1565) advice to her nuns The Interior Castle: (1577) an eloquent description of the contemplative life The Foundations: ( ) the origins of the Discalced Carmelites

75 Peter Canisius, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Jesuit Second great Apostle of Germany Leader, Counter-Reformation Named Doctor in 1925 by Pius XI Place and dates Fribourg Writings Catechism (1560): instructed the faithful to defend their Faith

76 Robert Bellarmine, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Jesuit theologian Cardinal archbishop of Capua Revision of the Vulgate (1592) Leader of the Counter Reformation Named Doctor in 1931 by Pius XI Place and dates Capua Writings Disputations on the Controversies of the Christian Faith: ( )

77 Lawrence of Brindisi, St. Personal
Capuchin Worked for the conversion of the Jews Confronted the rise of Lutheranism Organized Catholic princes against Turkish invasion Named Doctor in 1959 by John XXIII Place and dates Brindisi Writings Sermons A commentary on Genesis Writings against Lutheranism

78 John of the Cross, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Western mystic Combined mysticism with the theology and philosophy of Aquinas Became a Carmelite monk in Ordained a priest in Organized the Discalced Carmelites in Imprisoned for monastic reform Named Doctor in 1926 by Benedict XV Place and dates Ubeda, Andalusia Writings Spiritual Canticle: a mystical poem Living Flame of Love: a mystical poem Dark Night of the Soul: describes the soul's progress in union with God

79 Francis De Sales, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Bishop of Genova, Founded the Order of the Visitation Confronted the rise of Calvinism Named Doctor in 1877 by Pius IX Place and dates Genova Writings Introduction to the Devout Life: (1609) shows how ordinary life can be sanctified .

80 Alfonsus Liguori, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Founded the Redemptorist Order in Bishop of St. Agatha, Named Doctor in 1871 by Pius IX Place and dates Nocera de' Pagani Writings Moral Theology Glories of Mary: (1750)

81 Theresa of Lisieux, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Carmelite Nun: Sister Theresa of the Child Jesus Also known as "The Little Flower of Jesus" Canonized: May 17, 1925 Created a Doctor of the Church by Pope John Paul II, October 19, 1997 The third woman among 33 Doctors Place and dates Born: Alencon, France, January 2, 1873 Died: Lisieux, France, September 30, 1897 Writings Autobiography of a Saint: Letter and Spiritual Counsels

82 Peter Damien, St. Personal Place and dates Writings
Benedictine monk Cardinal and Bishop of Ostia Ecclesiastical statesman and reformer Named Doctor in 1828 by Leo XII Place and dates Ostia Writings Notable poet Wrote reforms for popes, clergy, monks

83 Popes’ Mosaic Icons There are many iconographies on the Supreme Pontiffs, from St. Peter to the present day. The set used in this timeline is the one highly valued and officially acknowledged by the Vatican. It is found in the naves of the Patriarchal Basilica of  St. Paul- Outside the Walls in Rome, Italy. The reproductions in the Pope Chart* are from this collection. The collection is made of medallions in mosaic; each one has the Pontiff’s name written in Latin and the period of his pontificate in Roman numbers. This iconography was started by St. Leo the Great in 498 and historically updated in 1947.                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The Patriarchal Basilica of  St. Paul Outside the Walls, Rome, Italy. St. Peter  42-67 The first Pope Enlarged section of the Basilica showing the mosaics Diagram showing the chronological order of the mosaics in the Basilica Interior of St. Paul’s Outside the Walls * Chart copies of the mosaics available at: adapted here for teaching purposes.

84 To Download a Copy of the Text Notes:
Questions or comments? either Dr. Robert Schihl , or Paul Flanagan To Download a Copy of the Text Notes: © 2006, Robert J Schihl

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