Presentation on theme: "Early Christian, Jewish, and Byzantine Art. Dream of Constantine Piero della Francesca fresco cycle The Legend of the True Cross Bacci Chapel, Church."— Presentation transcript:
Early Christian, Jewish, and Byzantine Art
Dream of Constantine Piero della Francesca fresco cycle The Legend of the True Cross Bacci Chapel, Church of San Francesco, Arezzo 1454-1458 According to tradition, Constantine had a vision the night before the battle in which he saw a flaming cross in the sky and heard these words: “In this sign you shall conquer.” XP—Chi Ro—Christos The Edict of Milan 313 CE 330 CE dedication of Byzantium – called Constantinople
The Arch of Constantine 312-315 CE This arch was built to commemorate Emperor Constantine’s victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE.
A relief panel from the Arch of Constantine taken from a monument celebrating the victory of Marcus Aurelius over the Germans in 174 CE.
A relief panel from the Arch of Constantine.
Do these two panels seem primitive? What is being privileged?
Stokstad writes, “This two-dimensional, hierarchical approach and abstract style are far removed from the realism of earlier imperial reliefs. This style, with its emphasis on authority, ritual, and symbolic meaning rather than outward form, was adopted by the emerging Christian Church” (283). What do we mean by two-dimensional? What do we mean by hierarchical approach? What do we mean by abstract style? What do we mean by symbolic meaning?
Judaism Christianity Islam How are these three religions different? see pages 290-291
Big Ideas syncretism: artists assimilate images from other traditions, giving them new meanings iconoclasm: 726 Emperor Leo III launched a campaign of iconoclasm (image breaking), decreeing that all religious images were idols and should be destroyed icons: often were believed to have been created miraculously and all were thought to have magical protective and healing powers typological exegesis: Old Testament themes illuminate events in the New Testament; for example, Abraham and Isaac predicts the sacrifice of Christ, Jonah and the whale predicts the resurrection on the third day
Big Ideas Christian Symbols (see page 294 in Stokstad) the dovethe fish the lamb the symbols for the four evangelists: Matthew- a man or angel Mark- a lion Luke- an ox John – an eagle Alpha/Omega (IX) chi rho
Big Ideas: Christian Symbols--crosses
Hinton St. Mary Mosaic central panel of a Roman mosaic found at Hinton St Mary (Dorset, England) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/o bjects/VfupdXVjTM6crACGDU-6uA
Christ Catacomb of Commodilla late 4 th century
Good Shepherd c. 425-426 mosaic in the lunette over the west entrance, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Baptism of Christ Baptistery of the Orthodox, Ravenna, Italy early 5 th century
Mosaic from the Church of San Vitale, 526-547
Christ Pantokrator mosaic in the central dome Church of the Dormition Daphni, Greece Central Dome c. 1080-1100
Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/XsjCBZguRk u8XhN8icN3GA
Reconstruction drawing of Old Saint Peter’s basilica, Rome 320-327 CE
Hagia Sophia 532-537 YouTube Video: R. Steves http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zxRjx4Z5 uU&edufilter=-UYcvQGRLktRabtXL3Eq1w
Hagia Sophia 532-537
Baptistery of the Orthodox, Ravenna early 5 th century
Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy 526-547 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=It3i-dKusIM&list=PLEEA1BAEC5B2F7654&index=32
Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy 526-547
Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy 526-547
Authorizing power through Christianity and Christ. What do this images from the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, argue?
Emperor Justinian and His Attendants c. 547 mosaic on the north wall of the apse, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna Italy
What do we learn about reverse perspective from this images in the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna? reverse perspective: parallel lines appear to diverge instead of converge The Byzantines did not conceive of pictorial space the way the Romans had—as a view of the natural world seen through a “window.” In the Byzantine aesthetic theory, invisible rays of sight joined the eye and image so that the pictorial space extended forward from the picture plane to the eye of the beholder and included the real space between them.
Empress Theodora and Her Attendants c. 547 mosaic on the south wall of the apse, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna Italy
Michelangelo reconstruction of the interior of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican 1480s
St. Marks Cathedral c. 1063-1073
Sant'Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, Italy, c. 533-49 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HjwELgIh_qc&list=PLEEA1BAEC5B2F7654&in dex=43 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, marble, 359 C.E http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjX4ExCixWY&list=PLEEA1BAEC5B2F7654&i ndex=25 Byzantine Panel with Archangel, c. 525-50 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7J0WQsajX8&list=PLEEA1BAEC5B2F7654&in dex=4