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Age of the Christian Roman Empire II The Ecumenical Councils.

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1 Age of the Christian Roman Empire II The Ecumenical Councils

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3 Arius c Presbyter in Alexandria c. 313Presbyter in Alexandria c. 313 Excommunicated 318Excommunicated 318 Continued to hold assemblies anywayContinued to hold assemblies anyway Kicked out of Alexandria moved to PalestineKicked out of Alexandria moved to Palestine Presbyter in Alexandria c. 313Presbyter in Alexandria c. 313 Excommunicated 318Excommunicated 318 Continued to hold assemblies anywayContinued to hold assemblies anyway Kicked out of Alexandria moved to PalestineKicked out of Alexandria moved to Palestine

4 Council of Nicæa 325AD Called by Constantine to prevent division in the catholic churchCalled by Constantine to prevent division in the catholic church Included “318” bishops, approx 1/6 th of all bishops in the empireIncluded “318” bishops, approx 1/6 th of all bishops in the empire –10 from the west –20 Arians –Eastern Bishops Called by Constantine to prevent division in the catholic churchCalled by Constantine to prevent division in the catholic church Included “318” bishops, approx 1/6 th of all bishops in the empireIncluded “318” bishops, approx 1/6 th of all bishops in the empire –10 from the west –20 Arians –Eastern Bishops

5 Beliefs of Arianism Jesus was of a different substance than GodJesus was of a different substance than God Jesus was created out of nothingJesus was created out of nothing Jesus was divine but not deityJesus was divine but not deity Jesus was subordinate to the FatherJesus was subordinate to the Father Jesus was neither co-equal nor co- eternal with the Father.Jesus was neither co-equal nor co- eternal with the Father. Jesus was of a different substance than GodJesus was of a different substance than God Jesus was created out of nothingJesus was created out of nothing Jesus was divine but not deityJesus was divine but not deity Jesus was subordinate to the FatherJesus was subordinate to the Father Jesus was neither co-equal nor co- eternal with the Father.Jesus was neither co-equal nor co- eternal with the Father.

6 Substance?Substance? Homo-usios – of the same essenceHomo-usios – of the same essence Homoi-usios – of like essenceHomoi-usios – of like essence Hetero-usios – of different essenceHetero-usios – of different essence Homo-usios – of the same essenceHomo-usios – of the same essence Homoi-usios – of like essenceHomoi-usios – of like essence Hetero-usios – of different essenceHetero-usios – of different essence

7 Nicene Creed

8 Council of Nicæa 325AD Heretic – AriusHeretic – Arius Subject – Substance of the Father & SonSubject – Substance of the Father & Son Solution – Father and Son are of the Same SubstanceSolution – Father and Son are of the Same Substance Heretic – AriusHeretic – Arius Subject – Substance of the Father & SonSubject – Substance of the Father & Son Solution – Father and Son are of the Same SubstanceSolution – Father and Son are of the Same Substance

9 Post Council of Nicæa Arius & his followers were exiled to IllyriaArius & his followers were exiled to Illyria Arian books were burnedArian books were burned Arians were labeled enemies of ChristianityArians were labeled enemies of Christianity Arius & his followers were exiled to IllyriaArius & his followers were exiled to Illyria Arian books were burnedArian books were burned Arians were labeled enemies of ChristianityArians were labeled enemies of Christianity

10 End of Arius Acquitted of charge of Heresy by a Jerusalem council in 335Acquitted of charge of Heresy by a Jerusalem council in 335 He returns to Constantinople to be officially receivedHe returns to Constantinople to be officially received The night of the ceremony he dies while “attending to a call of nature”The night of the ceremony he dies while “attending to a call of nature” Acquitted of charge of Heresy by a Jerusalem council in 335Acquitted of charge of Heresy by a Jerusalem council in 335 He returns to Constantinople to be officially receivedHe returns to Constantinople to be officially received The night of the ceremony he dies while “attending to a call of nature”The night of the ceremony he dies while “attending to a call of nature”

11 The last years of Arianism Endorsed by ConstantiusEndorsed by Constantius Became the majority of Christianity in the EmpireBecame the majority of Christianity in the Empire Empire reconverted under Theodosius and the judgment of the Council of ConstantinopleEmpire reconverted under Theodosius and the judgment of the Council of Constantinople Endorsed by ConstantiusEndorsed by Constantius Became the majority of Christianity in the EmpireBecame the majority of Christianity in the Empire Empire reconverted under Theodosius and the judgment of the Council of ConstantinopleEmpire reconverted under Theodosius and the judgment of the Council of Constantinople

12 ApollinarianismApollinarianism Wanted to solve God/Man conceptWanted to solve God/Man concept Two parts human one part divineTwo parts human one part divine The Logos replaced the human will/ration which was the seat of sin.The Logos replaced the human will/ration which was the seat of sin. Wanted to solve God/Man conceptWanted to solve God/Man concept Two parts human one part divineTwo parts human one part divine The Logos replaced the human will/ration which was the seat of sin.The Logos replaced the human will/ration which was the seat of sin.

13 Council of Constantinople 381 Furthered the teachings of the Nicæan creedFurthered the teachings of the Nicæan creed Terminology made more explicitTerminology made more explicit The Holy Spirit is given more statusThe Holy Spirit is given more status

14 Council of Constantinople 381 Heretic – still Arius, ApollinarisHeretic – still Arius, Apollinaris Subject – substance of Father, Son and Holy SpiritSubject – substance of Father, Son and Holy Spirit Conclusion – Father Son and Spirit are all of the same substance and are equal. Apollinarianism condemned.Conclusion – Father Son and Spirit are all of the same substance and are equal. Apollinarianism condemned.

15 NestorianismNestorianism Mary was the mother of JesusMary was the mother of Jesus Jesus is Logos, and the Logos is omnipresentJesus is Logos, and the Logos is omnipresent Mary gave birth to the temple not the LogosMary gave birth to the temple not the Logos Jesus was not truly the “Son of God” until after his baptismJesus was not truly the “Son of God” until after his baptism Therefore Mary couldn’t give birth to God as Jesus wasn’t yet fully GodTherefore Mary couldn’t give birth to God as Jesus wasn’t yet fully God Mary was the mother of JesusMary was the mother of Jesus Jesus is Logos, and the Logos is omnipresentJesus is Logos, and the Logos is omnipresent Mary gave birth to the temple not the LogosMary gave birth to the temple not the Logos Jesus was not truly the “Son of God” until after his baptismJesus was not truly the “Son of God” until after his baptism Therefore Mary couldn’t give birth to God as Jesus wasn’t yet fully GodTherefore Mary couldn’t give birth to God as Jesus wasn’t yet fully God

16 Council of Ephesus 431 Heretic – NestoriusHeretic – Nestorius Subject – Mary the mother of God(Theotokos)Subject – Mary the mother of God(Theotokos) Conclusion –1 st time “We anathematize you” - 2 nd time Mary was the mother of GodConclusion –1 st time “We anathematize you” - 2 nd time Mary was the mother of God Heretic – NestoriusHeretic – Nestorius Subject – Mary the mother of God(Theotokos)Subject – Mary the mother of God(Theotokos) Conclusion –1 st time “We anathematize you” - 2 nd time Mary was the mother of GodConclusion –1 st time “We anathematize you” - 2 nd time Mary was the mother of God

17 Eutychiansim God only has one natureGod only has one nature Logos personality had to sufferLogos personality had to suffer The deification of the Human in ChristThe deification of the Human in Christ Christ was not a normal human like usChrist was not a normal human like us God only has one natureGod only has one nature Logos personality had to sufferLogos personality had to suffer The deification of the Human in ChristThe deification of the Human in Christ Christ was not a normal human like usChrist was not a normal human like us

18 Council of Chalcedon 451 Heretic – EutychesHeretic – Eutyches Subject – Hypostatic UnionSubject – Hypostatic Union Conclusion – Christ was fully God and fully ManConclusion – Christ was fully God and fully Man Heretic – EutychesHeretic – Eutyches Subject – Hypostatic UnionSubject – Hypostatic Union Conclusion – Christ was fully God and fully ManConclusion – Christ was fully God and fully Man

19 MonophysitismMonophysitism There must be only one nature to Christ, as two natures would require two persons.There must be only one nature to Christ, as two natures would require two persons. GOD has been CrucifiedGOD has been Crucified Schismed into many splinter groupsSchismed into many splinter groups There must be only one nature to Christ, as two natures would require two persons.There must be only one nature to Christ, as two natures would require two persons. GOD has been CrucifiedGOD has been Crucified Schismed into many splinter groupsSchismed into many splinter groups

20 Council of Constantinople II 553 AD Heretic – MonophysitesHeretic – Monophysites Subject – The three Chapters, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret's letter, and the letter of IbasSubject – The three Chapters, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret's letter, and the letter of Ibas Conclusion – nothing much, Three Chapters condemned use of phrases “God was crucified” and “One of the Trinity has suffered” sanctionedConclusion – nothing much, Three Chapters condemned use of phrases “God was crucified” and “One of the Trinity has suffered” sanctioned

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