Presentation on theme: "Early Christian, Jewish, and Byzantine Art. Dream of Constantine Piero della Francesca fresco cycle The Legend of the True Cross Bacci Chapel, Church."— Presentation transcript:
Dream of Constantine Piero della Francesca fresco cycle The Legend of the True Cross Bacci Chapel, Church of San Francesco, Arezzo 1454-1458 According to tradition, Constantine had a vision the night before the battle in which he saw a flaming cross in the sky and heard these words: “In this sign you shall conquer.” XP—Chi Ro—Christos The Edict of Milan 313 CE 330 CE dedication of Byzantium – called Constantinople
The Arch of Constantine 312-315 CE This arch was built to commemorate Emperor Constantine’s victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE.
A relief panel from the Arch of Constantine taken from a monument celebrating the victory of Marcus Aurelius over the Germans in 174 CE.
Do these two panels seem primitive? What is being privileged?
Stokstad writes, “This two-dimensional, hierarchical approach and abstract style are far removed from the realism of earlier imperial reliefs. This style, with its emphasis on authority, ritual, and symbolic meaning rather than outward form, was adopted by the emerging Christian Church” (283). What do we mean by two-dimensional? What do we mean by hierarchical approach? What do we mean by abstract style? What do we mean by symbolic meaning?
Judaism Christianity Islam How are these three religions different? see pages 290-291
Big Ideas syncretism: artists assimilate images from other traditions, giving them new meanings iconoclasm: 726 Emperor Leo III launched a campaign of iconoclasm (image breaking), decreeing that all religious images were idols and should be destroyed icons: often were believed to have been created miraculously and all were thought to have magical protective and healing powers typological exegesis: Old Testament themes illuminate events in the New Testament; for example, Abraham and Isaac predicts the sacrifice of Christ, Jonah and the whale predicts the resurrection on the third day
Big Ideas Christian Symbols (see page 294 in Stokstad) the dovethe fish the lamb the symbols for the four evangelists: Matthew- a man or angel Mark- a lion Luke- an ox John – an eagle Alpha/Omega (IX) chi rho
Authorizing power through Christianity and Christ. What do this images from the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, argue?
Emperor Justinian and His Attendants c. 547 mosaic on the north wall of the apse, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna Italy
What do we learn about reverse perspective from this images in the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna? reverse perspective: parallel lines appear to diverge instead of converge The Byzantines did not conceive of pictorial space the way the Romans had—as a view of the natural world seen through a “window.” In the Byzantine aesthetic theory, invisible rays of sight joined the eye and image so that the pictorial space extended forward from the picture plane to the eye of the beholder and included the real space between them.
Empress Theodora and Her Attendants c. 547 mosaic on the south wall of the apse, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna Italy
Michelangelo reconstruction of the interior of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican 1480s